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INDEX 333


Meinhardt model microspikes 36, 37 TGF-β superfamily 160, 173
for primary-axis formation microtubule 7, 12, 26, 40, 243 VEGF 197
and molecular motors 9 Wingless 268, 269
181--184, 185
for breaking of left--right asters 25 Wnt-7A 217
Xnr 156, 161, 168--171
symmetry 184, 185 centrosome 25
kinetochore 25 morphogenesis 156, 157, 189
meiosis or meiotic division 57--58,
mitotic spindle 25 cell movement in 46
226, 238, see also cell division
meiosis I 58, 225 microtubule organizing center 25 morphogenetic ¬eld 125
microvilli 7, 36, 37 motion 8
meiosis II 58, 225
midblastula transition 27, 58, 63 active 8
meiotic division, see meiosis
membrane of 7, 81--83 migration, see cell migration irregular 9, see also Brownian
channel 83 mitosis or mitotic division 25, 26, 58, motion
composition of 81--83 see also cell division passive 8
cortex 42 oriented, as mechanism of pattern random 9, 10, see also Brownian
energy of 38 formation 157, 159 motion
lipid bilayer in 15, 82, 83 mitotic apparatus, see mitotic spindle thermal 9
nanotube 36 mitotic division, see mitosis muscle 156, 211
plasma 13, 25, 29, 36, 38, 80--81, mitotic spindle (mitotic apparatus) contractility 188
82, 83, 114, 228, 233 25, 40 differentiation 160
semi-permeable 15 Mittenthal--Mazo model for limb 211
stretching of 45 epithelial morphogenesis origin in somites 162
tether 36 104--108, 110--116, 117, 126
membrane potential 7, 14, 234, 235 modules N-CAM, see cell adhesion molecule
membrane resting potential, see biochemical 6 nanotubes 143
membrane potential de¬nition of 268 natural selection 1, 2, 7, 252, 263, 264
mesenchymal condensation 95, 133, developmental 258, 266, 268--271, Navier--Stokes equation 18, 208
150--154, 189, 204, 211 272 neo-Darwinism 261
mesenchymal-to-epithelial genetic networks organized as 266 neovacularization 196
transformation 134, 152, 190 segment polarity of 258, 268--271, Nernst--Planck equation 234--236
mesenchyme, see also tissue 272 nerve 211
phase separation in 148 tissue 162 nerve cells 156, 188
primary (of sea urchin embryo) 110 molecular clock 27 neural crest
mesoblast molecular motor 8 cephalic or cranial 136
limb 211 dynein 25, 186, 230 compared with primordial germ
trilaminar embryo 131 LRD mutation of 186 cells 225
mesoderm 109 kinesin 25 dispersal, migration, translocation
extraembryonic 224 rotary 20, 230 78, 134--138, 152, 189
induction of 171--173 translational 230 epithelial--mesenchymal
paraxial (presomitic, PSM) 162, monocilia 186 transformation 190
163, 164 Monte Carlo simulation 47--48, 112, derivatives of 135
somitic 117 153 ¬‚uid properites of 136
metaphase 58 morphogen 125, 156 trunk 135, 138
metazoa 7 chordin 173 neural
as excitable media 251 Derriere 182 folds 123, 189
body plans of 250 FGF family 160, 173, 213 groove 122--126
origin of 250--252 FGF8 163 plate 122--126, 156, 160, 168--171,
microarrays 248 Hedgehog 269 194
microenvironment (of cells) 69, 81, inhibitory 161, 173, 184, 213, 252 tube 100, 122, 123, 136
101, 138, 156, see also Lefty 184 neurulation 100, 122--126, 189
extracellular matrix and Nodal 179, 184, 186 Kerszberg-Changeux model of
glycocalyx noggin 173 125--126, 127
micro¬lament 26, see also actin proto- 252 neutrophil 38
micro¬ngering ¬‚ow 136--138 Sonic hedgehog (Shh) 125, 179, Newton 1
micropipette aspiration 36, 37 186, 217 law of gravity 1
334 INDEX


¬rst law 19 parallel plate tensiometer 95 in arthropod segmentation 256,
second law 19, 32, 33, 201, 207, parasegments 258, 259, 268 258
208 partial derivative 18 in somitogenesis 163, 165
third law 230 particle current 14 power law 145, 146, see also scale-free
Nieuwkoop organizer, see organizer pascal 17, 21 systems
