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Altai 49 Neanderthal 133
Altai Mountains 160 social 125“128
Ambelodontidae 20 symbolic 125“128
Americas 17“18 Berbers 69
Amudian 120 berekhat ram 126
antelope Bering 18, 20
four-horned 29 bharal 29
roan 29 biogeographical approach 8
sable 29 bison 29, 31
Antelopinae 29, 32 Bison 31
Antidorcas 32 Blombos Cave 120, 125
Antilocapra americana 28 Bos 31
Antilocapridae 28“29 bottleneck 49
Arvenoceros ardei 26 bovid 36
Artiodactyla 23“29 Bovidae 29
Asia Bovinae 29, 32
east 17, 48 Briansk Interstadial 139



249
250 Index

colonisation 45“51, 61
broad spectrum revolution 97“98
common ancestor of chimpanzees and
buck, blue 29
humans 1
buffalo, African 32
competition 152“155
between Neanderthals and Modern
camel 33
Humans 79, 152“155
Camelidae 25, 32
Connochaetes 32
Camelops 25, 33
co-operation
Camelus 25, 33
differences between Neanderthals and
bactrianus 25
Modern Humans 127
dromedarius 25
Crimea 16, 160
Capra 34
Creuzetoceros
Capreolus 26“28
ramosus 26
capreolus 28, 33
Cuvieronius
punjabensis 26
tropicus 21
pygargus 28
Caprinae 29
Dama 27, 32
Capromeryx 28
clactoniana 27
carnivorous diet 50
dama 27
cattle 37
mesopotamica 27
wild 29, 31
Damalops 32
Caucasus
Dansgaard“Oeschger oscillations 136
mountains 16, 47, 49, 51, 160
deer 25, 26“28, 36, 100, 102
populations 68
evolution 26“28
Cephalophinae 29
New World 26“28
Cephalophus 33
Old World 26
Ceprano 1, 52
see also elk, moose, reindeer
Ceratotherium 23
Deinotherium 18
simum 23
deserts 10, 36
Cervidae 26“28
Dicerorhinus 22, 23
Cervinae 26
lantianensis 23
Cervus 27, 32
sumatrensis 23
elaphus 27
Diceros
etuerarium 26
bicornis 23
nippon 27
dispersal
paradinensis 26
ability 42, 194
perolensis 26
rate 42
philisi 26
distribution patterns
chamois 29, 34, 102
of Modern Humans 111“113
Chevrotain 25
of Neanderthals 111
Chilotherium 22
division of labour 113“119
China 48
Dmanisi 56, 66
Choeropsis, see Hexaprotodon
domestication 37, 204“205
cladistics 4“7
preferred animals 37
climate
Duiker 29, 33
instability 193“194
oscillations 136“137
Coelodonta Ebro barrier 191
antiquitatis 22“23 ecotones 104, 140, 159“161
nihowanensis 23 ecotype 155
coexistence eland 29
between Neanderthals and Modern Elaphodus 26
Humans 154 Elaphurus davidianus 27
Index 251

