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1995); "Israeli Killing of POWs in '67: Alleged Deaths of Hundreds Said
Known to Leaders," Newsday (August 17, 1995). 202 One of his men:
Barton Gellman, "Debate Tainting Image of Purity Wrenches
Israel," Washington Post (August 19, 1995). 202 "I had my Karl Gustav":
Schmemann, "After a General Tells of Killing P.O.W.'s in 1956, Israelis
Argue over Ethics of War."
202 "If I were to be put on trial": Katherine M. Metres, "As Evidence
Mounts, Toll
of Israeli Prisoner of War Massacres Grows," Washington Report on
Middle
East Affairs (February/March 1996), pp. 17, 104-105.
202 Sharon... refused to say: Gellman, "Debate Tainting Image
of Purity Wrenches Israel," Washington Post (August 19, 1995).
203 "indirectly responsible": Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, Dangerous
Liaison: The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship (New York:
Harper-Collins, 1991), p. 333; see also "The Commission of Inquiry into
Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut" (Kahan Commission), Final
Report, published as The Beirut Massacre (Princeton, N.J.: Karz-Cohl,
1983).
203 he [Sharon] set off the bloodiest upheaval: Deborah Sontag,
"Violence Spreads to Israeli Towns; Arab Toll at 28," New York Times



578
(October 2, 2000).
203 "Israel doesn't need this": Gellman, "Debate Tainting Image of
Purity Wrenches Israel."
203 "The whole army leadership"; "Israeli Killing of POWs in '67:
Alleged Death of Hundreds Said Known to Leaders," Newsday (August
17, 1995).
203 not releasing a report he had prepared: Naomi Segal, "Historian
Alleges POW Deaths in 1956, 1967," Jewish Telegraph Agency (August
17, 1995).
203 lies about who started the war: By at least lune 7, Israel was still
lying about who started the war. Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan
continued to contend, "Arabs attacked Israel" (Department of State,
Secret/Limited Official Use, Chronology of US-Israeli Consultations on
the Middle East, May 17”June 10, 1967 [June 15, 1967]).
203 "any instrument which sought to penetrate": Dr. Richard K.
Smith, "The Violation of the Liberty;" United States Naval Institute
Proceedings (June 1978), pp. 63-70.
203 $10.2 million: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint
Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 64.
204 At 10:39 A.M., the minaret at El Arish: U.S. Navy, Court of
Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967),
p. 32.
204 "I reported this detection": "Attack on the Liberty," Thames
Television.
204 "an electromagnetic audio-surveillance ship": Israeli Defense
Force, Confidential, Court of Inquiry Report, Decision of the Examining
Judge, Lieutenant Colonel Yishaya Yerushalmi (July 21, 1967).
206 "Between five in the morning": Oral History of James M. Ennes,
Jr. (November 12, 1998). (Unless otherwise indicated, the oral histories of
the Liberty crewmembers were conducted by former Naval Security
Group member Richard G. Schmucker.)
206 range of such guns: See U.S. Navy, Top Secret/Limited
Distribution/Noforn, "Findings of Fact, Opinions and Recommendations
of a Court of Inquiry Convened by Order of Commander in Chief, United
States Pacific Fleet, to Inquire into the Circumstances Relating to the
Seizure of USS Pueblo (AGER-2) by North Korean Naval Forces" (April 9,
1969), p. 12.
207 "He longed for the sea": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 11.
208 "I was told to be on the lookout": Oral History of Charles L.
Rowley (February 11, 1999).
209 "Process and reporting": Lockwood interview.
209 "You'd better call": U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript,
Testimony of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (June 10, 1967), p. 54.
209 "All of a sudden I heard": Weaver interview.
210 "And then it happened again": e-mail, Stan White to author



