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Covert E-Systems Inc. Covets Commercial Sales," Washington Post,
October 24, 1994.
427 Nasser Ahmed: See "A Blow for Secret Evidence," Washington
Post editorial, August 6, 1999.
428 another federal judge ruled: Lorraine Adams and David A. Vise,
"Classified Evidence Ruled Out in Deportation," Washington Post,
October 21, 1999.
429 names on its watch lists: Bob Woodward, "Messages of Activists
Intercepted," Washington Post, October 13, 1975.
429 "MINARET information specifically includes": U.S. Senate, Select
Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence
Activities, The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights,
Hearings, Vol. 5, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1976), p. 150.
429 "I tried to object": interview with Frank Raven.
430 "Based on my review of the information": U.S. Senate, Select
Committee on Intelligence, Book III, Supplementary Detailed Staff
Reports on Intelligence and the Rights of Americans, Final Report (April
23, 1976), p. 937, n. 45.
430 "The president chewed": ibid.
430 "nothing less than a heaven-sent": ibid., p. 965.
430 "NSA Contribution to Domestic Intelligence" and "to program for
coverage": U.S. Senate, Select Committee to Study Government
Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, The National Security
Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights, Hearings, Vol. 5, 94th Cong., 1st
Sess. (1976), pp. 156-57.
430 "went through the ceiling": U.S. Senate, Select Committee on
Intelligence, Book III, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on
Intelligence and the Rights of Americans, Final Report (April 23, 1976), p.
956.
430 no one challenged Hoover: ibid., p. 933.
431 "Well, what the hell is this?": This conversation may be found in
Transcripts of Newly Released White House Tapes (February 25, 1999),
Richard Nixon Library.
434 L. Britt Snider: His remarks are quoted from CIA, L. Britt Snider,
"Unlucky Shamrock: Recollections of the Church Committee's
Investigation of NSA," Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000).
435 a story appeared in the New York Times: Nicholas Horrock,
"National Security Agency Reported Eavesdropping on Most Private
Cables," New York Times, August 8, 1975.
436 "During the 1950s, paper tape had been the medium": CIA,
Snider, "Unlucky Shamrock."
438 "The companies had a duty": ibid.



606
441 "I want to make it clear": interview with senior intelligence official
(July
2000). 441 886 eavesdropping warrants: Letter from Attorney General
Janet Reno to
House Speaker J. Dennis Hastert (April 27, 2000).
441 "The networks have collapsed": interview with senior NSA official.
442 "whom we may target": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only,
USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), p. 2.
442 United States Signals Intelligence Directive 18: NSA,
Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18 (May 26, 1976), pp. 1-15 plus
Annexes. The directive is regularly revised over the years, including on
July 27, 1993.
442 "These concerns are legitimate": NSA, Confidential/Comint
Channels Only, "USSID 18 and Its Relevance to the Production of Foreign
Intelligence" (June 1, 1999), p. 6.
442 "such as a hijacking or a terrorist attack": NSA, Secret/Comint
Channels Only, "U.S. Identities in Sigint" (March 1994), p. 4. See also
NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from Office of
General Counsel (Operations) (July 25, 1997), p. 7.
443 "When specific, actionable threat": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels
Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), pp. 3-4.
443 "we bump into violations": U.S. House of Representatives, House
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hearings, Testimony of
Lieutenant General Michael Hayden (April 12, 2000).
443 "As a general rule": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only
memorandum from W9R3 to W Group Reporting Elements (September
30, 1997), p. 1-2.
443 "Please remember": ibid.
444 "You have reason to believe": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels
Only, "USSID 18 Questions and Answers" (November 11, 1996), p. 4.
444 referred to by title: Interestingly, the use of titles for senior
officials of the judicial and legislative branches does need special
approval. And only the CIA director can approve the inclusion of the
names of members of Congress in Sigint reports. See NSA,
Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from P052 (February 5,
1993).
444 "The NSA Office of the General Counsel ... has advised": NSA,
Confidential/ Comint Channels Only memorandum from P052 (January
4,1993).
444 names of United Nations officials: NSA, Secret/Comint
Channels Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), p. 6.
445 What was her status?: NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels
Only, "Status of First Lady as Government Official" (June 29, 1993).
445 "Mrs. Clinton may be identified": NSA, Confidential/Comint
Channels Only, "Reporting Guidance on References to the First Lady"
(July 8, 1993).


