<<

. 106
( 118 .)



>>

389 The Joint Chiefs of Staff recommended: Toth, "Head of NSA Is
Dismissed for Opposing Budget Cuts."
390 claiming that intelligence leaks: Bill Gertz, "NSA Director
Stresses Harm of Intelligence Leaks in Press," Washington Times, October
12, 1988.
390 "There's leaking from Congress": "Electronic Spy Chief Says Leaks
Increasingly Hurt U.S. Intelligence," Boston Globe, September 3, 1987.
390 "irrefutable" proof: Address by President Ronald Reagan on April
14, 1986: "On March 25th, more than a week before the attack, orders
were sent from Tripoli to the Libyan People's Bureau in East Berlin to
conduct a terrorist attack against Americans, to cause maximum and
indiscriminate casualties. Libya's agents then planted the bomb. On
April 4th, the People's Bureau alerted Tripoli that the attack would be
carried out the following morning. The next day they reported back to
Tripoli on the great success of their mission. Our evidence is direct, it is
precise, it is irrefutable. We have solid evidence about other attacks
Qaddafi has planned against United States installations and diplomats
and even American tourists."



600
590 "Libya, sure. Just deadly losses.": Norman Black, "Gen. Odom
Blames Leaks for 'Deadly' Intelligence Loss," Washington Times,
September 3, 1987.
391 Details and quotations concerning Wobensmith case: Stephen
Engelberg, "A Career in Ruins in Wake of Iran-Contra Affair," New York
Times, June 3, 1988.
392 nominated by the agency for a Federal Career Service Award:
"Claxton, Wobensmith Are Federal Career Award Finalists," NSAN (June
1981), p. 7.
392 shown the door: Bill Gertz, "Superseded General Expected to
Resign," Washington Times, February 21, 1988.
393 Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously recommended: Stephen
Engelberg, "Head of National Security Agency Plans to Retire," New York
Times, February 23, 1988. See also Aviation Week and Space Technology
(February 29, 1988), p. 34.
393 "It was made clear to him": "Superseded General Expected to
Resign," Washington Times, February 21, 1988.
393 "I've had a hell of an impact": Engelberg, New York Times'
February 23, 1988; Aviation Week and Space Technology (February 29,
1988).
393 "I think it was just fortuitous": These quotations are drawn from
NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Talent/Keyhole/Plus, oral history of Admiral
William O. Studeman (October 18, 1991), pp. 1-12.
393 "It was clear this agency did not want to spend": ibid.
394 UKUSA Communications Intelligence Agreement: In 1948 the
United States and Canada entered into a similar bilateral agreement
called the CANUSA Agreement.
394 Communications Security Establishment: See Government of
Canada, "50 Years of Service: Agenda for CSE's 50th Anniversary Year
Celebration" (1996). Control of Canadian Sigint is vested in the
Interdepartmental Committee on Security and Intelligence, under the
general direction of the Cabinet Committee on Security and Intelligence.
The ICSI maintains general policy control over all aspects of the
collection, processing, and dissemination of Sigint; it exercises this
control through the Intelligence Advisory Committee for national Sigint,
and through the Canadian Forces for tactical Comint and Elint
(Government of Canada, Intelligence Advisory Committee, Sigint
Memorandum No. 1).
The directors of the CBNRC and the CSE were Ed Drake (1946-1971),
Kevin O'Neill (1971-1980), Peter Hunt (1980-1989), and A. Stewart
Woolner (1989”present). Woolner was previously the CSE's chief of
communications security.
396 Among the CSE's listening posts: Bill Robinson, "Intelligence,
Eavesdropping and Privacy: Who Watches the Listeners?" In Craig McKie,
ed., The System: Crime and Punishment in Canadian Society: A Reader



