<<

. 105
( 118 .)



>>

345 "Shortly after daylight the NVA": ibid., pp. 49-50.
345 refused to believe: ibid., p. viii.
346 "The hut would burn for a couple of days": information from a
former A-4 intercept operator.
346 Samuel Phillips left NSA: Phillips died of cancer at his home in
Palos Verdes Estates in California at the age of sixty-eight on January
31, 1990.
346 Lew Allen, Jr.: NSA, "Lieutenant General Lew Allen, Jr., USAF,
Named Director," NSAN (August 1973), p. 2; Air Force biography.
347 "Have just received word to evacuate": NSA, Secret/Comint
Channels Only message (1310Z April 28, 1975).
347 "I took the last fixed-wing aircraft": NSA, videotape interview with
Ralph Adams. Decades later, Adams would rise to become executive
director of NSA, the agency's number three position.
348 "THEY CANNOT GET": NSA, Secret/Comout/Fastcast message
(1211Z April 29, 1975).
348 "I saw the ambassador briefly": Frank Snepp, Decent Interval-An
Insider's Account of Saigon's Indecent End Told by the CIA's Chief Strategy
Analyst in Vietnam (New York: Vintage, 1978), p. 553.
348 "Goddamnit, GrahamI": ibid., p. 489.
349 "NO AMBASSADOR": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast message
(1213Z April 29,1975). 349 "THE AMBASSADOR WILL NOT": NSA, Secret
Comout/Fastcast message (1628Z
April 29, 1975).
349 "A PRESIDENTIAL MSG": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast message
(1907Z April 30, 1975).
350 "LADY ACE 09 ... IS NOT": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast
message (2043Z April 30, 1975).
350 "LADY ACE 09 IS ON THE ROOF": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast
message (2051Z
April 30, 1975). 350 "THERE HAS BEEN AN SA-7 LAUNCH": NSA,
Secret Comout/Fastcast message
(2052Z April 30, 1975). 350 "President Ford has directed": Snepp,
Decent Interval, p. 559.
350 "LADY ACE 09 is TIGER TIGER TIGER": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast
message (2058Z April 30, 1975).
351 "THERE ARE 200 AMERICANS LEFT": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast
message (2109Z April 30, 1975).
351 "NUMEROUS FIRE FIGHTS" ... "OUT REPEAT OUT": NSA, Secret
Comout/Fastcast message (2142Z-2318Z April 30, 1975).
352 "Delicate political moves": This and the following are quoted from
NSA, Gary Bright, "Don W 600" (undated), pp. 1-5.




595
CHAPTER 10: Fat
Page
354 "I have been around long enough": "Ann Caracristi Accepts,"
Colloquy (Twentieth Anniversary Issue, 1999), p. 24.
354 Within days: Details of Caracristi's background are from NSA,
Secret/Comint Channels Only, oral history of Ann Caracristi
(July 16, 1982); "Ann Caracristi," 1999 Annual Awards Testimonial
Dinner Program, Security Affairs Support Association (May 27, 1999), p.
5.
355 "NSA opened its doors": NSA, Tom Johnson, "The Plan to Save
NSA" (undated), p. 6.
355 One CIA official called: ibid.
356 "Monetary considerations": Commission on Organization of the
Executive Branch of the Government, Top Secret/Comint Channels
Only/U.S. Eyes Only report, Task Force on Intelligence Activities (Hoover
Commission) (May 1955), Appendix, p. 3.
356 "to bring the best": ibid.
356 "potentially our best": The President's Board of Consultants on
Foreign Intelligence Activities, Top Secret letter, Killian to the
president (December 20, 1956), p. 7 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File,
Administrative Series, Box 13).
356 "that the Director": Office of Defense Mobilization, memorandum
(July 6, 1955), "Hoover Commission Report" (DDEL, Office of Staff
Secretary, Box 13).
356 above $500 million: The President's Board of Consultants on
Foreign Intelligence Activities, Top Secret letter, Killian to the president
(December 20, 1956), p. 7 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Administrative
Series, Box 13).
356 more than half; Killian said; "Intelligence is approaching a $l-
billion-a-year operation": White House, Top Secret memorandum,
"Memorandum of Conference with the President, January 17, 1957," p. 1
(DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Box 21).
356 "Because of our having been": ibid.
356 "was numb at the rate": White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only
memorandum, "Discussions at the Special Meeting in the President's
Office, January 17, 1957," p. 4 (DDEL, White House Office, Box 7).
356 "It would be extremely valuable": ibid.
357 "In our judgment": The President's Board of Consultants on
Foreign Intelligence Activities, Top Secret letter, Killian to the president
(December 20, 1956), p. 8 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Administrative
Series, Box 13).
357 "An essential step": ibid.
357 Baker ... was appointed: CIA, Top Secret memorandum, Dulles to
National
Security Council (April 25, 1957) (DDEL, Office of Staff Secretary, Box