nodal ¬‚ow 186 pattern formation, multicellular 108, for behavior of viscoelastic moduli
node, see ¬xed point 122, 158 147
Notch--Delta signaling system 125, by juxtacrine signaling 173 for viscosity 145
160, 164--165, 168--169, 173, by mitosis 159 for Young™s modulus 145
255 by paracrine signaling 172 precartilage mesenchyme 211, see also
in axial symmetry breaking in by reaction--diffusion systems mesenchyme
chicken 184 173--174 pregastrula 99
in model of Sherratt et al. 169 cell autonomous 157, 159--160 pressure force 208
notochord 117, 136, 178, 189, 204 clock and wavefront mechanism primitive streak 131
nuclear envelope 7, 25 157, 164, 167 primordial germ cell (PGC) 224
in cell division 25 in cell condensation 151 see also cell
nucleoplasm 12 inductive 157 prokaryotic cell, see cell
nurse cell, see cell emergent 161, 177, 254 promoter (of gene) 65, 260
hierarchical 161, 252, 254 stripe-speci¬c 261
Odell et al., model for gastrulation morphodynamic 177 pronucleus 233
113--116, 119 morphogenetic 156, 157, 177 protease, see enzyme
compared with Drasdo--Forgacs two-oscillator mechanism 160, 165, protein 8
model 113 254 see also enzyme, extracellular
oocyte 52, 58, 225 percolation 134, 142--148, 197--199 matrix, molecular motor,
oogenesis 27, 58, 94, 159, 225--228 spanning cluster 143 morphogen, and transcription
oogonia 225, see also germ-line threshold 145 factor
cell transition 145 cytoskeletal 21
open system 54, 251 periodic processes 27 cytoplasmic 9, 12
orbit 55 phase plane 53 homeodomain 256
ordinary derivative 18 phase transition glycoproteins 81, 228
organ rudiment 189 liquid crystal 132 integral membrane 83
organizer 180, 252 paramagnetic 180 transmembrane 21
in Hydra 178 percolation 145 protein channel 7, 83, 234
Nieuwkoop center 177, 180, 182 phospholipids 82 protein kinase, see enzyme
proto- 252, 254 phosphorylation 60 proteoglycan 138
Spemann--Mangold 173, 178, 180, phyla 250 proximodistal progression of limb
182 piston as viscous element 22 development 211
vegetal pole 173, 180 planar cell polarity, see polarity pseudomorphism 263
oscillating viscometer 146 plants 250 pulmonary
oscillator, see also Tyson--Novak plasticity (of cell type) 254 artery 190
model and Lewis model Plato 1 vein 190
Bateson™s hypothesis 163 plasma membrane 7, see also
biochemical 57, 258, 260, 261 membrane radius and ulna 211, 217
in formation of body plans polar body 58, 227 random networks 143
254 polarity of cell rate constant 59--63
c-hairy1 163 basolateral 44, 78, 194, 251 reaction--diffusion systems 161,
somitic 164, 165 planar 113--116, 119, 122, 157 173--174, 181, 251, 252, 254,
osmosis 15--16 polycystic kidney disease 194 261, see also pattern formation
osmotic pressure 7, 15, 16 polyspermy 223, 234, see also diffusion-limited 241
in Cheer et al. model 245 fertilization in evolutionary scenario for insect
oviduct 230 fast block to 234, 236 segmentation 264
slow block to 234, 236--238 in model of Cheer et al. 245
pancreas 190 positional information 176 in model of Hentschel et al. 217,
paracrine, see signaling posterior growth (proliferative) zone 218, 219
INDEX 335


in model of Lander et al. 175 larva 110 soft matter 3, 248, see also
in models of Meinhardt 181 jelly coat of egg 228 viscoelastic material
random ¬‚uctuations in 186 primary mesenchyme 110, 131, sol--gel transition 145, 147, 245, see
reaction-limited 240, 241 135 also gelation
receptor 83 secondary mesenchyme 131 solid blastula, see stereoblastula
FGF 213 size of egg 228 somatopleure 191, 192
IP3 240 surface contraction waves 242--243 somite 135, 136, 162, 163
Patched 269 transitions between cell types 68 boundaries 161, 163, 167
VEGF 201 sedimentation (as a pattern-forming dermamyotome 162
repressor, see transcription factor process) 108, 253, see also formation (somitogenesis) 160,