579
(March 7, 2000). 210 "I immediately knew what it was": interview with
Bryce Lockwood (February
2000).
210 "absolutely no markings": Oral History of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter
(November 21, 1998).
210 "I was trying to contact these two kids": U.S. Navy, Court of
Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (June 10, 1967),
p. 55.
210 grabbed for the engine order annunciator: U.S. Navy, Court of
Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967),
p. 55.
210 "Oil is spilling": transcript of cockpit conversations, "Attack on
the Liberty," Thames Television (London), 1987.
210 "They shot the camera": Rowley oral history.
211 "Any station, this is Rockstar": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p.
74.
211 "Great, wonderful, she's burning": "Attack on the Liberty,"
Thames Television. 211 "Hey, Sarge": Lockwood interview. 211 "We had
a room where we did voice": ibid.
211 "It was as though they knew": U.S. Naval Cryptologic Veterans
Association (Paducah, Ky: Turner Publishing Co., 1996), p. 79.
211 "It appears to me that every tuning section": oral history of David
E. Lewis (November 10, 1998).
212 "Schematic, this is Rockstar" ... "you son-of-a-bitch": Ennes,
Assault on the Liberty, p. 78.
212 "He's hit her a lot": "Attack on the Liberty," Thames TV.
212 "Menachem, is he screwing her?" "Attack on the Liberty," Thames
TV.
213 "I said, 'Fred, you've got to stay' ": Weaver interview.
214 "Horrible sight!": White e-mail to author.
214 "I was running as fast as I could": U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry
transcript, Testimony of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (June 10, 1967), p. 55.
214 A later analysis would show: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on
a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 28.
214 "He's going down low with napalm": "Attack on the Liberty,"
Thames TV.
214 "It would be a mitzvah": A. Jay Cristol, quoted in "Seminar on
Intelligence, Command and Control," Harvard University, Program on
Information Resources Policy.
215 "The captain's hurt": U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript,
Testimony of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (June 10, 1967), p. 55.
215 "Pay attention": "Attack on the Liberty," Thames TV.
215 A later analysis said it would take: oral history of George H.
Golden (November 12, 1998). One report indicates that several shots
were fired at the torpedo boats from the starboard gun mount on the



580
Liberty. However, by then all gun mounts had been completely destroyed.
"The starboard gun mount was destroyed and the machine gun was
inoperable. I know this for a fact because I pulled one of my shipmates
out of that gun mount blown to bits and that gun mount was unusable.
We never fired a shot at the Israelis." Oral history of Phillip F. Tourney
(November 9, 1998).
215 Commander McGonagle ordered the signalman: U.S. Navy, Court
of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10,
1967), pp. 37”38.
216 "Stand by for torpedo": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a
Sigint Collector," p. 28.
216 "Dear Eileen": Lockwood interview.
216 "There was just a": ibid.
217 "They told me that they saw the torpedo": Raven interview.
217 "I did just as I was told": oral history of Donald W. Pageler, by
Joyce E. Ter-
rill (June 1987). 217 "We knelt down and braced ourselves": White e-
mail to author.
217 "I could feel a lot of warmth": Weaver interview.
218 "We were laying there": ibid.
219 "Do you require assistance?": U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry
transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967), p. 39.
219 the torpedo boats continued: oral history of Robert Schnell
(November 21, 1998).
219 "They must have known": Weaver oral history.
219 "I watched with horror": Letter, Painter to Richard Schmucker
(May 8, 2000). See also oral history of Lloyd Painter (November 21, 1998).
219 "When 'prepare to abandon ship' was announced": U.S. Naval
Cryptologic Veterans Association, p. 80.
219 "If you don't go down with the ship": Pageler oral history.
219 "As soon as the lifeboats hit the water": oral history of Phillip F.
Tourney (November 9, 1998).
220 "They made circles": oral history of Larry Thorn (November 11,
1998). 220 "Our biggest fear": Tourney oral history.
220 "We heard Israeli traffic": Rowley oral history.
220 "told me that he wanted to scuttle the ship": George H. Golden
Oral History, November 12, 1998.
222 "Sending aircraft": COMSIXTHFLT message (1305Z, June 8,
1967).
222 "Request examine all communications": NSA, Top Secret/Comint
Channels. Only message from DIRNSA (June 8, 1967).
222 Eleven minutes after: A later study determined that while NSA's
special Criti-comm network, over which CRITICs were sent, operated
relatively well, the Pentagon's Flash system met its mark only 22 percent
of the time.
222 "The Liberty has been torpedoed": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra,


