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2.66 Æ 0.42 2.39 Æ 0.41 2.53 Æ 0.42
Conscientiousness ATPD > BAD-MIXÃ e
2.80 Æ 0.41 2.31 Æ 0.71 2.43 Æ 0.50

a
Only pairwise comparisons with significant differences (2-test or Fisher™s exact test, two-tailed) are shown.
Ã
P < 0.05; ÃÃ P < 0.01; ÃÃÃ P < 0.001; NS, no significance.
b
´
Differences overall significant in ANOVA (P ¼ 0.025); pairwise comparisons given are significant (P < 0.1) in Scheffe test.
c
Reduced n, because some patients could not be followed up or information was insufficient to rate this item.
d
´
Differences overall significant in ANOVA (P ¼ 0.048); pairwise comparisons given are significant (P < 0.05); in Scheffe test.
e
´
Differences overall significant in ANOVA (P ¼ 0.019); pairwise comparisons given are significant (P < 0.05); in Scheffe test.
NEO-FFI, NEO Five-Factor Inventory; ANOVA, analysis of variance.
226 A. Marneros et al.



Table 9.12 Significant differences between acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD)
and all mixed states

ATPD All mixed
Statistical analysis a
(n ¼ 39) states
(n ¼ 48)
n (%) n (%)

Gender
P ¼ 0.028
Female 30(76.9) 26(54.2)
Male 9(23.1) 22(45.8)
35.4 Æ 11.4 31.8 Æ 11.3
Age at onset (years) NS
Disability pension at follow-up b 4(10.3) 22(55.0) P < 0.001
Premorbid personality b n ¼ 35 n ¼ 33
P ¼ 0.027
Obsessoid 8(22.9) 16(47.1)
P ¼ 0.036
Sthenic/highly self-confident 5(14.3) 12(35.3)
Asthenic/low self-confident 19(54.3) 4(11.8) P < 0.001
Nervous-tense 3(8.6) 2(5.9) NS
Dimensional personality scores (NEO-FFI) b n ¼ 32 n ¼ 42
1.89 Æ 0.58 2.09 Æ 0.67
Neuroticism NS
2.06 Æ 0.52 2.06 Æ 1.90
Extroversion NS
2.17 Æ 0.38 2.16 Æ 2.24
Openness to experiences NS
2.73 Æ 0.43 2.73 Æ 2.48 P ¼ 0.013
Agreeableness
2.76 Æ 0.44 2.76 Æ 2.39 P ¼ 0.003
Conscientiousness

a
2-test or Fisher™s exact test, two-tailed for categorical variables, t-test for continuous variables.
b
Reduced n, because some patients could not be followed up or information was insufficient to
rate this item.
NEO-FFI, NEO Five-Factor Inventory.




ATPD versus all mixed states (affective plus schizoaffective)
Bivariate comparisons were calculated for ATPD and all mixed states were com-
bined (affective and schizoaffective). The results are shown in Table 9.12.
The results are largely similar to those obtained in the multivariate comparisons
reported above. The lower age at onset observed for ATPD in comparison with
schizoaffective mixed states was no longer significant when affective and schizo-
affective mixed states were grouped together.


Polymorphic subgroup versus all mixed (affective and schizoaffective)
Accordingly, we calculated bivariate comparisons between ATDP-polymorphic
subtype and all mixed states combined. The results are reported in Table 9.13.
Again, the results were quite similar to those of the multivariate comparisons.
227 Acute and transient psychotic disorder



Table 9.13 Significant differences between acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD:
polymorphic subtype) and all mixed states

ATPD All mixed Statistical
analysis a
(n ¼ 25) states (n ¼ 48)
n(%) n(%)

