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15. Prepared Statement of Richard O. Spertzel, Russia, Iraq, and Other Potential Sources
of Anthrax, Smallpox, and Other Bioterrorist Weapons, Hearing before the Com-
mittee on International Relations, House of Representatives, 107th Congress, 1st
Session (December 2001).
16. Gunning for Saddam: Saddam Hussein™s Weapons of Mass Destruction, PBS Front-
line Special (Nov 8, 2001), available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/
shows/gunning /etc/arsenal.html.
17. Report on Status of Disarmament and Monitoring, Letter dated January 27,
1999, from the Permanent Representatives of the Netherlands and Slovenia to
the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council, United
Nations Special Commission, UN Doc. S/1999/94 (January 29, 1999), available at
http://www.un.org/Depts/unscom/s99-94.htm.
18. Russia, Iraq, and Other Potential Sources of Anthrax, Smallpox, and Other Bioter-
rorist Weapons, Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House
of Representatives, 107th Congress, 1st Session, p. 7 (December 2001); See also,
Graham Pearson, On-Site Investigations, available at http://www.bradford.ac.uk/
acad/sbtwc/brie¬ng/bp1.pdf.
19. “Dr. Death” to Be Retried, New York Times (September 10, 2005); See also, William J
Broad & Judith Miller, Live Ammo; The Threat of Germ Weapons is Rising. Fear, Too,
New York Times (December 27, 1998).
20. Joby Warrick & John Mintz, Lethal Legacy: Bioweapons for Sale: U.S. Declined South
African Scientist™s Offer on Man-Made Pathogens, Washington Post, p A1 (April 20,
2003).
21. Biological Weapons Program “ Egypt, Federation of American Scientists, available
at http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/egypt/bw/index.html.
22. Country Reports: Egypt, Middle East Defense News, Vol. 6, No. 13 (April 5, 1993)
cited in, Country Overviews: Egypt: Biological Overview, Nuclear Threat Initiative,
available at http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/Egypt/3438.html.
23. Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control Agreements, Defense Treaty
Inspection Readiness Program, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
256 NOTES TO PAGES 65“70

(1993), available at http://dtirp.dtra.mil/tic/START/st comp.htm; See also, Country
Overviews: Egypt: Biological Chronology, Nuclear Threat Initiative, available at
http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/Egypt/3456.html.
24. Danny Shoham, Chemical and Biological Weapons in Egypt, The Nonproliferation
Review, p. 50 (Spring/Summer, 1998).
25. Country Overviews: Israel: Biological Overview, Nuclear Threat Initiative, avail-
able at http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/Israel/Biological/index.html; See
also, Ben-Gurion™s Letter to Avriel, (dated March 4, 1948), cited in, Michael Keren,
Ben-Gurion and the Intellectuals, p. 32 (Sdeh Boker: The Ben-Gurion Research Cen-
ter Press, 1988 [in Hebrew]).
26. Avner Cohen, Israel and Chemical/Biological Weapons: History, Deterrence, and Arms
Control, The Nonproliferation Review, p. 31 (Fall/Winter 2001).
27. Avner Cohen, Israel and Chemical/Biological Weapons: History, Deterrence, and Arms
Control, The Nonproliferation Review, p. 35 (Fall/Winter 2001).
28. Testimony of Dr. Amy Sands, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (March
19, 2002), available at http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/reports/asands.htm.
29. Unclassi¬ed Report to Congress on The Acquisition of Technology Relating to
Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions (January 1,
2003 through June 30, 2003), available at http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/cia jan
jun2003.pdf.
30. Of¬ce of the White House Press Secretary, Statement by the President, p. 2 (November
25, 1969), cited in, Jonathan B. Tucker, A Farewell to Germs: The U.S. Renunciation of
Biological and Toxin Warfare, 1969“1970, International Security (Summer, 2002).
31. Country Overviews: North Korea: Biological Overview, Nuclear Threat Initiative,
available at http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/NK/Biological/index.html.
32. John Bolton, Beyond the Axis of Evil: Additional Threats from Weapons of Mass
Destruction, Remarks to the Heritage Foundation, Heritage Lectures, No. 743, p. 3.
(May 6, 2002). available at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/
HL743.cfm.