601
(Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers).
397 "They spied on the Mexican trade representative": UPI dispatch,
November 14, 1995.
397 "Knowledge is power": Nomi Morris, "Inside Canada's Most Secret
Agency," Maclean's, September 2, 1996, pp. 32-34.
398 "It made us look ridiculous": This and Tovey's subsequent
comments are from Barrie Penrose, Simon Freeman, Donald Macintyre,
"Secret War," Sunday Times (London), February 5, 1984.
398 "Some sixty percent of the GCHQ radio operators": Jock Kane,
"GCHQ: The Negative Asset" (unpublished manuscript), p. 61. This
manuscript was seized by the British government under the Official
Secrets Act in 1984, and the book was never published. The author
obtained a copy of the manuscript before the seizure.
399 "I was able to spell out": Donald Macintyre, Barrie Penrose,
Simon Freeman, "Peace Moves in Spy Centre Union Row," Sunday Times
(London), n.d.
399 "The massive response to the strike call": Kane, "GCHQ," p. 114.
400 "the Government listens": Colin Hughes, "Solidarity Criticizes
GCHQ Union Ban," The Independent, October 12, 1988.
400 "Dependence is total": Duncan Campbell, "The Parliamentary
Bypass Operation," New Statesman (January 23, 1987), pp. 8”12.
400 NSA broke the Argentine code: "America's Falklands War," The
Economist, March 3, 1984, p. 25.
400 "We can ask the Americans to do things": Mark Urban, "The
Magnum Force," Electronic Telegraph, September 1, 1996.
400 codenamed Zircon: Campbell, "Bypass Operation," describes this
project.
400 "macho politics": Campbell, "Bypass Operation."
401 "The UK simply isn't able": Mark Urban, "American Satellite
Spied on Britain," Electronic Telegraph, September 1, 1996.
401 Major paid his first visit: Allan Smith, "Major Visits GCHQ," (U.K.)
Press Association Newsfile (November 25, 1994).
401 the Queen herself: Peter Archer, "Prince Meets Spycatchers,"
(U.K.) Press Association Newsfile (March 7, 1995).
401 6,228 people at its headquarters: Stephen Bates, "HMSO Reveals
Britain Employs 10,766 Spies at Home and Abroad," The Guardian,
March 25, 1994, p. 11.
401 space-age complex: "GCHQ Opts for Benhall," Gloucestershire
Echo, May 7, 1999, pp. 1-2; Maurice Chittenden and Simon Trump,
"GCHQ Ties Up Millions in 'Doughnut,' " Sunday Times (London), August
13, 2000.
402 "We must go back to our roots with GCHQ": James Bamford,
"Loud and Clear: The Most Secret of Secret Agencies Operates Under
Outdated Laws," Washington Post (November 14, 1999).
402 Australian intelligence documents: Joint Intelligence



602
Organisation, Fourth Annual Report, 1974, Canberra (November 1974),
Part 2, pp. 4-5. (cited in Jeffrey T. Richelson and Desmond Ball, The Ties
That Bind; Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries
(Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1985), p. 42.
403 the newest and smallest member: Nicky Hager, Secret Power:
New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network (Nelson, New
Zealand: Craig Potton, 1996), pp. 93-94.
404 Platform: James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA,
America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 102.
404 "We link the world^s telecommunications": "What is INTELSAT?"
INTELSAT home page, <http://www.intelsat.com/> (May 18, 2000).
405 "We grew so fast in the '80's we got buried": NSA, Top
Secret/Umbra, oral history of Robert L. Prestel (December 21, 1993), p.
14.

CHAPTER 11: Muscle
Page
406 Details on INTELSAT 707: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mission
and Spacecraft Library, INTELSAT 7, 7A.
407 "I know that I have leaned": letter, Hooper to Carter (July 27,
1969) (Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter Papers, George C. Marshall
Research Library, Lexington, Virginia).
407 "He says, 'Well, look, you can turn' ": interview with Lieutenant
General Marshall S. Carter (July 17-18, 1980).
408 "satellite communications processing and reporting": U.S. Air
Force, Air Intelligence Agency Almanac (1997).
408 "collection, identification, exploitation"; FORNSAT (Foreign
Satellite Collection): Chief Warrant Officer 3 Katherine I. O'Neal and
Warrant Officer 1 Keith J. Merryman, "Signals Collection/Identification
Analyst (98K) Training," Military Intelligence (July-September 1998), pp.
20-22.
408 "98Ks will 'break' ": ibid.
409 India's nuclear weapons establishment, for example, uses this
method: Seymour M. Hersh, "The Intelligence Gap," The New Yorker,
December 6, 1999, p. 58.
409 Australia's station at Geraldton: Frank Cranston, "Australia's
Plans for New Listening Post," Jane's Defence Weekly (April 4, 1987), p.
582.
410 Osama bin Laden: interview with intelligence official.
410 "With regard to encryption": interview with former government
official.
411 "U.S. intelligence operates what is probably": Admiral William O.
Studeman, Remarks at the Symposium "National Security and National
Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions" (December 1, 1992).
411 C-802 missile: Unless otherwise noted, all quotations and



