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genotype and phenotype 296“7
psychiatric disorder phenotypes 296
idiopathic dystonia, comorbidity with bipolar
review of empirical evidence 279“83
affective disorders 265
proportion of first-degree relatives 281
iloperidone 355
twin studies 285, 285“6
imipramine, use in mixed states 340
heritability 285, 286
inositol monophosphate 317
Griesinger, W. 158, 159, 161
inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) 316
Guislain, Joseph 7, 161

Halle Bipolarity Longitudinal Study (HABILOS) 17, Jaspers, Karl 216, 263
20, 22, 32
characteristics of study population 196 Kahlbaum, Karl L. 159, 160, 189
empirical longitudinal classification of bipolar Kant, Immanuel 161
patients 33 Kasanin, John 189
frequency of patients with mixed course 18 concept of schizoaffective psychoses 189“90
ICD-10 longitudinal classification of bipolar Klein, Melanie 326
patients 32 Kleist, Karl 207, 212, 232
longitudinal course of mixed schizo-manic- Kraepelin, Emil 7, 8, 11, 24, 45
depressive episodes 31 definition of mixed states 9, 13, 14, 15
schizoaffective mixed states 194 folie circulaire 24, 25
instruments 195 mania 162
Halle Study on Brief and Acute Psychotic Disorder melancholia 160, 160
(HASBAP) 207, 209, 217 mixed states 161, 162
instruments 220 modus of manifestation of mixed states of manic-
methods 219“20 depressive insanity 14
results schizoaffective disorders 189
ATPD, bipolar affective mixed states and
bipolar schizoaffective mixed states 220“1 Labhardt, F. 217
haloperidol lamotrigine 317
agitated depression 179 bipolar I and bipolar II disorders 100
cortisol levels 336 elderly patients 260
depression in mania 337 mixed states 23, 339
extrapyramidal side-effects 355, 357 rapid-cycling disorder 71“7
mania 336 adverse effects 73
prophylaxis of bipolar disorder 338 clinical response 75
head injuries, comorbidity with bipolar affective efficacy 73
disorders 265 longitudinal investigation 76
391 Index


minor bipolar disorders (minbipolar) 110, 113, 115
Lange, J. 163
Mitsuda, Hisatoshi 216
learning disability, comorbidity with bipolar
mixed episodes
affective disorders 265
difficulties in conducting trials 372“3
Leonhard, Karl 212, 213
treatment 369, 382
levothyroxine 74
mixed mental disorders 7
linkage studies
mixed mood disorders 7
mood disorders 291“2
mixed states 45, 57“8, 165
review of empirical evidence 292, 293
see also schizoaffective mixed states
lithium
biological aspects 311“12, 319
agitated depression 179
catecholamines 312“14
augmentation therapy in mixed states 17
hormonal abberations 314“15
bipolar disorder in children and adolescents 245
mood stabilizers 318
bipolar I and bipolar II disorders 99
role of calcium 316“18
combination therapy with antidepressants 342“3
transmembrane ion fluxes 315“16
mania 335
classification
mixed states 23
Akiskal system 16
rapid-cycling disorder 77“9
clinical features 46
combination therapy with divalproex 69, 80,
clinical trials 333“5
81, 82
limitations 334
special considerations for elderly patients 259
comorbidity 22, 270“1
suicide risk 343
anxiety disorders 267“8
thyroid function 78
cerebral sarcoidosis 265
lithium-induced hypothyroidism 68
definition 263
LOD score 291
epilepsy 265
Lorry, A. C. 161
general effect of comorbidity 270
head injuries 265
Magnan, Valentin 212, 215
idiopathic dystonia 265
Maj, Mario 232
learning disability 265
major depressive disorders (MDD) 109, 111
medical conditions and neuropsychiatric
major depressive episodes (MDE) 110, 164
disorders 264“6
mania
other psychiatric disorders 269
definition by Aretaeus of Cappodocia 5
personality disorders 268“9
derivation of term 5
relevance 263“4
manic“depressive illness 6
stroke 265
manic“depressive insanity 11, 15
substance-abuse disorders 266“7
manic stupor 9, 11, 12, 13, 166
thyroid disorders 264
Mayer-Gross, W. 217
tuberous sclerosis 265
melancholia
concepts 324, 325
definition by Aretaeus of Cappodocia 5
brain disease 331“2
definition by Hippocrates 4, 6
depression as a response to mania 326
eighteenth-century classification 6
dysphoric mania 325“6
melancholia agitata 158“61
manic defence in depression 326“7
men, occurrence of bipolar schizoaffective mixed
mixture of elements 324
states 221
mood-incongruent psychotic features 333
metabolic psychosis 212
predominantly depressed bipolar patients
3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol
328“30
(MHPG) 313, 325
schizoaffective mixed states 333
methylphenidate 331
severe stage of mania 324“5
Meyer, Adolf 160, 189
substance misuse 330“1
migraine 97
392 Index


