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166, 170 International Science and Technology
entertainment venues, 17, 38, 164, 165 Center, 216
of¬ce buildings, 34, 38, 166 International Union of Microbiological
sensors, 164, 166“168 Scientists, 141
358 INDEX

Interpol reasons for refusal, 181, 182
assessing risks, 18“19 microbial forensics
Bioterrorism Prevention Program, 111, chain of custody, 173
174 distinguishing between background
harmonizing standards, 226 pathogens, 167, 172
improvement of law enforcement epidemiology, 173
authority, 101 rights of victims, 173
police training programs, 2, 116, 171, sampling, 173, 239
174 molecular biology. See bioscience
Preventing BioTerrorism Of¬ce, 116 mousepox, 59, 137
Iran™s bioweapons program movement of critical items
historical overview, 70“71 equipment tracking, 114“116, 124
Soviet scienti¬c training, 61 pathogen transfers, 109“112, 124
Iraq™s bioweapons program tracking location, 121
Al-Hakam Facility (Project 324), 62 transport security, 124“131
anti-crop agents, 40 triple packaging system, 126
history of, 61“63, 66
Military Industrial Commission, 62 nanotechnology, 6, 47, 53“54, 224
UNSCOM & UNMOVIC inspections, National Academies of Science
63, 239, 240 case studies, 40, 53
Israel™s bioweapons program, 64“66 National Research Council, 44, 218
panel discussions, 50, 108
Japan™s bioweapons program “ Unit 731, Panel on Scienti¬c Responsibility and
57, 59, 182 the Conduct of Research, 144
research of concern, 138
laboratory security, 35, 51, 88, 102, national legislation, 103, 116, 125, 195
112“114, 134 nonlethal bioagents
law enforcement biochemical weapons, 200
cooperation with public health, 171 bioremediation, 200
denial tactics, 109 genetically altered microbial agents
due process concerns, 118“119 (GAMA), 201, 203
interdiction, 116“124 Operation United Shield, 199
investigations, 124 overview, 197“200
legal gaps, 102“103, 117“118 prohibition under the Biological
regulation and oversight of bioscience. Weapons Convention, 204“205
See bioscience: anxieties terminator technology, 201
responsibilities, 101“102 types of nonlethal bioagents, 200“
tracking critical items. See movement 202
of critical items U.S. nonlethal military programs,
202“204
medical counter-measures nonproliferation
civil liberties protections, 182, 190 Biological Weapons Convention. See
compulsory and voluntary Biological Weapons Convention:
vaccinations, 175“178, 181“184 nonproliferation
effective communication, 184“185 prevention. See prevention strategies
mitigating an attack, 13, 163, 173“185 North Korea™s bioweapons program, 69
placement of victims, 178“179 Biopreparat scienti¬c training, 61
protective equipment, 36, 164“168 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, 220
359
INDEX

nuclear weapons, 16“17, 61, 66, 67, 73, 93, concept of herd immunity, 181
94, 142 coordination with law enforcement, 2,
107, 120, 121, 161, 170, 171
Operation United Shield, 199 early warning surveillance, 125, 161
Organization for Economic Cooperation emergencies, 110, 122, 154, 156, 158,
and Development, 224 182, 188, 189
Organization for the Prohibition of infrastructure, 175, 236
Chemical Weapons, 217, 221 lack of resources, 48, 142, 149, 171, 174,
223
panic. See contagion: panic maintaining public con¬dence,
pathogens 184“185, 188, 190
accounting for dangerous pathogens, preparedness, 160“164, 173, 177, 181,
111 190
agents used as bioweapons. See resource management, 13, 107, 161,
bioweapons 175, 180, 184
marking pathogens, 111“112
pathogen de¬ned, 6 Q fever
pathogen registry, 108“109 characteristics, 23, 47
pharmaceuticals extremist group interest in, 81
commercial facilities, 59, 194 historical use and development as a
industry, 19, 70, 71, 106, 107, 148, 151 bioweapon, 58, 59
intellectual property, 194 quarantines
licensing, 155“157, 159 authorization of use for in¬‚uenza, 29
plague legal standard, 183
Al Qaeda interest in, 77 need for command authority, 186“
characteristics and symptoms, 45 187
historical use and development as a need for public support, 187
bioweapon, 45“46, 57, 60, 62, 63, 64, need for redress and accountability,
69, 70 187“188
Soviet weaponization, 46 overview, 185“191
vaccine and treatment, 45 SARS, 186, 187
port security, 127“129 World Health Organization authority,
prevention strategies 188“191
complication, 96
denial measures, 104“105 reciprocity, principle of, 75
nonproliferation, 98 ricin
overview, 100 Al Qaeda interest in, 79
preparedness, 97“98 as a chemical weapon, 12
pre-planning, 169 assassination and biomurder methods,
principals, 99 47
resistance, 96“97 characteristics, 23, 47
terminology, 7 extremist group interest in, 81, 82
Proliferation Security Initiative. See historical use and development as a
United States programs and bioweapon, 62, 70
initiatives
public health SARS, 3, 185, 186, 187, 188
communication networks, 172, 189, Science and Technology Center, 216
190, 222 select agent list, 109, 110
360 INDEX

