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diagnostic criteria 216
treatment 125“6
Brockington, Ian F. 232
COMT gene 62, 290
cortisol
Caelius Aurelianus 5, 6
rapid-cycling disorder 65
calcium, role in bipolar disorder 316“18
response to antipsychotics 336“7
concentration 98
˜˜crack™™ cocaine 331
calmodulin kinase II (CAM kinase II) 317
crowded thoughts 170
Campbell, J. D. 15
Cullen, W. 159, 165
cannabis 330, 331
cycloid psychoses 36, 207, 211, 212“15, 232
carbamazapine
diagnostic criteria 214
bipolar disorder in children and adolescents 245
cyclothymia 113, 330
bipolar I and bipolar II disorders 99
catechol-O-methyltransferase 62, 63, 290
deep white-matter lesions 331
cerebral sarcoidosis, comorbidity with bipolar
degeneration psychosis 212
affective disorders 265
depression, agitated 157“8, 182
children and adolescents, bipolar disorder in 237, 248
clinical forms
affective disorders 67
minor agitated depression 167, 168
bottom-up perspective 244
non-psychotic with psychomotor agitation 167
clinical diagnoses 238“42
psychotic 167
mood and anxiety disorder outpatients 240
388 Index


severity 139
depression, agitated (cont.)
unipolar versus bipolar 136“7
clinical picture 166“7
San Diego study
minor agitated depression 168, 182
comparison between atypical and non-atypical
diagnostic criteria 176
depression 143
drive, mood and thought 165“6
comparison between unipolar and bipolar
flight of ideas, racing and crowded thoughts
depression 146
169“70
conclusions 146“51
latent agitated depression 179
discriminant analysis 147
melancholia agitata 158“61
patients and interview 141“3
mixed affective states 161“5
predictive variables 147
nature and definition 174“6
results 144“5
restlessness, inner agitation and anxiety
setting 141
171“3
statistics 144
Rome study
symptom associations 147, 148
nosological diagnosis 177
symptom comparison 148
patients and method 176“7
depression, chronic
spontaneous and induced agitated depression
relationship with atypical depression 138
177“8
depression in children and adolescents,
temperament, role of 173“4
accompanying manic symptoms 240
treatment 178, 179
depression, recurrent brief (RBD) 35, 109“11, 126
mixed episodes 180
comorbidity 123
olanzapine 180
nature of condition 124“5
outcomes 180
prevalence 123
depression, atypical (AD)
study definitions
characterization 33“6, 282
bipolar spectrum 113
agitated depression 34
combined syndromes 114
clinical features 36
depressive spectrum 113
definition 34
personality 114“15
DSM-IV features 34
rapid cycling and seasonality 114
hyperthymic depression 35
recurrent brief psychiatric syndromes 113“14
recurrent brief anxiety 35
statistics 115
recurrent brief depression 35
treatment and distress 114
recurrent brief hypomania 35
study methodology
polymorphic psychotic disorders 36
design 112
relationship with bipolar II disorder 131“2
interviews 112“13
age relationship 135, 137
sample 112
chronic depression, relationship with 138
study results 115, 122
differences with non-AD 137
association with mood disorders 116
early- versus late-onset 136, 138
associations with other psychiatric disorders
gender differences 138“41, 145, 149
121“2
hypomania 135“6
combined versus pure mood disorders 117“21
menopause 140“1
gender differences 117, 122
mixed states, links with 139
longitudinal associations 116
overactivity 135
mood disorder associations 121
predictive relationship 136
predictors of bipolar II disorder 116“17
prevalence 134“5
subclassification 118
problems with DSM-IV criteria 132
suicide attempts 122
psychotic features 140
suicide risk 123“4
recurrences 140
treatment 125“6
review of recent literature 132“4
389 Index


future directions 298“300
depressive mixed states 51“2
gene“environment interaction 297“8
bipolar II and unipolar 52“3, 56
gene identification challenges 296
distinguishing features 51
genetic epidemiology 278
depressive personality disorder (DPD) 114
genetic markers
de Sauvages, Boissier de la Croix 159
association studies 289“90
dexamethasone, effect on cortisol levels 336
linkage studies 291“2
disability pensions 200“2, 201
review of empirical evidence 290, 292, 293
disinhibition syndrome 257, 258
genotype and phenotype 296“7
divalproex sodium
psychiatric disorder phenotypes 296
rapid-cycling disorder 79
review of empirical evidence 279“83
combined treatment with lithium 69, 80, 81,
proportion of first-degree relatives 281
81, 82
twin studies 285, 285“6
dopamine 312
heritability 285, 286
double depression 111
epilepsy 65
dream-like states 217
comorbidity with bipolar affective disorders 265
Dreyfus, G. L. 160
Esquirol, E. 160
drug abuse, comorbidity with mixed states 330“1
euphoria 14
dysphoric mania 47“8, 166, 325“6
excited“inhibited confusion psychosis 213
extrapyramidal side-effects 354, 357
elderly sufferers of bipolarity 252
Ey, Henri 215
atypical features 252
age of onset and clinical course 253“4
Falret, J. P. 160
cognitive impairment 256
family studies 278“9
neurologic comorbidity 255“6
factors associated with transmission of mood
nosologic confusion 257
disorders
vascular mania subtype criteria 258
age of onset 284
subtypes 257“8
relationship to the proband 283“4
latent bipolar disorder 258
sex of proband 284“5
primary bipolar disorder 257
Fish, Frank 232
secondary mania (disinhibition syndrome) 258
Flemming, C. F. 160
unipolar mania 258
flight of ideas 169
treatment of atypical conditions 259“60
folie circulaire 24, 25
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) 164
agitated depression 179
gabapentin 74
mixed depressive states 181
clinical response 75
endocrine psycho-syndrome 68
elderly patients 260
Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) study
Galenus of Pergamos 6
253, 277
gender differences
Epidemiology of Mania (EPIMAN) study 48, 55, 326
mixed states 15
epidemiology of mood disorders 277“8
rapid-cycling disorder 27
adoption studies 286“7
genetic heterogeneity 297
children and adolescents
genetics of bipolar disorder
age of onset 289
adoption studies 286“7
family studies 287“8
children and adolescents
twin studies 288“9
age of onset 289
factors associated with familial transmission 283
family studies 287“8
age of onset 284
twin studies 288“9
relationship to the proband 283“4
factors associated with familial transmission 283
sex of proband 284“5
age of onset 284
family studies 278“9
390 Index


Heinroth, Johann Christian August 6, 8
genetics of bipolar disorder (cont.)
melancholia 159, 161
relationship to the proband 283“4
Hippocrates 2, 3, 4
sex of proband 284“5
melancholia 159
family studies 278“9
homovanillic acid (HVA) 313
future directions 298“300
5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) 313
gene“environment interaction 297“8
hyperactivity 14
gene identification challenges 296
hyperasthenias 7
general epidemiology of mood disorders 277“8
hyperkinetic“akinetic motility psychosis 213
genetic epidemiology of mood disorders 278
hyperthymia, historical perspective 6, 7
genetic markers
hyperthymic depression 13, 35
association studies 289“90
hypoasthenia, historical perspective 6
linkage studies 291“2
hypothyroidism 68
review of empirical evidence 290, 292, 293
hysteria 3

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