lithium 23
mixed states (cont.)
manic defense 337“8
transition state during a cycle 327“8
olanzapine 23
ultrarapid cycling 332“3
resistance 341“2
definitions 45“7
responses to different models 335, 335“6
broad 18, 49“51
suicide risk 343
DSM-III-R 46
valproate 23
DSM-IV 46, 57
mixed volition disorders 7
ICD-10 47
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) 63, 290
moderate 18
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) 340
narrow or strict 18
Morel, Augustin 212
Vienna Research Criteria 45, 46
myristolated alanine-rich C kinase substrate
depressive 51“2
(MARCKS) 317
bipolar II and unipolar 52“3, 56
distinguishing features 51
National Comorbidity Study (NCS) 253, 277
dysphoric mania 47“8
neurologic studies 255“6
family history 23
nimodipine 259, 317
frequency 20
non-responder groups 1
future perspectives 23
norepinephrine (noradrenaline) 312
gender differences 15, 20, 55
historical perspective
obsessive“compulsive disorder (OCD) 267, 268, 313
ancient times 2“6
olanzapine
contemporary work 15“19
agitated depression 180
eighteenth century to mid twentieth century
bipolar I and bipolar II disorders 100
6“15
controlled studies for bipolar disorder 358“63
long-term aspects 53“6
depression in mania 337
affective disorders 54, 56
elderly patients 260
hyperthymic episodes 56
mania 336
manic episodes 55
mixed states 23
rates of chronic episodes 54
rapid-cycling disorder 79
rates of mixed temperament 55
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) 241
temperamental dispositions 56
onset, course and outcome 21“2
partial responder groups 1
phenomenology 20“1
Perris, Carlo 213, 232
relationships between various definitions 50
personality disorders, comorbidity with bipolar
symptoms
affective disorders 268“9
catatonic 21
phase shifts
psychotic 21
definition 383
suicidal 21
phosphocreatine 96
treatment 23, 343“4
phosphomonoester 96
antidepressants 339“41
Pichot, Pierre 189, 190, 191
antipsychotics and depression 337
pimozide, effect on cortisol levels 336
antipsychotics in mania 336
Pisa“Memphis collaborative study 16
antipsychotics in prophylaxis of bipolar
Pisa“San Diego collaborative study 49, 50
disorder 338“9
platelet 5-HT levels 98
clozapine 23
Plato 161
combining lithium and antidepressants 342“3
pleiotropy 297
cortisol levels in response to antipsychotics
potassium channels 318
336“7
pseudo-unipolar depression 53
importance of correct diagnosis 57
psychiatric disorder phenotypes 296
lamotrigine 23, 339
393 Index


cycle length 27
psychopharmacological revolution 1, 24
demographics 19
psychotic disorder 207, 232“3
DSM-IV inclusion 26
definitions of acute and transient conditions
duration of interepisodic period 27
207“11
frequency of episodes 26
acute polymorphic psychotic disorder with
gender difference 19, 27
schizophrenic symptoms 210
longitudinal instability 27
acute polymorphic psychotic disorder without
phenomenology 26
schizophrenic symptoms 209
prevalence 27
DSM-IV criteria 210
single episodes 27
ICD-10 criteria 208
comorbidity 28“9, 270“1
ICD-10 subtypes 209

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