smallpox distinguished from transparency,
aerosolization, 26 142“143, 214
availability, 25“27 principle of, 142“144, 213
bioengineering potential, 27 tularemia
characteristics, 24 characteristics, 23, 46
eradication, 24“25 historical use and development as a
historical use and development as a bioweapon, 46, 58, 59, 60, 62, 70
bioweapon, 59, 60, 70 modi¬cation of, 46, 49, 50
immunization of armed forces, 69 vaccine development, 152
ring vaccination, 24, 27
Soviet weapons program, 59“60 United Nations
vaccine, 26, 27, 94, 152 Commission on Macroeconomics and
South Africa™s bioweapons program- Health, 232
Project Coast, 63“64, 68 Committee of Experts on the Transport
sovereignty, 4, 5, 58, 89, 126 of Dangerous Goods (UNCETDG),
Soviet bioweapons program 127
Biopreparat, 59“61 Development Programme (UNDP),
Ecology program, 40 231
historical overview, 59“61 Food and Agriculture Organization
Ministry of Defense, 59 (FAO), 44
Obolensk, 215 Global Environment Facility (GEF), 231
of¬cial end of, 60 Global Health Research Fund, 233
Scienti¬c Field Testing Laboratories, High-level Panel on Threats,
59 Challenges and Change, 227
Stepnogorsk, 215 Millennium Development Goals, 227,
stockpile disarmament, 215“219 234
Sverdlovsk anthrax accident, 60 Monitoring, Veri¬cation and
Vektor, 25, 215 Inspection Commission, 125, 239
Sunshine Project, 202 Security Council Resolutions, 239, 240
synthetic genomics, 51 Special Commission (UNSCOM), 63
Syria™s bioweapons program UNAIDS, 234
historical overview, 71 UNESCO, 230
UNICEF, 149
terrorist attacks Weapons of Mass Destruction
2001 anthrax attacks. See anthrax: 2001 Commission, 124
attack United States agencies and departments
9/11 attacks, 11, 73, 74 Arms Control and Disarmament
London subways, 11 Agency, 65
Madrid bombings, 11 Centers for Disease Control and
Oregon salmonella contamination, 81 Prevention (CDC), 25, 34, 109“110,
Tokyo subway attack, 82, 120 168, 177
toxins Coast Guard, 129
botulinum. See botulinum Commission on Research Integrity, 145,
ricin. See ricin 146
use as a contaminant, 39 Defense Advanced Research Projects
translucency Agency, 123, 203
distinguished from classi¬ed research, Defense Intelligence Agency, 70, 71
143“144 Department of Agriculture (USDA), 174
361
INDEX

Department of Defense Joint Nonlethal United States programs and initiatives
Directorate, 197 Biological Weapons Proliferation
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Prevention Program, 216
64, 71, 78, 145 Bioshield, 150, 151“152
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Container Security Initiative (CSI), 123,
151, 180 129
Health and Human Services, 151, Joint Nonlethal Weapons Program,
172 203
Interagency Weapons of Mass Microbial Genome Program, 203
Destruction (WMD) Counter National Biodefense Analysis and
Measures Working Group, 42 Countermeasure Center (NBACC),
National Committee on Clinical 213
Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), 174 National Swine Flu Immunization
National Institutes of Health (NIH), Program, 153
150, 152, 168 National Vaccine Injury Compensation
United States bioweapons program Program, 154, 155
Army Medical Research Institute of Operation Safe Commerce (OSC), 123
Infectious Disease (USAMRIID), 59 Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI),
cancellation of, 59, 67 129“131
Chemical Warfare Service, 56, 57 Scientists Helping America, 203
Committee on Biological Warfare, 58 Security Risk Assessment (SRA), 145
experimentation and testing, 33, 57, Student and Exchange Visitor
58“59 Information System (SEVIS), 145
facilities and sites, 57, 203“204 US Research and Development
funding, 211“212 Program, 58
historical overview, 57“59
Lawrence Livermore National vaccinations
Laboratory, 204 anthrax. See anthrax: vaccine
nonlethal bioagents. See nonlethal child vaccinations, 153
bioagents: U.S. nonlethal military compulsory licensing, 157“158
programs development of, 147“149
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 204 emergency vaccinations, 25
Operation Whitecoat, 58 eradication strategy, 45
United States laws and directives ¬nancial barriers to, 149“152
National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act, for ¬rst responders, 175“178
154 for the general public, 181“184
National Security Decision Directive, global distribution and stockpiling
210“211 challenges, 148, 149, 176, 179“181
Orphan Drug Act (ODA), 150 in¬‚uenza. See vaccines and antivirals
Pandemic and All-Hazards liability issues, 152“155
Preparedness Act, 152 mass vaccination, 24, 25, 27, 186
Public Readiness and Emergency patent issues, 155“156
Preparedness Act (PREP), 154 plague. See plague: vaccine and
Smallpox Emergency Personnel treatment
Protection Act of 2003, 155 Q fever, 47
Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering smallpox. See smallpox: vaccine
Effective Technologies Act (SAFETY), vaccination rates in underdeveloped
154 countries, 149
362 INDEX

water distribution systems. See hardening Laboratory Biosafety Manual, 113
targets: water supply Participation of Representatives of
World Bank, 225, 230, 231, 236, 237 Associate Members and of
World Customs Organization, 44, 128 Intergovermental and
World Data Centre for Microorganisms Nongovernmental Organizations
(WDCM), 111 and of Observers of Non-Member
World Federation for Culture Collections, States, 229
111, 235 reference and collaborating facilities,
World Health Organization (WHO) 113
coordination of response activities, 241 SARS, experience with, 185, 188
Global Immunization Vision and smallpox, experience with, 24“27
Strategy, 149 smallpox, opposition to mass
guidance on packaging and labeling, vaccination, 177
126, 127 threat assessment, 34, 45, 46
harmonizing standards, 226 Weapons of Mass Destruction
in¬‚uenza vaccines, 30 Commission recommendations, 125
international authority and the lack World Trade Organization (WTO)
thereof, 110, 188 Doha Declaration, 156, 158
International Health Regulations, 110, Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual
125, 189 Property Rights, 155

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