581
"Attack on a Sigint Collector," p. 32.
222 McNamara called Carter at NSA: NSA, Secret/Spoke/Limited
Distribution, "USS Liberty: Chronology of Events" (undated), p. 13.
223 "After considerations of personnel safety": NSA, Top
Secret/Umbra, Tordella memorandum for the record (June 8, 1967).
223 "Captain Vineyard had mentioned": ibid.
223 "a distinct possibility": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a
Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 57.
223 "If it appeared the ship was going to sink": NSA,
Secret/Spoke/Limited Distribution, "USS Liberty: Chronology of Events"
(undated), p. 15.
223 "She was a communications research ship": NSA, Top
Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p.
48.
224 "destroy or drive off": ibid., p. 31.
224 "Flash, flash, flash": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 47.
224 Johnson feared that the attack: letter, Christian to James M.
Ennes, Jr. (January 5, 1978).
224 Ernest C. Castle: Later, about 6:30 P.M. Liberty time, before
sunset, Castle made a feeble attempt to fly to the Liberty aboard an
Israeli helicopter. Out of uniform, without any megaphone or any other
means of communicating, he dropped an orange on the deck with his
business card tied to it. "Have you casualties?" he had written on the
back. A later NSA report remarked, "The bodies of three crew members
had not yet been removed from the forecastle and must have been
observed by those in the helicopter." (NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on
a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" [1981], p. 34.) Commander
McGonagle testified before the court of inquiry: "There were numerous
blood streams the full length from the 01 level on the forecastle to the
main deck, at machine gun mount 51, where one body was still lying. I
do recall that now. With his head nearly completely shot away. As I recall
now, there was also another body in the vicinity of mount 51" (U.S. Navy,
Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle [June
10, 1967], p. 51).
224 NSA claims that it first learned: NSA, "Attack on a Sigint
Collector," p. 57; also, NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Tordella memorandum
for the record (June 8, 1967).
225 Details of Rakfeldt and the hot line: interview of Harry O.
Rakfeldt (February 2000).
225 "We have just learned": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a
Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 32.
225 "Embassy Tel Aviv": Department of State, Secret/EXDIS,
Chronology of US-Israeli Consultations on the Middle East, May 17-June
10, 1967 (June 15, 1967).
226 "President Johnson came on with a comment": oral history of



582
David E. Lewis (November 10, 1998).
227 "Do whatever is feasible": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a
Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 44.
228 "If you ever repeat this to anyone else ever again": Weaver oral
history. 228 "I took a crew": White e-mail to author.
228 "Below it was this guy's arm": Pageler oral history.
228 sold for scrap: details of Liberty's end are drawn from
NSA, Top
Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981),
p. 64. 228 $20,000 to each of the wounded crewmen: Richard K. Smith,
"The Violation
of the Liberty," United States Naval Proceedings (June 1978), p. 70.
228 Ten months earlier: Department of State, Press Release (May 13,
1969).
229 the U.S. government asked: Bernard Gwertzman, "Israeli
Payment to Close the Book on '67 Attack on U.S. Navy Vessel," New York
Times (December 19, 1980).
229 Motor Torpedo Boat 203 display: photo and caption in A. Jay
Cristol, "The Liberty Incident," a Ph.D. dissertation submitted to the
University of Miami in 1997, p. 331.
230 "I must have gone to the White House": memorandum, Moorer to
AMEU (June 8, 1997).
230 "The government is pretty jumpy about Israel": Ennes, Assault on
the Liberty, p. 194.
231 no U.S. naval vessel since World War II had suffered a higher
percentage: Paul N. McCloskey, Jr., "The U.S.S. Liberty 1967-1989,"
NCVA Cryptolog (Fall 1989), p. 1.
231 "Throughout the contact": Israeli Defense Force, Confidential,
Court of Inquiry Report, Decision of Examining Judge, Lieutenant
Colonel Yishaya Yerushalmi (July 21, 1967).
231 a small task force led by Walter Deeley: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra,
"Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 58.
232 "There is no way that they didn't know": Quoted in Cristol, "The
Liberty Incident," pp. 161-162, n. 49.
232 "There was no other answer": interview with Lieutenant General
Marshall S. Carter (July 17-18, 1980).
232 "Mr. Mahon probed several times": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra,
Dr. Louis Tordella memorandum for the record (June 20, 1967).
233 "A nice whitewash": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint
Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 41.
233 "Nobody believes that explanation": interview with retired Major
General John Morrison (July 2000).
233 many in NSA's G Group: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a
Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 63.
233 "The Israelis got by": Letter, Tourney to Senator John McCain



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