607
445 "The current U.S. Administration has cautiously": NSA,
Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from P052 (December 15,
1994).
446 "The direct involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency":
"Legislator: CIA Operative Ordered Guatemala Killings," Minneapolis
Star Tribune, March 23, 1995.
446 "any information concerning events": NSA, Secret/Comint
Channels Only memorandum from Chief, Special Product Control
Branch (March 31, 1995).
447 "The political parties of the U.S. are": NSA, Confidential/Comint
Channels Only memorandum from Chief, P0521 (June 6, 1996).
447 "USSID 18 procedures for Search and Development": NSA, Top
Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from the Office of General
Counsel (Operations) (July 25, 1997), pp. 1-9.
448 details on the briefing memorandum: ibid.
448 "raw traffic storage systems": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels
Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), p. 6.
448 "Do your research before": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels
Only memorandum from the Office of General Counsel (Operations) (July
25, 1997), pp. 1-9.
448 "Americans were never listed": interview with knowledgeable
source.
449 "If the [Sigint] report goes out": interview with a senior intelligence
official involved in Sigint (July 2000).
449 "communications identified as domestic": NSA, Secret/Comint
Channels Only, USSID 18, Appendix 1, "Standard Minimization
Procedures for NSA Surveillance," Section 5 (a) (Domestic
Communications/Dissemination). See also NSA, Secret/Comint
Channels Only memorandum (re: "Collection, Processing, Retention, and
Dissemination of 'Domestic' Communications under the Foreign
Intelligence Surveillance Act") from Office of General Counsel
(Operations) (February 25, 1998), pp. 1-4.
449 "significant foreign intelligence": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels
Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), p. 5.
449 one party to which is a U.S. official: ibid.
450 "The primary purpose of the collection activity": NSA,
Secret/Spoke, "Guidelines for ... Narcotics-Related Sigint Collection"
(undated), pp. 1”3.
450 "If the Sigint business": interview with senior intelligence official.
450 "When I was at the National Security Agency": Stewart A. Baker,
"Should Spies Be Cops?" Foreign Policy (Winter 1994).
451 " 'Trust us' is the NSA's implicit message": David Ignatius,
"Where We Can't Snoop," Washington Post, April 17, 2000.
452 "It was the whole net": interview with Lieutenant General Michael
V. Hay-den (February 2, 2000).
452 "What do I tell the workforce?": ibid.


608
452 Details on Universe and Normalizes Vice Admiral John M.
McConnell, Director, NSA, "Intelligence Processing," Government
Executive (December 1994), p. 24.
453 "As each day passes": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (August 1998),
p. 3.
453 "In some cases": NSA, Kathy Baskerville, "Y2K Oversight Office
Tackles Millennium Problem," NSAN (August 1998), pp. 8-9. 453 "Solving
the Y2K problem": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (August 1998), p. 3.
453 stickers were placed: NSA, Action Line, NSAN (November 1998),
p. 11.
454 "We covered the whole thing": Maurice Chittenden and
Simon Trump, "GCHQ Ties Up Millions in 'Doughnut,' " Sunday Times
(London), August 13, 2000.
454 12 to 15 percent of capacity: interview with a senior NSA official.
454 "The network outage was a wake-up call": Lieutenant General
Michael V. Hayden, address to the Kennedy Political Union of American
University (February 17,2000).
454 "I'll state right up front": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (May 1999),
p. 3.
455 Born on March 17, 1945: Hayden's background is described in
Department of the Air Force, Biography of Major General Michael V.
Hayden (September 1998), pp. 1-2.
455 "Other than the affront to truthfulness": interview with
Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
456 "The term 'warlordism' ": interview with an NSA official (January
2000).
456 "I don't know how anything gets done": ibid. 456 "The budget is
one of his biggest problems": ibid.
456 "As an agency, we now face our greatest": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk,
NSL4N (February 2000), p. 3.
457 "The NSA used to have the best computers": Bob Drogin, "NSA
Blackout Reveals Downside of Secrecy," Los Angeles Times, March 13,
2000.
457 "Most of what they were expert in": ibid.
457 "Believe me": ibid.
457 "This should have come as a surprise to no one": U.S. House of
Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Report,
Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001, 106th Cong., 2nd
Sess. (May 16, 2000).
457 "Signals intelligence is in a crisis": John I. Millis, address to the
Central Intelligence Retirees Association (CIRA) (October 5, 1998),
transcript printed in CIRA Newsletter (Winter 1998/1999).
458 "Increasingly": Vice Admiral I. M. McConnell, USN, "New World,
New Challenges: NSA into the 21st Century," American Intelligence
Journal (Spring”Summer 1994), p. 8.



