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muntjacs 26, 33
exilis 21
Mylohyus 24
meridionalis 20“21
primigenius 20“21
subplanifrons 20 Neanderthal
trogontheri 20 classic 59
Mammutidae 20 cold adaptation 83“87
marine mammals 35 divergent lineage 1, 7
southward displacement 143 evolution 64, 68
marine resources 25 expansion into Middle East 49
Mediterranean 16, 66“68 extinction 60, 62, 64, 77“78
environmental change 140“144 geographical range 4
megacerines 27 last 60
Megaceroides 27 mobility 87
algericus 27 morphology 82“87
solilhacus 27 northward expansion 51
verticornis 27 regional populations 68
Megaceros Neolithic 164
giganteus hibernae 27 Nile Valley 16
Megaloceros 27 Nipponicervus 26
antecedens 27 North America 48
giganteus 27 north west African populations
savini 27 68
Metridiochoerus 23 Notochoerus 23
Middle East 47“48, 66“67 Nyanzachoerus 23
mid-latitude belt 12, 15“16, 31, 34,
68“69 Odocoileinae 26
human populations in 49 Odocoeilus 27
mobility 113“119 brachydontus 28
differences between Neanderthals and hemionus 28
Modern Humans 116“117 virginianus 28
scale dependence 118 Okapia
Mode 1 48, 56, 57, 61, 64, 196 johnstoni 25
Mode 2 48, 51, 57, 61“64, 196“198 stillei 25
Mode 3 50, 51, 59“61, 63, 64, 198 okapi see Okapia
Mode 4 60, 61, 198 orce 45
Modern Human 45, 60 Oreamnos 34
expansion 51, 64, 65 Oreotragus 34
in Eurasian Plain 16, 18 Oryx 33
morphology 87“88 Out of Africa model 5, 7, 71“72
origin of 5, 7, 65“66, 71“73, 79, 82, ox
88“90 musk 29
super-organism 194
moose 26“28 Palaeolama 25
Moschinae 26 peccary 32
254 Index

Sahara 15, 46“47
Peleinae 29
environmental change 145
peripheral populations 198
saiga 29, 32, 100
Perissodactyla 21“23
Saiga 32
Phacocoerus 32
savannah 13“14, 46
aethiopicus 23
Schoningen 88, 120
pig 36, 37
sea 11
Platygonus 24, 32
sea level changes 137“138
polytypic species 76, 157
seal 35
Pontic Mountains 47
serow 29
population persistence 65
sheep 29, 37
Potamochoerus
shrublands 10, 13
porcus 23
Mediterranean 13
Praclaux Crater 140
Sima de los Huesos 44
pre-Neanderthal 45, 57, 59
sinks 41
Proboscidea 18“21
Sivatherium 25
in North America 20“21
giganteum 25
pronghorn 28
maurusium 25
Przewalskium albirostris 27
Solutrean 164, 199
punctuated equilibrium 6
Punjabitherium 22 speciation
Pyrenees 162 allopatric 6
models 76“77
parapatric 6
sympatric 6
range dynamics 35, 41“45,
springbok 32
148“152
steenbok 32
Rangifer 27, 32
Stegodon 20
tarandus 28
Stegodontidae 20
Raphicerus 32
Stephanorhinus 22
reciprocal altruism 126“127
etruscus 22, 23
Reduncinae 29
hemitoechus 22“23
reedbuck 29
hundsheimensis 22, 23
refugia 15“16, 42, 46, 68, 78, 140, 141, 144,
kirchbergensis 22“23
148“149, 161“172, 199
Stockoceros 28, 29
Balkan 162
Strait of Gibraltar 15, 38, 45, 46, 49,
Iberia 162“172
66“68
reindeer 28, 36, 100
contact between populations 46, 48,
see also Rangifer
69
replacement 7
Suidae 23“24, 32
rhebok 29
Sus 23“24, 32
rhinoceros 31, 36, 102
barbatus 23
Rhinoceros
lydekkeri 24
sondaicus 22
macrognathus 24
unicornis 22
of¬cinalis 24
Rhinocerotidae 22“23
salvanius 23
Rift Valley 15
scrofa 23
ring species 76“77
strozzi 24
Rucervus 26
sympatry
Rucicapra 34
between Neanderthals and Modern
Rusa 26
Humans 78
Russian Plain
Syncerus 32
environmental change 139
Index 255

takin 29 Tetrameryx 29
Tapiridae 22 time lags 137
Tapirus Titanotylopus 25
arvernensis 22 Tragulidae 25
indicus 22 Tragulus
Taurus Mountains 47 javanicus 25
Tayassu 24 napu 25
Tayassuidae 23 trees, extinction 139
technology 119“125 tundra 14, 138“140
acculturation 124, 157“158 Turkey 16, 51
convergent evolution 124
ecological signi¬cance 124, 158 vegetation structure 9“10
ef¬ciency 196
¬‚exibility 120“122, 158“159 Wapiti 27
function in reducing risk 123“124 warthog 32
innovation 196“198 wetlands 11, 34“35
intensity of re-use and reduction 122“123 wild boar 23, 32, 102
interdependence with social structure 123 see also pig, Suidae
maintenance systems 122 wildebeest 29
origins of modern behaviour 119“120 Wolpoff, Milford 4
rate of change with instability 119 Wrangel Island 20
reliable systems 122
see also Mode 1, Mode 2, Mode 3, Younger Dryas Stadial 139
Mode 4
terrain topography 37 Zagros Mountains 47

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