ribonucleic acid (RNA) gravity 162--168
mRNA or messenger RNA 69 segment polarity module 258, Lewis model for 164--168
transcript 52 268--271, 272 intrasomitic space 136
robustness (of development) 222, segmentation 95, 162--168, 256--260, number 162
263, 264 see also somite formation sclerotome 162
in model of Salazar-Ciudad et al. clock 258 somitic oscillator, see oscillator
267 evolution of 257, 260--261 Sonic hedgehog (Shh), see morphogen
in model of von Dassow et al. 271 in long germ-band insects 256 sorting-out, see differential adhesion
in Drosophila 257 Spemann--Mangold organizer, see
saddle points 42 in short germ-band insects 256 organizer
salamander 137, 211 molecular mechanisms of 256--260 sperm 52, 229, 243, 244, see also
Salazar-Ciudad et al. model for physical mechanisms of 257, spermatozoon
evolution of development 260--261 capacitated 225
264--267 selectin, see cell adhesion molecule entry point of 177, 178, 239, 240,
salivary gland morphogenesis 190, self-organization 101, 178, 191, 197, 243
204--210, 211 200, 234, 251, 254 ¬‚agellum of 228
epithelial theory of 205 semi-permeable membrane, see locomotion of 228--232
mesenchymal theory of 206 membrane motility of 228--232
Lubkin--Li model for, see separation of time scales 219 viscous drag on 232
Lubkin--Li model separatrix 57 spermatocyte 225
scale-free systems 145, 146 shear 17, see also deformation spermatogenesis 58, 225--228
scaling law 147 shear modulus 22 spermatogonia 225, see also germ-line
Schistocerca, see grasshopper shear rate 17 cells
sclerotome, see somite shear stress 22 spermatozoon 228
sea urchin 20, 27, 28 Sherratt et al. model for juxtacrine spermiogenesis 228
acrosome reaction 233 pattern formation 169--171 S-phase, see DNA synthesis
archenteron elongation in 111, Sierpinski carpet 191, 199 spider 258
189 signaling, signal transduction 69 spinal cord 109, 117, 122
as radially symmetric 188 autocrine 161 splanchnopleure 191, 192
as triploblasts 99, 109, 117 inside-out 83 spring, as elastic element 21
cleavage in 40, 111 juxtacrine 133, 160, 255, 83 see also spring constant 21
White--Borisy model 37, 40--43 Notch--Delta signaling system standing waves (chemical) 260,
Drasdo--Forgacs model 41, 43--49 outside-in 69, 83 see also reaction--diffusion
exogastrulation 112 paracrine 133, 160--161, see also systems
fertilization 223 morphogen state space 53, 57
fertilization wave 239 Wnt pathway 182 state variable 54
gastrulation in 110--116, 117 sister chromatids 25, 26, 58, stationary state (steady state) 55
Drasdo--Forgacs model 111--113, 225 steady state, see stationary state
119 separation of 25, 26 in the Keller model 68
model of Odell et al. 113--116, 119 situs inversus 186, 230 Steinberg--Phillips model 90--97, see
and Notch--Delta pathway 162, skeletal pattern also differential adhesion
168--169 vertebral column 162 hypothesis
hierarchical determination of cell vertebrate limb 161 stem cells 160
speci¬cation 272 skeleton 211 stereoblastula (solid blastula) 27
336 INDEX


stiffness 21 tendons 132, 143 diffusive along cytoskeleton 12, 13
stochastic force 46 TGF-β in limb development 213, intracellular 12--13
Stokes™ formula 18 see also morphogen viscous 19
storage modulus 146, see also thermal energy 9 Tribolium, see beetle
viscoelastic moduli Thompson D. W. 249 triploblastic animal 99, 109, 162
strain, see deformation tight junction, see cell junction trophoblast 27
strange attractor 56 timelag or delay (in Lewis model) tubes and tubules
stress 21 156, 165 branched 189
stripe pattern tissue cardiogenic (heart-forming) 190,
in Drosophila syncytium 256 as liquid 91--95 191, 192, 193
Engrailed 258 cohesivity of 77, 95 epithelial 204
pair-rule gene product 258 engulfment of 91, 92, 155 formation of, morphogenesis 101,