609
458 "We've got to do both": interview with Lieutenant General Michael
V. Hay-den (February 2, 2000).
458 "Forty years ago": Barbara McNamara, address before the
American Bar Association, Standing Committee on National Security
Law, Washington, D.C. (May 18, 2000).
459 304 million people with Internet access: Vernon Loeb, "This Just
In," Washington Post, June 20, 2000.
459 about 1,500 "immediate" requests for intelligence: information
from senior NSA official.
459 "Well, what are all these communications": interview with senior
intelligence official involved in Sigint (July 2000).
460 "So far": Barbara McNamara, address before the American Bar
Association. 460 "Technology has now become": Bob Brewin, Daniel
Verton, and William
Matthews, "NSA Playing IT Catch-Up," Federal Computer Week
(December 6, 1999).
460 only 2 percent of AT&T's voice and data: information provided by
a senior NSA official (September 2000).
461 it fought against export: Michael S. Lelyveld, "Fiber-Optic Curbs
on Ex-USSR Tied to Missile Fear," Journal of Commerce (March 24,
1992); Michael S. Lelyveld, "Spy Concerns Help Shape U.S. Export Policy,
Experts Say," Journal of Commerce (March 24, 1992).
461 "The ability to get bits down a fiber": Jeff Hecht, "Wavelength
Division Multiplexing," Technology Review (MIT) (March 1, 1999).
461 details on WDM and Project Oxygen: ibid.
461 "producing hundreds of kilometers": Chappell Brown, "System
Design: Nonlinear Material, Low Costs Build Fiber Infrastructure,"
Electronic Engineering Times (January 11, 1999), p. 59.
462 Lucent Technologies unveiled: "Lucent Technologies Delivers
Record-Break-ing Optical Networking Capacity," M2 Press Wire (January
27, 1998).
462 the Netherlands' KPN Telecom B.V.: Brown, "System Design."
462 For two decades William O. Baker served: Security Affairs
Support Association, Annual Awards Testimonial Dinner (May 27, 1999),
p. 7.
462 David P. Kokalis: GAO Review of Federal Advisory Committees,
1997 Annual Report.
462 NSA has also joined: "Breakthrough Technology Added to
Government Research Network," Business Wire (July 19, 1999).
463 "We're going to drown in fiber": Hecht, "Wavelength Division
Multiplexing." 463 increases in volume at 20 percent a year: Paul
Korzeniowski, "Telepath:
Record Growth Spurs Demand for Dense WDM”Infrastructure
Bandwidth Gears Up for Next Wave," Communications Week (June 2,
1997).



610
463 "Today you have no idea": Tabassum Zakaria, "Top Secret U.S.
Spy Agency Shapes Up for a New World," Reuters (December 13, 1999).
463 "The mere fact of digitizing": interview with former NSA official.
463 "Crypto policy is the wave of the past": Richard Lardner, "New
National Security Agency Director Sure to Face Major Challenges," Inside
the Pentagon (November 5, 1998).
463 "No matter what we do": John I. Millis address to the Central
Intelligence Retirees Association (October 5, 1998).
464 "only 10 percent of communications": information from a senior
NSA official (September 2000).
464 "Difficulties posed by new technologies": David Ensor, "Biggest
U.S. Spy
Agency Choking on Too Much Information," CNN web posting
(November 25,
1999). 464 "Hard of Hearing": Gregory Vistica and Evan Thomas,
"Hard of Hearing,"
Newsweek, December 13, 1999, p. 78. 464 "One criticism is that
we're omniscient": Bryan Bender, "U.S. National Security
Agency Faces Data Deluge, Says Chief," Jane's Defence Weekly (March
22, 2000).
464 "The projections that we made": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation
Between the Deputy Director for Services and the NSA Technical Work
Force" (September 30, 1999).
465 "postal service": "Computing's Next Superpower," Fortune, May
12, 1997. 465 "If you can see": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between
the Deputy Director
for Services and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30,
1999). 465 "surveillance, mine warfare": Drogin, "NSA Blackout Reveals

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