Gender
P ¼ 0.030
Female 20(80.0) 26(54.2)
Male 5(20.0) 22(45.8)
34.5 Æ 8.0 31.8 Æ 11.3
Age at onset (years) NS
Disability pension at follow-up b P ¼ 0.001
2(8.0) 22(55.0)
0.40 Æ 0.65 1.23 Æ 1.8
Number of suicide attempts 0.028
Premorbid personality b n ¼ 22 n ¼ 34
Obsessoid 5(22.7) 16(47.1) NS
Sthenic/highly self-confident 5(22.7) 12(35.3) NS
P ¼ 0.004
Asthenic/low self-confident 10(45.5) 4(11.8)
Nervous-tense 2(9.1) 2(5.9) NS
Dimensional personality scores (NEO-FFI) b N ¼ 19 N ¼ 42
1.88 Æ 0.50 2.09 Æ 0.67
Neuroticism NS
2.12 Æ 0.62 2.06 Æ 1.90
Extroversion NS
2.14 Æ 0.41 2.16 Æ 2.24
Openness to experiences NS
2.66 Æ 0.42 2.73 Æ 2.48
Agreeableness NS
2.80 Æ 0.41 2.76 Æ 2.39 P ¼ 0.006
Conscientiousness

a
2-test or Fisher™s exact test, two-tailed for categorical variables, t-test for continuous variables.
b
Reduced n, because some patients could not be followed up or information was insufficient to
rate this item.
NEO-FFI, NEO Five-Factor Inventory.



ATPD versus the groups of bipolar affective mixed, bipolar schizoaffective mixed, bipolar
affective non-mixed, and non-mixed bipolar schizoaffective disorders
Finally, we also included the non-mixed subtypes of bipolar affective and schizo-
affective disorders (i.e., patients who never during the course of their illness
experienced an episode that qualified as mixed episodes). The results of these
comparisons, now comprising five groups, are provided in Tables 9.14a and
9.14b.
For some of the comparisons, the statistical power was quite small due to the
low number of patients in some subgroups. We therefore calculated the compar-
isons for the combined groups of mixed and non-mixed bipolar disorders (affec-
tive and schizoaffective). The results are given in Table 9.15. Generally, they
confirm the picture given in the preceding tables.
Table 9.14a Significant differences between acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD), affective mixed states, and schizoaffective mixed states
(part 1)

Bipolar
Bipolar schizo Bipolar
Bipolar
affective affective affective “
schizoaffective
mixed states mixed states never mixed
never mixed
ATPD (BAD-MIX: (BSAP- (BAD-NOMIX:
(BSAP-NOMIX:
MIX:
(n ¼ 39) n ¼ 16) n ¼ 30)
Statistical analysisa
n ¼ 48)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
n ¼ 32)

Gender
Female 30(76.9) 11(68.8) 15(46.9) 16(51.6) 21(42.9) ATPD > BSAP-NOMIXÃ
ATPD > BAD-NOMIXÃ
ATPD > BSAP-MIXÃÃ
Male 9(23.1) 5(31.3) 17(53.1) 15(48.4) 28(57.1)
Age at onset ATPD > BSAP-NOMIX
35.4 Æ 11.4 37.0 Æ 11.3 29.3 Æ 10.5 35.9 Æ 12.3 28.2 Æ 10.3
BSAP-NOMIX > BAD-NOMIX b
n ¼ 39 n ¼ 14 n ¼ 26 n ¼ 26 n ¼ 42
Disability 4(10.3) 5(35.7) 17(65.4) 17(65.4) 34(81.0) ATPD < BAD-MIXÃÃÃ
pension at ATPD < BSAP-MIXÃÃÃ
follow-up ATPD < BAD-NOMIXÃÃÃ
ATPD < BSAP-NOMIXÃÃÃ
BAD-MIX > BSAP-NOMIXÃÃ

a
Only pairwise comparisons with significant differences (2-test or Fisher™s exact test, two-tailed) are shown.
Ã
P < 0.05; ÃÃ P < 0.01; ÃÃÃ P < 0.001; NS, no significance.
b
´
Differences overall significant in ANOVA (P ¼ 0.002), pairwise comparisons given are significant on trend level (P < 0.1) in Scheffe test.
Table 9.14b Significant differences between acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD), affective mixed states, and schizoaffective mixed states
(part 2)