596
7).
The Baker Committee was officially known as the President's Ad Hoc
Task
Force for Application of Communications Analysis for National
Security and
International Security.
357 Baker recommended that NSA have complete dominance: These
recommendations were translated into a new Top Secret charter for NSA,
the National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 6, dated
September 15, 1958. This replaced NSA's original charter, NSCID No. 9,
dated July 1, 1948: NSC, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Special
Limited Distribution, "National Security Council Intelligence Directive No.
6: Communications Intelligence and Electronics Intelligence" (September
15, 1958), pp. 1”11 (DDEL, Post-Presidential Papers, Box 2).
358 "I finally did produce a report": interview with Richard M. Bissell,
Jr. (November 30, 1984).
358 "I could never tell how close": interview with a former director of
Central Intelligence.
359 "When they went bust": interview with a former NSA official.
360 "One good intercept is worth $5 million": This quotation and
Gerson's remarks are drawn from N. C. Gerson, "Sigint in Space," La
Physique au Canada (November-December 1998), pp. 353-58.
360 "This has great promise for monitoring": White House, Top Secret,
Memorandum of Conference with the President (February 10, 1959)
(DDEL, White House Office, Office of Staff Secretary, Intelligence, Box
15).
361 Users are warned: Material Safety Data Sheet (October 1990).
363 the West Virginia State legislature: State of West Virginia, Radio
Astronomy Zoning Act, House Bill No. 2 (August 9, 1956).
363 30,000 tons of steel: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee
on Appropriations, Military Construction Appropriations, Hearings for
1962, Part 1, 87th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 242”45. It should be noted that
records of the sanitized hearings contain no references to the intelligence
mission of Sugar Grove.
363 "almost beyond": The description of the calculations' complexity
is in U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations,
Military Construction Appropriations, Hearings for 1961, Part 1, 86th
Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 568-71.
364 At a Howard Johnson's: Philip J, Klass and Joseph C. Anselmo,
"NRO Lifts Veil on First Sigint Mission," Aviation Week & Space
Technology (June 22, 1998).
364 "The wife and two children were asleep": Mayo's account is from
an NSA audio interview with Reid Mayo, NSA Cryptologic Museum.
365 "Piggy-back Satellites Hailed": Charles Corddry, "Piggy-
back Satellites Hailed as Big Space Gain for U.S.," Washington Post



597
(June 23, 1960).
365 Details of the GRAB satellite are from Naval Research
Laboratory, "GRAB: Galactic Radiation and Background" (1998), pp. 1-
10.
366 "With Eisenhower's concern": Ivan Amato, All Things Considered,
National Public Radio (June 18, 1998).
368 "The satellites would pick up the signals": interview with former
NSA official.
369 "They were huge umbrellas": ibid.
371 "They came back with very, very poor quality": Arnold's comments
and details of Operation Ivy Bells and the USS Halibut are from my
interview with John Arnold (July 2000).
374 It had been a long ride: for Inman's early life, see Robert Sam
Anson, "Requiem for the Smartest Spy," Esquire, April 1994, pp. 84”86.
375 Inman and James Guerin: See Alan Friedman, Spider's Web: The
Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq (New York:
Bantam Books, 1993), pp. 56”67; Elaine Sciolino, "Change at the
Pentagon: Man in the News”Bobby Ray Inman, An Operator for the
Pentagon," New York Times (December 17, 1993).
375 "I was an analyst for thirty-three months": Harvard University,
Center for Information Policy Research, Program on Information
Resources Policy, "Seminar on Command, Control, Communications,
and Intelligence" (1980), p. 141.
376 "The idea of going back to be director"; Inman's Comments: NSA,
Top Secret/Talent/Keyhole/Umbra, Admiral Bobby Ray Inman oral
history (June 18, 1997), p. 1.
377 "Few could understand this": Thomas E. Ricks and Michael K.
Frisby, "Herd Instinct: How Inman Could Go from Superstar to 'Bizarre'
in Such a Short Time," Wall Street Journal, January 21, 1994.
378 "You have my vote"-. Barton Gellman, "Critical Spotlight Stings
Behind-the-
Scenes Man," Washington Post, January 19, 1994. 378 "simply one of
the smartest": quoted in ibid. 378 "a superstar": ibid. 378 "Inman's
reviews": Howard Kurtz, "Inman Statements Surprise Some Former
Confidants in Media," ^Washington Post, January 21, 1994. 378 "I
have over the years": Gellman, "Critical Spotlight." 378 "He certainly
knew how to play the game": Kurtz, "Inman Statements."
378 "the single biggest leaker": ibid.
379 "Inman was in control of unequaled information": Suzanne
Garment, "Of Secrecy and Paranoia: What Is Inman's Real Story?" Los
Angeles Times, January 23, 1994.
379 "There were certain rules": Robert Sam Anson, "The Smartest
Spy," Omni (n.d.), pp. 248, 250.
379 Edward J. Derwinski: Linda Greenhouse, "A Nominee's
Withdrawal; Inman and The New York Times: An Examination of the