33. Testimony of Director of Central Intelligence Porter J. Goss, Global Intelligence Chal-
lenges 2005: Meeting Long-Term Challenges with a Long-Term Strategy, before the
Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (February 16, 2005), available at https://
www.cia.gov/cia/public affairs/speeches/2005/Goss testimony 02162005.html.
34. Country Overviews: North Korea: Biological Overview, Nuclear Threat Initiative,
available at http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/NK/index 207.html#fn2, citing
Pak Tong-sam, How Far Has the DPRK™s Development of Strategic Weapons Come?,
Pukhan, translated in FBIS Document ID: FTS19990121001655, pp. 62“71 (January
1999).
35. Jeff Goldberg & Tom Mangold, Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological
Warfare, Macmillan Publishers, Ltd., p. 330 (1999).
36. Testimony of Dr. Amy Sands, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
(March 19, 2002), available at http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/reports/asands.htm.
37. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) “ Biological Weapons “ Iran, GlobalSecu-
rity.Org, available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/iran/bw.htm; See
also, Anthony Cordesman & Khalid R. Al-Rodhan, Iran™s Weapons of Mass Destruc-
tion, Center for Strategic and International Studies (2006); See also, Recognizing Iran
as a Strategic Threat: An Intelligence Challenge for the United States, U.S. House of
Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (August 23, 2006),
available at http://intelligence.house.gov/Media/PDFS/IranReport082206v2.pdf.
257
NOTES TO PAGES 70“71

38. Jonathan Spyer, The Al-Qa™ida Network and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Middle
East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 39“40 (September 2004);
See also, Ely Karmon, Hisballah Hand the War on Terror (August 1, 2002).
39. Jonathan Spyer, The Al-Qa™ida Network and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Mid-
dle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 8, No 3, p. 40 (September 2004),
available at http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2004/issue3/spyer.pdf, citing Testimony
of Paula A. DeSutter, Assistant Secretary for Veri¬cation and Compliance, Iranian
WMD and Support of Terrorism, before the U.S.-Israeli Joint Parliamentary Com-
mittee (September 13, 2003).
40. Current and Projected National Security Threats to the United States and its Interests
Abroad, Central Intelligence Agency, written responses to questions before the Select
Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate, Hearing 104“510 (February
22, 1996), available at http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1996 hr/s960222c.htm.
41. Country Overviews: Iran: Biological Overview, Nuclear Threat Initiative, available
at http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/Iran/Biological/2299.html, citing Gre-
gory F. Giles, The Islamic Republic of Iran and Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical
Weapons, cited in, Peter R. Lavoy, et al., (eds.), Planning the Unthinkable: How
New Powers Will Use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons, Ithaca: Cor-
nell University Press, p. 84 (2000).
42. Statement of Michael D. Maples, Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, Cur-
rent and Projected National Security Threats to the United States, before the Senate
Armed Services Committee (February 28, 2006), available at http://www.dia.mil/
publicaffairs/Testimonies/statement24.html.
43. Recognizing Iran as a Strategic Threat: An Intelligence Challenge for the United
States, Staff Report of the House Permanent Select Subcommittee on Intelli-
gence Policy, U.S. House of Representatives, p. 14 (August 23, 2006), available at
http://intelligence.house.gov/Media/PDFS/IranReport082206v2.pdf, citing, Adher-
ence and Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agree-
ments, U.S. Department of State, pp. 20“21 (August 2005).
44. Country Overviews: Iran: Biological Overview, Nuclear Threat Initiative, available
at http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/Iran/Biological/2299.html.
45. Perspectives, A Canadian Security Intelligence Service Publication, Report # 2000/05
Biological Weapons Proliferation (June 9, 2000), available at http://www.csis-
scrs.gc.ca/en/publications/perspectives 200005.asp.
46. Country Overviews: Syria: Biological Overview, Nuclear Threat Initiative, available
at http://www.nti.org/e research/pro¬les/Syria/Biological/3338.html.
47. Perspectives, A Canadian Security Intelligence Service Publication, Report # 2000/05
Biological Weapons Proliferation, (June 9, 2000), available at http://www.csis-
scrs.gc.ca/en/publications/perspectives 200005.asp.
48. Statement of Michael D. Maples, Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, Cur-
rent and Projected National Security Threats to the United States, before the Senate
Armed Services Committee (February 28, 2006), available at http://www.dia.mil/
publicaffairs/Testimonies/statement24.html.
49. Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons
of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions (1 January Through 30
June 2003), available at http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/cia jan jun2003.pdf.
50. Statement of Gordon C. Oehler, cited in, Beyond Anthrax: Extremism and the Bioter-
rorism Threat, Anti-Defamation League, p. 11 (2001), available at http://www.
adl.org/learn/Anthrax/hoaxes.asp?xpicked=3&item=hoax; See also, Testimony of
258 NOTES TO PAGES 71“73

Gordon C. Oehler, The Continuing Threat from Weapons of Mass Destruction
(March 27, 1996), available at http://www.fas.org/irp/cia/product/go testimony
032796.html.
51. Jessica Stern, Domestic Terrorists Constitute a Potentially Serious Biological Warfare
Threat, in William Dudley (ed.), Biological Warfare: Opposing Viewpoints, pg. 80
(2004).
52. See generally, Milton Leitenberg, Assessing the Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism
Threat, U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute (December, 2005); See also,
Milton Leitenberg, The Problem of Biological Weapons, Swedish National Defense
College (2004).
53. Numerous books detail how anarchists and other extremists can go about acquiring
biological agents. Kurt Saxon™s The Poor Man™s James Bond and Maynard Campbell™s
Catalogue of Silent Tools of Justice explain how to manufacture biological agents
and poisons such as ricin. Steve Preisler™s Silent Death and Maxwell Hutchkinson™s
The Poisoner™s Handbook instruct guerrilla-warfare-type methods of producing and
deploying poisonous agents. See also, Beyond Anthrax: Extremism and the Bioter-
rorism Threat, Anti-Defamation League, pp. 3“4 (2001), available at http://www.
adl.org/learn/Anthrax/hoaxes.asp?xpicked=3&item=hoax.
54. Terrorism: Terror Organizations, Basics Project Website, available at http://
www.basicsproject.org/terrorism/terror organizations.htm. More conservative
estimates conclude that Al Qaeda is active in at least twenty different countries;
See also, Jonathan Spyer, The Al-Qa™ida Network and Weapons of Mass Destruction,
Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3 (September 2004),
available at http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2004/issue3/spyer.pdf.
55. Speech by Interpol Secretary General Ronald K. Noble, Interpol Asian Bioterror-
ism Workshop, Singapore (March 27, 2006), available at http://www.interpol.int/
Public/ICPO/speeches/SGBioterrorism20050327.asp.
56. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing The 9/11 Commission Report,
Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United
States; (2004) See also, Al-Qaeda Operatives Discussed WMD Attacks While Training
Prior to 9/11, Report Says, Global Security Newswire (June 16, 2004).
57. Sammy Salama & Lydia Hansell, Does Intent Equal Capability?: Al-Qaeda and
Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, p. 631
(November 2005), citing an article on Biological Weapons appearing in an al Tawhid
Wal Jihad Website.
58. Conversation with Terror, Time Magazine (January 11, 1999), available at http://
www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,17676,00.html.
59. Sammy Salama & Lydia Hansell, Does Intent Equal Capability?: Al-Qaeda and
Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Novem-
ber, 2005).
60. Alan Cullison & Andrew Higgins, Computer in Kabul Holds Chilling Memos, Wall
Street Journal, (December 31, 2001).
61. Sammy Salama & Lydia Hansell, Does Intent Equal Capability?: Al-Qaeda and
Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, p. 637
(November 2005), citing, Learn my Mujahid Brother How to Manufacture Poisons,
al-Ma™asada al Jihadiya “ the Jihadi Lion™s Den Website (November 13, 2004).
259
NOTES TO PAGES 73“77

62. Paul Cruickshank & Mohanad Hage Ali, Jihadist of Mass Destruction, Washington
Post (June 11, 2006); See also, Sammy Salama & Lydia Hansell, Does Intent Equal
Capability?: Al-Qaeda and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nonproliferation Review,
Vol. 12, No. 3, p. 625 (November, 2005).
63. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing, U.S. Biological Attack Immi-
nent “ Taliban, iafrica.com (December 12, 2001); See also, Walker Lindh: Al Qaeda
Planned More Attacks, CNN (October 3, 2002).
64. Sammy Salama & Lydia Hansell, Does Intent Equal Capability?: Al-Qaeda and
Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, p. 627
(November, 2005), citing Michael Scheuer, Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Los-
ing the War on Terror, p. 153 (2004).
65. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing The Base of the Vanguard, an
Al Qaeda manifesto posted on the Internet; also citing, Counter-Insurgency in the
Middle East, Middle East Newsline Morning Report, Vol. 6, No. 23 (January 19,
2004).
66. Ross E. Getman, Modus Operandi: Pouring Musk on Barren Land, in Vanguards
of Conquest: Al Qaeda, Anthrax and Ayman Zawahiri, Chapter IV, available at
http://members.bellatlantic.net/˜vze43v8m/alqaedaanthraxay.html#
Requirementof Warning.
67. Paul Cruickshank & Mohanad Hage Ali, Jihadist of Mass Destruction, Washington
Post (June 11, 2006).
68. Paul Cruickshank & Mohanad Hage Ali, Jihadist of Mass Destruction, Washington
Post (June 11, 2006).
69. See generally, Paul Cruickshank & Mohannad Hage Ali, Abu Musab Al-Suri: Architect
of the New Al Qaeda, Studies in Con¬‚ict & Terrorism, Vol. 30, pp. 1“14 (2007),
available at http://www.lawandsecurity.org/documents/
AbuMusabalSuriArchitectoftheNewAlQaeda.pdf.
70. Tony Allen-Mills & Uzi Mahnaimi Tel Aviv, Al-Qaeda Seeks Toxins for Biowarfare
Attack, Sunday Times (London) (January 2, 2005).
71. Nasir Bin Hamd Al-Fahd, A Treatise on the Legal Status of Using Weapons of Mass
Destruction Against Infidels, (May 2003).
72. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available
at http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing Statements given by various
defendants in the Egyptian Trial of the Returnees from Albania; also citing Al J.
Venter, Elements Loyal to Bin Laden Acquire Biological Agents ˜Through the Mail,™
Jane™s Intelligence Review (August 1999); also citing Khalid Sharaf al-Din, Bin Ladin
Men Reportedly Possess Biological Weapons, Al-Sharq al-Awsat (March 6, 1999).
73. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing John McWethy, Bin Laden Set
to Strike Again?, ABC News (June 16, 1999); also citing Muhammad Salah, Bin Ladin
Front Reportedly Bought CBW From E. Europe, Al-Hayah (April 20, 1999); also citing,
U.S. Said Interrogating Jihadist Over CBW, Al-Hayah (April 21, 1999).
260 NOTES TO PAGES 77“78

74. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing Islamist Lawyer on Bin Ladin,
Groups, Al-Sharq al-Awsat (July 12, 1999).
75. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing Toby Harnden, Rogue Scientists
Gave bin Laden Nuclear Secrets, Daily Telegraph (London) (December 13, 2001);
also citing Peter Baker, Pakistani Scientist Who Met Bin Laden Failed Polygraphs,
Renewing Suspicions, Washington Post (March 3, 2002); also citing Susan B. Glasser
& Kamran Khan, Pakistan Continues Probe of Nuclear Scientists, Washington Post
(November 14, 2001).
76. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing Paul Daley, Report Says UBL-
linked Terrorist Groups Possess ˜Deadly™ Anthrax, Plague Viruses, Melbourne Age
(June 4, 2000).
77. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available at
http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing Maria Ressa, Reports: Al Qaeda
[sic] Operative Sought Anthrax, CNN (October 10, 2003); also citing Judith Miller,
U.S. Has New Concerns About Anthrax Readiness, New York Times (December 28,
2003); also citing Yazid Sufaat, The Open Source Threat Network Database (Jan-
uary 26, 2004).
78. Al-Qa™ida™s WMD Activities, Chart prepared by the Weapons of Mass Destruction
Terrorism Research Program, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, available
at http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/other/sjm cht.htm, citing Jeffrey Bartholet, Terrorist
Sleeper Cells, Newsweek (December 9, 2001).
79. Suzanne Goldenberg & Nick Hopkins, MI 5 Says Dirty Bomb Attack is Inevitable,
Guardian (June 18, 2003).
80. Tony Allen-Mills & Uzi Mahnaimi Tel Aviv, Al-Qaeda Seeks Toxins for Biowar-
fare Attack, Sunday Times (London) (January 2, 2005), available at http://www.
timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article407762.ece.
81. Allan Cullison & Andrew Higgins, Files Found: A Computer in Kabul Yields a Chilling

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