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62.
140 "Study your globe": William M. Leary and Leonard A. LeSchack,
Project Coldfeet: Secret Mission to a Soviet Ice Station (Annapolis, Md.:
Naval Institute Press, 1996), p. 18.
140 "vicious winds"; Drifting Station Alpha: Details on Station Alpha,
and the quotations from Smith, come from ibid., pp. 38”42.
141 Nate Gerson concluded: Gerson, "Collaboration in Sigint," pp.
359”62.
142 Canada's most important listening post: "Northernmost
Weather Station Called Major Link for Espionage," Toronto Globe and
Mail, January 12, 1974.
144 "It was the most desolate": Leary and LeSchack, Project Coldfeet,
p. 128.
145 "Instantly upon loss of sight of the buildings": ibid., p. 144.
146 Its budget had risen: Richard Fryklund, "Two House Groups Set
to Probe NSA Secrets," Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), September 14,
1960.
147 broken the cipher systems: "Text of Statements Read in Moscow
by Former U.S. Security Agency Employees," New York Times, September
7, 1960; Os-good Caruthers, "Two Code Clerks Defect to Soviet: Score
U.S. 'Spying,' " The New York Times, September 7, 1960.
147 Mike Stockmeier: His account is in his article "Before
Elmendorf," NCKi Cryptolog (Winter 1992), p. 23.
148 Cold and icy blue: Edward Bryant Bates, "Station X Adak
Aleutian Islands, 1943-1945," NCVA Cryptolog (January 1994), p. 24.
148 "I have been told": Karl Beeman, "Thesis on the Advantages of
Living in Adak, Or, There Are None!" Reprinted in NCVA Cryptolog
(Special Edition, 1991), p. 34.
149 committing suicide: Edward Bryant Bates, "WhatI Adak Again?"
NCVA Cryptolog (Special Edition, 1991), pp. 33-34.
149 Melody: Gene Poteat, "Elint and Stealth," The Intelligencer
(December 1999), pp. 10”13. The Intelligencer is published by the
Association of Former Intelligence Officers.
150 a giant sixty-foot satellite dish: ibid.
150 Field Station, Berlin: U.S. Army Intelligence and Security
Command, "INSCOM and Its Heritage: An Organizational History of the
Command and Its Units" (1985), pp. 95-97.
151 "It was acting as a great big antenna": John Diamond, "Ex-Spies'
Memories Full of Past Intrigue," Chicago Tribune (September 13, 1999).
151 Bremerhaven: U.S. Naval Security Group Activity, Bremerhaven,
"Command Histories," 1968-1973. The facility was established in 1950
and disestablished on December 31, 1972. Most of the intercept
operators were then transferred to listening posts at Edzell, Scotland,
and Augsburg, West Germany.
151 "You're trying to pull": interview with Aubrey Brown, January



573
2000.
152 "One would have had to experience": Jeff Tracy, "The Merry Men
of Toden-dorf," NCVA Cryptolog (Winter 1992), p. 22. The facility was first
activated in the late 1950s and decommissioned in the late 1970s.
152 "a target-rich environment": e-mail from Richard E. Kerr, Jr.,
January 26,
2000. 152 "At night": F. Harrison Wallace, Jr., "The History of
Eckstein Border Site
1958”1993." Web posting at
<http://members.tripod.com/adm/popup/
roadmap.shtml?946895392450> (January 2, 2000).
152 "There was no running water on the mountain": ibid.
153 "The finest hour for Eckstein": ibid.
153 Creek Rose, Creek Stone, and Creek Flea: The details in this
paragraph are drawn from U.S. Air Force, Secret, Headquarters, 7499th
Support Group, "Command History, January 1, 1967, to June 30, 1967"
(U.S. Air Force Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, Alabama).
154 "provided precise measurements": ibid.
154 able to detect East German missile equipment being moved: ibid.
154 "We couldn't listen": Interview with former Karamursel intercept
operator.
155 "Our mission": Jack Wood, Internet posting at
<http://www.delphi.com/kara-mursel/messages/?msg=50.1&ctx=l>
(July 21, 1999).
155 "Malfunction!!!": "Was Gagarin's Flight a Near Disaster?" Space
Views Update, March 16, 1996.
155 a place called Kamiseya: See generally "Kami Seya Special," NCKi
Cryptolog (Fall 1997).
156 Misawa Air Base: U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command,
"INSCOM and Its Heritage: An Organizational History of the Command
and Its Units" (1985), pp. 105-106.
157 "Security was hermetic on that post": For information about Torii
Station, I have drawn on an e-mail from David Parks, February 8, 2000.
157 "It was reflected in the stuff we copied every day": interview with
former intercept operator at Okinawa.
159 "Along the way, our ground stations would listen in": Robert
Wheatley, Internet posting, <http://38.158.99.147/Part3_Page.htm>
(April 29, 2000).
160 "locate intercept stations": NSA, Dr. Howard Campaigne Oral
History, p. 66.
160 rugged, windswept desert of Eritrea: U.S. Army, A History of
Kagnew Station and American Forces in Eritrea (undated).
161 "The Operations Center ... went on strike": Arthur Adolphsen,
"Kagnew Recollections," Internet posting,
<http://www.fgi.net/˜kagnew/stories/14.html> (July 19, 1999).