603
information concerning the C-802 missile come from documents at the
National Security News Service.
411 "mighty attack capability": House of Representatives, Committee
on International Relations, Report, Urging the Executive Branch to Take
Action Regarding the Acquisition by Iran of C-802 Cruise Missiles, 105th
Cong., 1st Sess. (October 6, 1997), p. 4.
412 "clear and present danger": U.S. Senate, Committee on
Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on International Security,
Proliferation, and Federal Services, Hearings (April 10, 1997), p. 24.
412 phone call from Tehran: NSA, Secret/Spoke message (July 11,
1997) (National Security News Service documents).
413 "When you're buying arms": This and the details on Monzer al-
Kassar are from Roy Rowan, "Pan Am 103: Why Did They Die?" Time,
April 27, 1992, p. 24.
413 "The meeting had gone very well": NSA, Secret/Spoke message
(August 12,
1997) (National Security News Service documents).
413 GCHQ dutifully intercepted the list: NSA, Secret/Spoke message
(September 23, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
413 Chinese officials told ... U.S. intelligence reports: DIA,
Secret/Spoke/No-forn/Orcon/Specat report (November 13, 1997)
(National Security News Service documents).
414 a letter of credit: NSA, Secret/Spoke/US/UK/CAN/AUS Eyes
Only message (November 7, 1997) (National Security News Service
documents).
415 "It is our understanding": Department of State, Secret/Release
France memorandum (undated) (National Security News Service
documents).
415 "mask involvement in Iranian anti-ship cruise
missile": NSA, Secret/Spoke/AUS/CAN/UK/US Eyes Only message
(December 12, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
416 Jafari marched over: NSA, Secret/Spoke message (December 12,
1997) (National Security News Service documents).
416 While Jafari listened: ibid. 416 "policymakers": ibid.
416 "The future looked bleak": ibid.
417 "the current situation had already": ibid.
417 In February 1998 he learned: NSA, Secret/Spoke message
(February 20, 1998)
(National Security News Service documents). 417 "The complaints
lodged by Tehran": Department of State, Secret/Spoke/No-
forn report (February 10, 1998) (National Security News Service
documents).
417 "According to IDF DMI, Iran signed a contract": DIA,
Secret/Noforn message (March 17, 1998) (National Security News Service
documents).
418 "Ninety percent": interview with former government official.


604
418 "Recent intelligence reports suggest": DIA, Secret/Spoke report
(April 29,
1998) (National Security News Service documents).
418 "technologically self-sufficient": John Mintz, "Tracking Arms: A
Study in Smoke," Washington Post, April 3, 1999.
418 "Within Gamma they had double G": interview with former
government official.
418 "FRD": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Castro Interview on
with U.S." (January 3, 1964) (ARRB).
419 "ILC": Department of Justice, Top Secret/Umbra/Comint
Channels Only, "Report on Inquiry into CIA Related Electronic
Surveillance Activities" (June 30, 1976), p. 28.
419 "I looked for": interview with former government official.
419 "They had pictures": ibid.
420 "In order to bring": ibid. 420 "The Agency": ibid.
420 "We'd never go in": ibid.
421 Once GCHQ intercepted: ibid.
421 French export inspectors: Mintz, "Tracking Arms."
421 "It doesn't mean": ibid.
422 "very different": ibid.
422 "Celebrating fifty years of successful partnership": NSA, BRUSA-
UKUSA 1946-1996 plaque.
423 "There are a substantial number of legal problems": Author's
audiotape of Studeman's address to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor
Chamber of Commerce (June 29, 1990).
424 "The real issue for us": ibid.
424 "What we use the intelligence instrument for": Tony Capaccio,
"Spy Agency Is Against Industrial Espionage for U.S. Firms," Defense
Week (March 20, 1995), p. 1.
424 "We will be definitely": Author's audiotape of Studeman's address
to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29,
1990).
425 "If we had any certain evidence": Capaccio, "Spy Agency Is
Against Industrial Espionage."
425 "Yes, my continental European friends": R. James Woolsey, "Why
We Spy on Our Allies," Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2000.
426 "has directed me to come here": Carol Vinzant, "Kantor Arrives in
Geneva for Japan Car Talks," Reuters (June 25, 1995).
426 an NSA team: For NSA involvement in the Geneva talks, see
David E. Sanger and Tim Weiner, "Emerging Role for the CIA: Economic
Spy," New York Times, October 15, 1995.
426 frequently bypassed: ibid.
426 "would be a breach of duty": Writ between Her Majesty's Attorney
General and Jock Kane, High Court of Justice, Queen's Bench Division,
#1984 A, No. 1116 (March 28, 1984), p. 5.



605
427 "Much of the targeting": Jock Kane, "GCHQ: The Negative Asset"
(unpublished manuscript), p. 79.
427 capable of storing 5 trillion pages: John Mintz, "The Secret's Out:

<<

. 106
( 118 .)



>>