pigment, in skin 161 epithelial 81, 94 194, 196
precartilage condensations, in epithelioid 81 by budding, sprouting 194
vertebrate limb 221 mesenchymal or mesenchyme 81, by cavitation 191
submandibular glands, see salivary 131 by cell hollowing 194
gland morphogenesis connective 81, 94 by cord hollowing 194
substrate adhesion molecule, (SAM) titration (as regulatory mechanism) by wrapping 194
see cell adhesion 27 in primitive metazoans 256
substratum 32 topology (of gene regulatory kidney 194
surface networks), see also pattern networks 189, 190, 191
concave 33 formation Turing, A. M. 156
convex 33 in model of Salazar-Ciudad et al. Turing mechanism, see bifurcation
surface energy 30, 31 266 and reaction--diffusion
surface density 32 in model of von Dassow et al. 271 systems
liquid 32 tracheal system (in insect) 189 tyrosine 58, 60
solid 32 tractional forces 134 Tyson--Novak model 59--63
surface tension 29, 30--33, 251 trajectory 55
anisotropic 36 in phase plane 55 van de Waals forces, interactions, see
apparent 30 transcription 65 cell adhesion
de¬nition of 30, 31, 32, 77, transcription factor 65 vascular system 189, see also
103 activator 65 circulatory system
gradient of 40 Bicoid 260 vasculogenesis 160, 194, 195
in tissue cohesivity 77, 95 caudal gene product 156 network formation in 197
isotropic 40 c-hairy1 163 vector ¬eld 55
membrane--cytoskeleton adhesion Cubitus interruptus 269 vegetal
36 Engrailed 258, 260, 268, 269 plate (of sea urchin blastula) 110, 116
nondimensional 210 Even-skipped 258, 261 pole (of frog blastula) 108, 110,
of cell 29, 36 Foxp4 191 112, 172
of collagen solutions in MDT fushi tarazu gene product 258, 261 organizer 173
142 Giant 260 VEGF, see morphogen
of lipid membrane 36, 38 her1 and her7 gene products 165 vena cava 190
of liquid 29, 32 Hox class 217, 257 ventral aspect (of embryo) 135
of spheroid 29 Hunchback 260 vertebral column 99, 117
of tissue 91--95, 206 Kr¨ ppel 260
u vertebrate limb 95, 148, 161, 190, see
uniformity of 42 network of transcription factors also skeletal pattern
surface tension waves, see cortical 65, see also autoregulatory core mechanism for development
waves network 214, 216--217
symmetry breaking 179 repressor 63, 65 development 210, 212
synapsis 225 VegT 182 active zone 216
syncytium in Drosophila embryo transdifferentiation 70 apical zone 213, 216
256 transmembrane protein, see protein frozen zone 216
syngamy 233 transport Hentschel et al., model for
systems biology 249 active 16 213--215
INDEX 337


fore 148, 211 of spermatozoa 230 fate maps 178
hind 148, 211 vitelline membrane 228, 233 mesoderm induction in 161,
limb bud 132, 213 von Dassow et al. model for segment 171--173
vimentin ¬laments 21 polarity 268--271 muscle differentiation 69
viscoelastic primordial germ cells 225
behavior in gelation 146 water of hydration 34
forces 114 wetting 32 yolk 28, 108, 228
material 22, 98, 249 complete 32 yolk sac 191, 224
moduli, in MDT 146, 147 partial 25 Young™s equation 32, 34
viscoelasticity 21 White--Borisy model 37, 40--43 Young™s modulus 21
viscosity 13, 16--19, 231 wiring diagram (for gene network) 65 relation to storage modulus 146
de¬nition of work of adhesion 102--104, 120
of cytoplasm 7, 16--19, 247 Zajac--Jones--Glazier model 119--122,
of tissues 206, 210, 251 Xenopus laevis 58 123, see also convergence and
relation to loss modulus 146 axis formation in 177--179 extension
viscous drag 16, see also viscosity cardiac looping in 191 zebra¬sh, somitogenesis in 165
on sperm 228--232 cortical contraction waves in zona pelucida 30, 228, 233
viscous transport, see also transport zygote 243 zygote 8, 24, 27, see also fertilized egg
of cells 19 egg 108, 228 formation of 234

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