574
162 "The priority tasks from the NSA": This and other details on Aden
come from Jock Kane, "GCHQ: The Negative Asset," pp. 162”72. This
manuscript was seized by the British government under the Official
Secrets Act in 1984, and the book was never published. The author
obtained a copy of the manuscript before the seizure.
162 Ascension Island: Andrew Marshall, "Remote Island Home of
Spies and Turtles Opens Its Doors to Tourists," The Independent
(London), February 5, 1998.
162 "I looked and looked": Phillip Yasson, "Midway Island 1960,"
NCK4 Cryptolog (Winter 2000), pp. 10, 15.
164 "There was a chateau": This and the early background of Diego
Garcia are taken from Simon Winchester, The Sun Never Sets: Travels to
the Remaining Outposts of the British Empire (New York: Prentice Hall,
1985), pp. 27-58.
164 "They were to be given no protection": ibid.
165 "A Soviet trawler maintained station": This and other details of
Jibstay are drawn from Monty Rich, "NSGA Diego Garcia: The Prelude,"
NCVA Cryp-tolog (Spring 2000), p. 1.
165 "All we had was seahuts": Gregor McAdam quoted in Internet
posting at http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/warstories.html on
August 11, 1999.
165 Classic Wizard: U.S. Naval Communications Station Diego
Garcia, "Command Histories, 1973”1977." The Naval Security Group
was officially activated on May 1, 1974, and the Classic Wizard facility
was completed on April 20, 1976.
165 White Cloud: Other ground stations for the White Cloud satellite
system were built at Adak, Alaska; Blossom Point, Maryland; Guam;
Edzell, Scotland; and Winter Harbor, Maine. Winter Harbor also served
as the training facility for the program.
166 "On those few occasions": Stephen J. Forsberg quoted in
http://www.zianet. com/tedmorris/dg/warstories.html on August 11,
1999.
166 a small private sailboat: Winchester, The Sun Never Sets, pp. 55”
58. 166 By 1989 the Naval Security Group: James Yandle, "Naval
Security Station Visit," NCK4 Cryptolog (Fall 1989), pp. 5, 7.
166 presence on Cyprus: Brendan O'Malley and Ian Craig, The
Cyprus Conspiracy (London: I. B. Tauris & Co., 1999), pp. 79-84.
167 at Akrotiri: Mike Theodoulou, "News of the World," Times
(London), January 16, 1999.
167 Mission of the USS Halfbeak; Cassidy comments: Interview with
George Cas-sidy, August 2000.
175 Details on the Kursk and the USS Memphis: Steven Lee Myers
and Christopher Drew, "U.S. Spy Sub Said to Record Torpedo Blast
Aboard Kursk," New York Times (August 29, 2000), p. 1.
174 50,000 five-figure groups: Andy Thomas, "British Signals



575
Intelligence after the Second World War," Intelligence and National
Security (October 1988), p. 104.
174 Earl Richardson: William C. Grayson, Chicksands: A Millennium
of History (Crofton, Md.: Shefford Press, 1999), p. 221. Chicksands was
closed in 1995 and is now the home of the Defence Intelligence and
Security Center, a defense agency responsible for providing training
throughout the spectrum of the military intelligence and security
community.
174 "Much of the caution was perverse": ibid.
176 "We would go into bays": This and the following quotations come
from the author's interview with George A. Cassidy, January 2000.
176 "the weather conditions were so bad": Interview with Aubrey
Brown, January 2000.
177 the CIA dumped some $12 million: Philip Agee, Inside the
Company (New York: Stonehill, 1975), p. 521.
177 "put the guys": Brown interview.
178 "Every time we got it": Interview with George A. Cassidy, January
2000. 178 "I was called to Washington in the mid-fifties": Oral History of
Captain Phil
H. Bucklew, USN (Ret.) (March 1982) (U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis).
178 "I was probably the father of it at NSA": interview with Frank
Raven, July 23, 1981.
179 "They complained very bitterly": ibid.
179 "The Valdez was my dream ship": ibid.
180 "The bigger ships": interview with Lieutenant General Marshall S.
Carter, July 17-18, 1980.
180 "Revelation of some sensitive": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra report, "A
Review of the Technical Research Ship Program 1961-1969" (undated),
pp. 126-27.
181 Every day at 8:00 A.M., 2:30 P.M.: William Galvez, Che in Africa
(Hoboken, N.J.: Ocean Press, 1999), p. 224.
181 "It seems excessive": ibid.
182 "Those of us aboard Liberty": Details of the Liberty's Congo cruise
come from Robert Casale, "Drama on the Congo," U.S. Naval Cryptologic
Veterans Association (Paducah, Ky.: Turner Publishing Co., 1996), p. 77.