Bipolar
Bipolar Bipolar
Bipolar affective “
schizoaffective schizoaffective
affective mixed never mixed
mixed states never mixed
ATPD states (BAD-MIX) (BAD-NOMIX)
(BSAP-MIX) (BSAP-NOMIX)
n (%) n (%) n (%) Statistical analysis a

Premorbid
n ¼ 35 n ¼ 11 n ¼ 23 n ¼ 13 n ¼ 20
personality c
Obsessoid 8(22.9) 5(45.5) 11(47.8) 8(61.5) 12(60.0) ATPD < BSAP-MIXÃ
ATPD < BSAP-NOMIXÃÃ
ATPD < BAD-NOMIXÃ
Sthenic/highly
5(14.3) 5(45.5) 7(30.4) 5(38.5) 4(20.0) ATPD < BSAP-MIXÃ
self-confident
Asthenic/low ATPD > BSAP-MIXÃÃ
19(54.3) 0 4(17.4) 0 3(15.0)
self-confident ATPD > BAD-MIXÃÃ
ATPD > BAD-NOMIXÃÃÃ
ATPD > BSAP-NOMIXÃÃ
Nervous-tense 3(8.6) 1(9.1) 1(4.3) 0 1(5.0) NS
Dimensional
personality
n ¼ 32 n ¼ 15 n ¼ 27 n ¼ 27 n ¼ 41
scores (NEO-FFI) c
Table 9.14b (cont.)

Bipolar
Bipolar Bipolar
Bipolar affective “
schizoaffective schizoaffective
affective mixed never mixed
mixed states never mixed
ATPD states (BAD-MIX) (BAD-NOMIX)
(BSAP-MIX) (BSAP-NOMIX)
n (%) n (%) n (%) Statistical analysis a

Neuroticism NS
1.89 Æ 0.58 2.22 Æ 0.65 2.01 Æ 0.68 1.80 Æ 0.65 1.88 Æ 0.51
Extroversion NS
2.06 Æ 0.52 1.98 Æ 0.50 1.87 Æ 0.51 1.96 Æ 0.43 1.95 Æ 0.51
Openness to
NS
2.17 Æ 0.38 2.08 Æ 0.44 2.33 Æ 0.48 2.23 Æ 0.46 2.33 Æ 0.52
experiences
Agreeableness NS
2.73 Æ 0.43 2.39 Æ 0.41 2.53 Æ 0.42 2.57 Æ 0.37 2.57 Æ 0.42
Conscientiousness NS
2.76 Æ 0.44 2.31 Æ 0.71 2.43 Æ 0.50 2.56 Æ 0.45 2.59 Æ 0.60

a
Only pairwise comparisons with significant differences (2-test or Fisher™s exact test, two-tailed) are shown.
Ã
P < 0.05; ÃÃ P < 0.01; ÃÃÃ P < 0.001; NS, no significance.
b
´
Differences overall significant in ANOVA (P ¼ 0.002), pairwise comparisons given are significant on trend level (P < 0.1) in Scheffe test.
c
Reduced n, because some patients could not be followed up or information was insufficient to rate this item.
231 Acute and transient psychotic disorder



Table 9.15 Comparison of acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) with all mixed
states combined and all non-mixed bipolar disorders

All bipolar
All mixed disorders “
states(BIP- never mixed
ATPD MIX: (BIP-NOMIX:
n = 39 n = 48 n = 80)
Statistical analysis a
n (%) n (%) n (%)

Gender
ATPD>BIP-MIXÃ
Female 30 (76.9) 26 (54.2) 37 (46.3)
ATPD>BIP-NOMIXÃÃ
Male 9 (23.1) 22 (45.8) 43 (53.8)

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