598
Accusations of Bias," New York Times, January 19, 1994. See also Robert
Boettcher with Gordon L. Friedman, Gifts of Deceit: Sun Myung Moon,
Tongsun Park, and the Korean Scandal (New York: Holt, Rinehart &
Winston, 1980), pp. 263-66. The New York Times article on Derwinski
can be found in the paper's October 27, 1977, issue.
379 he believed he had a secret agreement: Anson, "Requiem for the
Smartest
spy-"

379 Sulzberger apparently had a different opinion: Greenhouse, "A
Nominee's
Withdrawal." 379 "The truth is there was nothing": ibid.
379 Woodward occasionally proposed a story: Kurtz, "Inman
Statements."
380 "My name is really Bobby Ray, much as I hate it": NSA, Top
Secret/Talent/Keyhole/Umbra, Admiral Bobby Ray Inman oral history
(June 18, 1997).
380 he would wake up: Gellman, "Critical Spotlight."
380 "not deceptive": ibid.
380 "deliberately [sought them out]": "Bowing Out with a Bang," Time,
January
31, 1994. 380 "wound tighter than a hummingbird": Tony Kornheiser,
"You Got Thin Skin,
Inman," Washington Post, January 23, 1994. 380 Captain Queeg:
"Bowing Out with a Bang." 380 now saw plots: ibid. 380 "was very direct
that if I didn't": Anson, "Requiem for the Smartest Spy."
380 Safire wrote: This episode is described in ibid.
381 "1 try to do it": Harvard University Center for Information Policy
Research, Program on Information Resources Policy, "Seminar on
Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence" (Cambridge,
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980), Inman lecture, p. 152.
382 "a brittle golden boy": Anson, "Requiem for the Smartest Spy."
382 James Guerin: See Alan Friedman, Spider's Web: The Secret
History of How
The White House Illegally Armed Iraq (New York: Bantam Books,
1993), pp.
56-67. 382 "the largest . . . ever perpetrated": Elaine Sciolino, "Change
at the Pentagon:
Man in the News”Bobby Ray Inman: An Operator for the Pentagon,"
New
York Times, December 17, 1993.
382 Inman wrote a letter: ibid.
383 "I said, 'Sure' "; Inman's comments: NSA, Top
Secret/Talent/Keyhole/Umbra, Admiral Bobby Ray Inman oral history.
384 "deliberate withholding": George Lardner, Jr., "Agency Is
Reluctant to Share Information," Washington Post (March 19, 1990), p.



599
A4.
386 George Stephanopoulos was worried: For this
account, see George Stephanopoulos, All Too Human: A Political
Education (Boston: Little, Brown, 1999), pp. 233-37.
387 "Leaks are not the answer": address by Lieutenant General
Lincoln D. Faurer before the Phoenix Society on May 22, 1982; quoted in
Phoenician (Fall 1982), pp. 2-7.
388 Faurer was allegedly: "Pentagon Said to Be Forcing Retirement of
NSA Head over Budget Cuts," Associated Press (February 1, 1985).
388 "The health of the Agency": address by Lieutenant General
Lincoln D. Faurer, quoted in Phoenician (Fall 1982), pp. 2-7.
389 "created a big fuss": Faurer's departure is recounted in Robert C.
Toth, "Head of NSA Is Dismissed for Opposing Budget Cuts," Los Angeles
Times, April 19, 1985, p. 1; see also CBS Evening News (January 31,
1985).
389 Faurer's premature departure: Following his departure from NSA,
Faurer became president and CEO of Corporation for Open Systems.
Funded by a consortium of more than sixty computer and
communications industry leaders, this research and development
corporation was aimed at accelerating a worldwide "open systems"
environment. In 1991 Faurer formed LDF, Inc. (for Lincoln D. Faurer),
which provides consulting services concerning command, control,
communications, computing, and intelligence. In 1998 he was named to
the board of directors of TSI TelSys, Inc., which designs and
manufactures high-performance protocol processing systems for the
remote-sensing satellite ground station market (News release, TSI TelSys,
Corp., November 2, 1998).

<<

. 105
( 118 .)



>>