differences between Neanderthals and
Elasmotherium 23
Modern Humans 129“132
caucasicum 22, 23
fat 95“96
inexpectatum 23
hunting and scavenging 96
peii 23
omnivory
sibiricum 22, 23
in Mediterranean Neanderthals 97
elephant 31, 35
plains strategies 96“97, 99“100,
Elephantidae 18“20, 32
117“118
dispersal of 20
prey selection strategies 102“103
Elephas
storage 95
antiquus 20
trade 95
dispersal of 20
food production systems 201“205
ekorensis 20
forests 10, 13
falconeri 20
boreal 13, 138“140
iolensis 20
equatorial 13
maximus 20
Mediterranean montane 13
recki 20
montane 145
elk 100
rain 15
Irish 27
temperate 13, 138“140
environmental resistance 42
tropical 13, 145
Epipalaeolithic 164
Equidae 21, 32
Gazella 32, 33
Equus 21, 32
gazelle, see Gazella
hydrutinus 21
simplicidens 21 gene ¬‚ow 50
stenonis 21 genetic differences between Neanderthals and
escape mechanism 42 Modern Humans 79
Eucladoceros 26 genetic diversity
Eurasian Plain 12, 16“17, 31, 47“48, of Neanderthals 79, 82
192 Giraffa camelopardalis 25
colonisation of 159“161 giraffe, see Giraf¬dae
environmental change 138“140 Giraf¬dae 25, 32
Eurasian steppe, environmental gnu 32
change 138“140 goat 29, 37
Europe mountain 29, 34
central Mediterranean 47“48 Gomphotheriidae 20
climate trends 53“56 goral 29
colonisations and extinctions 51“64 Gran Dolina 44, 52
south east 47 Grand Pile 140
western Mediterranean 47“48 grassland 13“14, 46
Europe Africa contacts 64“65 Gravettian 163
extinction 43“45, 61“62, 149“152 Greenland
global 43, 45“51 medieval population changes 153
local 45 group size 113“119
of Neanderthals 44, 49, 149“152, 193,
198 habitat
regional 43, 45 coastal 35
of Modern Humans 104“106
mosaics 11“12
feeding ecology 94“104
of Neanderthals 104
buffer strategies 95“96, 126“127
open 10, 13“14
central place foraging 126
rocky 10“11, 34
consumption of roots and tubers 94, 95
tracking 38, 194
consumption of meat 94“96
252 Index

Hydropotes 27
hartebeest 29, 32
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni 23
Heinrich Events 136, 137, 141, 143
Hemiauchenia 25
herbivore distribution patterns 29“35 Iberia 15, 49
plains species 100 Middle“Upper Palaeolithic
heterogeneous landscape species 102 transition 172“193
intermediate landscape species 102 populations 68, 164“172
herding 37, 204“205 Iberian Peninsula 15, 67“68
Hexaprotodon 24 ibex 34, 102
liberiensis 24 impala 29
Himalayas 12, 15, 47 interbreeding
Hipparion 21 between Neanderthals and H. sapiens 2“4,
libycum 21 7
Hippopotamus 24, 35 Ioannina 249
antiquus, see major core 143
aethiopicus 24 Italy 16, 68
amphibius 24
gorgops 24 Jebel Irhoud 69
incognitos 24
major 24 Kenyapotamus 24
protamphibius 24 Klipspringer 34
Hippopotamidae 24, 32 kob 29, 32
hippopotamus 35 Kobus 32
Hippotraginae 29 Koplochoerus 23
Homo kudu 29
early evolution 39“40
early presence in Europe 52 Lac du Bouchet 140
antecessor 1, 44, 52, 57, 61“65 Lagar Velho 7, 75
erectus 1, 6, 17, 48, 49, 78 Lago Grande di Monticchio 140, 143
erectus“sapiens Lake Mungo 1, 126
chronospecies 1“2 landscapes
continuum 4“6 of Modern Humans 110
single species 4 of Neanderthals 106“110
ergaster 1, 5, 6, 48, 51, 52, 56 language 128“129
heidelbergensis 1, 49“52, 57, 61“65, 68 Last Deglaciation 199“201
helmei 1, 48, 49, 51, 52, 59, 61, 64 Last Glacial Cycle 136
mainstream 1, 2, 7 Last Glacial Maximum 198“199
sapiens 6, 51, 52, 64 Levallois 48, 51
taxonomy 73“77 Levant 16
home range 113“119 Loxodonta 18
hominid species richness 1 adaurora 18
Horn of Africa 17, 47, 48, 80 africana 18
horse 21, 36, 37, 100 atlantica 18
Howieson™s Poort 120 exoptata 18
human adaptation 193
humanity Magdalenian 164, 200
origins of 1 Maghreb 15“16, 67
hybrid zones 50, 156 mammal size classes 31“33
hybridisation 155“157 mammalian herbivores 18“29
between Neanderthals and Modern mammoth 31, 100
Humans 78“79, 156“157, 193 extinction 20
Index 253

Mousterian 51, 163
Mammut
multiple dispersals 80
americanus 21
multiregional model 4“7, 71
borsoni 20
Muntiacinae 26
Mammuthus 18“20
Muntiacus 26, 33
africanavus 20
muntjak 26
columbi 21
szechuanensis 26
dispersal of 20

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