CHAPTER 7: Blood
Page
185 "Now, frankly": interview with Frank Raven, July 23, 1981.
186 "We ... had a choice": New York Times, August 21, 1982.
187 a contingency plan: Details on the selection of the Liberty for the
Middle East mission come from NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a
Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), pp. 5-13.
188 MAKE IMMEDIATE PREPARATIONS: James M. Ennes, Jr.,
Assault on the Liberty (New York: Random House, 1979), p. 19.



576
188 "It was a message from the Joint Chiefs": ibid., p. 15.
188 "I mean, my God": Raven interview, August 11, 1981.
189 Bryce Lockwood: interview with Bryce Lockwood, February 2000.
190 "who was communicating": Raven interview, August 11, 1981.
190 "You can sit in Crete and watch": ibid.
191 "We have an FBIS report": Details on Rostow come from Hugh
Sidey, "The Presidency: Over the Hot Line”the Middle East," Life, June
16, 1967.
192 "Early this morning": Department of State, Secret Flash message
from Bar-bour, U.S. Embassy, Tel Aviv, to Secretary of State and White
House, June 5, 1967 (LBJL).
193 the hot line was activated: Department of Defense, press release,
August 30, 1963; A. Golikov, "Direct Line, Moscow-White House,"
Ogonyok (Russian magazine), August 25, 1963, p. 1; Robert Cahn, " 'Hot
Line'”Never a Busy Signal," Christian Science Monitor, June 10, 1965.
193 "Premier Kosygin is on the hot line": Robert S. McNamara, In
Retrospect' The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Vintage
Books, 1995), pp. 278-279.
194 Johnson told Kosygin that the United States did not intend: "Hot
Line Diplomacy," Time, June 16, 1967.
195 "We were in disbelief and mystified": Unless otherwise noted, all
details about the flight of the EC-121 Willy Victor come from e-mail,
Marvin E. Nowicki to author, March 4, 2000. Nowicki was the chief
Hebrew/Bussian linguist aboard the EC-121.
197 Some twenty Soviet warships: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack
on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 19.
197 Then he asked if any consideration was being given: NSA,
Secret/Spoke/Limited Distribution, "USS Liberty: Chronology of Events"
(undated), p. 3.
197 "For God's sake": Raven interview, August 11, 1981.
198 the message never reached her: For details on the message
delays, I rely on NSA, Top Secret/Umbra report, "Attack on a Sigint
Collector, the USS Lib-erty" (1981), pp. 21-23.
199 "Uniform of the Day": USS Liberty, Plan of the Day for June 8,
1967.
199 John Scott noticed: U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript,
Testimony of Ensign John Scott (June 10, 1967), p. 59.
199 "Fabulous morning": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 49.
199 the naval observer: Israeli Defense Force, Confidential, Court of
Inquiry Report, Decision of Examining Judge, Lieutenant Colonel Yishaya
Yerushalmi (July 21, 1967).
199 "What we could see": "Attack on the Liberty," Thames Television
(London), 1987.
200 "How would it affect our mission": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty,
pp. 43”44. 200 reconnaissance was repeated at approximately thirty-



577
minute intervals: NSA,
Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty"
(1981), p. 25.
200 "It had a big Star of David on it"-, interview with Richard L.
Weaver, February 2000.
200 the minaret at El Arish could be seen: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra,
"Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 25.
200 Commander McGonagle ... radar: U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry
transcript, testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967), p. 31.
201 One Israeli general: Robert J. Donovan and the staff of the Los
Angeles Times, Israel's Fight for Survival (New York: New American
Library, 1967), p. 71.
201 A convoy: My account of the Israeli attack on the UN convoy is
drawn from the Toronto Globe and Mail, June 16, 1967.
202 "I saw a line of prisoners": The account of the massacre comes
from Youssef M. Ibrahim, "Egypt Says Israelis Killed P.O.W.'s in '67 War,"
New York Times, September 21, 1995; "Israeli Killing of POWs in '67:
Alleged Deaths of Hundreds Said Known to Leaders," Newsday (August
17, 1995).
202 Gabi Bron saw: quoted by Serge Schmemann, "After a General
Tells of Killing
P.O.W.'s in 1956, Israelis Argue over Ethics of War," New York Times,
August 21, 1995. 202 Aryeh Yitzhaki, who worked: His account appears
in "Israel Reportedly Killed POWs in '67," Washington Post (August 17,

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