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Index




Africa, 31, 156, 158, 237 historical use and development as a
agro-violence bioweapon, 56, 57“58, 60“63, 64, 69,
availability and feasibility, 41“42 70
crop diseases, 43“44 modi¬cation of, 49, 63, 69, 133, 134
economic devastation, 40“41 Sverdlovsk accident, 60
International Plant Protection vaccine, 34“35, 94, 150, 151, 155, 176,
Convention, 44 179
livestock diseases, 42“43 weaponization challenges, 35“36
airports, 17, 164, 165, 168, 189 arms control, 65, 69, 70, 93, 194, 234, 239
Al Qaeda
acquisition of bioagents, expertise, biochemical weapons, 200
77“79 biodefense
bioviolence preparations, plots, classi¬cation issues, 143, 209“211
78“80 funding, 150
Encyclopedia of Jihad, 72 overview, 207“209
legality of bioviolence, 74“77 projects of concern, 211“213
motivation for bioviolence, 73“78 strengthening con¬dence, 194, 213“215
principle of reciprocity, 75 vaccine development, 154
American Medical Association, 141 Biological Weapons Convention
American Type Culture Collection Article I “ general purpose criterion,
(ATCC), 62, 82 196“197
Animal Health Organization (OIE), 41, 44, Article IV “ national legislation
110, 113 requirement, 117, 125
anthrax Article X “ protection of biotechnology
2001 attacks, 14, 34, 94, 108, 150, 157, exchange, 220
176 compliance and veri¬cation, 125, 205
Al Qaeda interest in, 77“80 condemned agents, 110
Aum Shinrikyo interest in, 81 con¬dence building measures, 206
availability, 34“35 de¬ning biological weapons, 193,
characteristics and symptoms, 22, 195“196
33“34 governance structure and the lack
dissemination methods, 12, 33“38 thereof, 98, 125, 205, 220“221
extremist group interest in, 82 Implementation Support Unit, 193



355
356 INDEX

Biological Weapons Convention (cont.) commission of, 11“12
nonlethal bioagents, 197“198 criminalization of, 95
nonproliferation, 98 delayed effects, 12“15
normative prohibition of biological distinguished from bioterrorism, 5“6
weapons, 192 evaluating risks, 18“19
rati¬cation of, 59, 65, 71 methods of attack, 20“24, 33“36, 38
Review Conferences, 125, 192“195 policy failure, 2“3
strengthening the BWC, 125, 194 potential for devastation, 15
bio-offender, de¬ned, 6 self-infection scenarios, 27, 31, 32, 33,
bioregulators and inhibitors, 52“53 35, 120
biosafety, 113, 114, 125, 237 tactics behind an attack, 14“15
bioscience BioWatch, 167, 168
anxieties, 105“108 bioweapons
bioscience de¬ned, 1 agents historically used, 45“47
bioscience paradox, 92, 132, 134, 135 alleged bioweapons programs, 66,
bioviolence risks, 19, 20 68“71
codes of conduct, ethics, 88, 114, compared to nuclear weapons, 16“17
139“142, 195, 228 ethnic-speci¬c bioweapons, 51
constraining development, 136“139 international nonproliferation,
criminal bioscience, 103, 105, 109, 142, 192“195
143 military ef¬cacy, 67“68
dangerous research, 18, 140, 144 modi¬cation of, 49“50
disease construction, 51“52 offensive programs, 56“66
dual-use research, 133“134 technical hurdles, 35“36, 109, 116
emerging advances, 47“54, 93, 224, 226 terminology, 6
free trade concerns, 220 the right to bioweapons, 193
molecular biology, 49 botulinum
oversight, 134“136, 142, 146 Al Qaeda interest in, 77, 79
policy discussions, 91, 92“94, 136 assassination attempts, 39
professional education, certi¬cation, characteristics and symptoms, 22,
144“146 38“39
research of concern, 138 dissemination methods, 39
right to bioscience, 228 extremist group interest in, 81
scienti¬c freedom, 103, 136 historical use and development as a
sythetic viruses, 52 bioweapon, 58, 61“63, 64
transformative phenomena, 3, 4 Iraqi weaponization, 39, 62
whistleblowers, 146“147 milk supply contamination, 40
Bioshield. See United States programs overview, 38“40
and initiatives brucellosis, 62
biosurveillance historical use, 57, 58
clues of a bioviolence attack, 170
databases, potential utility, 111, 115, capacity building, 231“233, 237
121, 123 Cartegena Protocol on Biosafety, 237
national health security information Chemical Weapons Convention, 217, 221
infrastructure, 172 cholera, 22
overview, 172 historical use, 57, 69
pathogen marking, 111“112 civil liberties and privacy, 118, 119, 122,
bioviolence 123, 143, 144, 160, 173, 182, 185, 190,
clues of preparations, 120 235
357
INDEX

contagion transportation hubs, 164
panic, 1, 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 38, 163, 179, water supply and ¬ltration systems, 58,
184“185 65, 165“166, 218
preventing spread, 173“184 hemorrhagic fever viruses
Council for Responsible Genetics, Al Qaeda interest in, 77
141 availability, 31“32
crimes against humanity, 94 characteristics, 31
disadvantages of use as a weapon,
detecting criminal preparations 33
clues and patters, 119“121 dissemination of, 32“33
databases. See biosurveillance: ebola, 22, 26, 31, 33, 52, 59, 94, 133,
databases, potential utility of 150
detecting and analyzing attacks, historical use and development as a
169“171 bioweapon, 57, 59, 60, 70
pattern recognition, 121“122 marburg, 22, 31, 33, 60
modi¬cation of, 26, 32, 133
Egypt bioweapons program transmissibility, 32
historical overview, 64“65 vaccine development, 152
Military Plant 801, 65, 193 weaponization, 31
extremist groups linked to bioviolence HIV/AIDS, 3, 14, 25, 157“158, 223, 231,
Aum Shinrikyo, 31, 37, 81, 120 234
Benchellali network, 81
collectively, 71“72 in¬‚uenza
Dark Harvest Commandos, 83 Avian Flu, 3, 29, 40, 50
Hamas, 70 characteristics and symptoms, 22, 28
Islamic fundamentalists. See Al Qaeda genetic code publication, 29, 137“138
Islamic Jihad, 70 lethality, 28“29
Jemaah Islamiyah, 78 modi¬cation of, 28, 50
Minnesota Patriots Council, 82, 83 Spanish Flu (1918), 28“29, 30, 101, 109,
Rajneeshee Cult, 81 139
Republic of Texas, 82 Spanish Flu, reconstruction of, 52
World Islamic Front Against Jews and United States preparations against,
Crusaders, 79 29
vaccines and antivirals, 29“30
French Naval Chemical Research Institute for Viral Preparations, 25
Laboratory, 56 Interacademy Panel on International
Issues, 141
Geneva Protocol, 56“57, 193, 238 International Atomic Energy Agency, 217,
German bioweapons program, 56 221
International Civil Aviation Organization,
hardening targets 127
against attacks, generally, 164 International Committee of the Red
air circulation systems, 37, 38, 58, 165, Cross, 197
166 International Maritime Organization,
building security, 11, 16, 38, 164, 165, 128

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