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Downside of Secrecy."
465 "the massive volume of stuff": interview with Lieutenant General
Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
466 "We spend more money": John I. Millis address to the Central
Intelligence Retirees Association (October 5, 1998).
466 Integrated Overhead Signals Intelligence Architecture”2: U.S.
Senate, Armed Services Committee, U.S. National Security Space
Programs and Issues, Testimony of NRO Director Keith R. Hall (March
11, 1998).
466 "the magnitude of the job": Jeremy Singer, "Sophisticated Fiber
Optics Also Problematic for NSA," Defense News (June 12, 2000), p. 1.
466 "NSA now faces new": U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent
Select Committee on Intelligence, Report, Intelligence Authorization Act
for Fiscal Year 2001, 106th Cong., 2nd Sess. (May 16, 2000).
467 "There was an attitude": NSA, videotape, "Address by Timothy
Sample at the Cryptologic History Symposium" (October 27, 1999).
469 "Not Congress": interview with Lieutenant General Michael V.



611
Hayden (February 2, 2000).
469 "I think in the history of the agency": interview with NSA official.
470 "Our agency must undergo change": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN
(January 2000), p. 3.
470 "There has been much discussion about this change": ibid. 470
"responsible anarchists": Bob Brewin, Daniel Verton, William Matthews,
"NSA Playing IT Catch-Up," Federal Computer Week, December 6, 1999,
p. 1.
470 "Absent profound change at NSA"; details from the New
Enterprise Team: NSA, "New Enterprise Team (NETeam)
Recommendations: The Director's Work Plan for Change" (October 1,
1999).
471 "slowness"; details from the outside team: NSA, "External Team
Report: A Management Review for the Director, NSA" (October 22, 1999).
472 "In a broad sense": interview with Lieutenant General Michael V.
Hayden (February 2, 2000).
472 "Even the best game plan": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (January
2000), p.
3. 472 So Hayden threw out the unwieldy: ibid.
472 he chose Beverly Wright: NSA, "Director of National Security
Agency Welcomes Ms. Beverly Wright, Chief Financial Manager," NSAN
(February 2000), p. 2.
473 Black background: Interview with an NSA official. At SAIC, Black
served as assistant vice president and director of information operations
in its Columbia, Maryland, office.
474 "The CIA is good at stealing": Jeff Stein, "Spy Business Leaves
Little Room for Intelligence," Newsday (December 7, 1995), p. 48.
474 "Perhaps the most compelling": CIA, Gates quoted in John H.
Hedley, "The
Intelligence Community: Is It Broken? How to Fix It?" Studies in
Intelligence
(1996), p. 18. 474 no more than ten or fifteen: Walter Pincus, "CIA
Chief Cited Loss of Agency's
Capabilities," Washington Post, May 25, 1998. 474 "a sorry blend":
Edward G. Shirley, "Can't Anybody Here Play This Game?"
The Atlantic Monthly, February 1998.
474 "Not a single Iran-desk chief": ibid.
475 "had few competent Arabic-speaking officers": Letters to the
Editor, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1998.
475 "The CIA's spy service": Melvin A. Goodman, "Starting Over at the
CIA," IntellectualCapital.com (Internet magazine), June 17, 1998.
475 "It is fair to say that the cupboard is nearly bare": Walter Pincus,
"CIA's Espionage Capability Found Lacking," Washington Post, May 10,
1998.
475 "huge increase": John Diamond, "Bill Pumps Money into



612
Intelligence," Associated Press (October 8, 1998).
475 "windfall": Walter Pincus, "Much of Intelligence Funding Will Go
to Satellites," Washington Post, October 23, 1998.
475 "much smaller": CIA, Gates quoted in Hedley, "The Intelligence
Community," p. 16.
475 "We don't really have a Director": ibid., p. 17.
476 only 15 percent: Vernon Loeb, "Inside Information,"
Washingtonpost.com (December 27, 1999).
476 "It is very difficult to exercise": John I. Millis address to the
Central Intelligence Retirees Association (October 5, 1998). 476 Camp
Perry: interview with a senior CIA official (October 22, 1999).
476 "At the end of the day": Veruon Loeb, "Drug Plant Attack on
Target, Says CIA Chief," Washington Post, October 21, 1999, p. A27.
477 Special Collection Service: Unless otherwise noted, this
information comes from interviews with senior CIA officials.
477 "As it happened": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, oral
history of Dr. Abraham Sinkov (May 1979), p. 119.
478 "1. IDENTIFICATION": (ARRB).
479 "Yesterday's code clerk": interview with senior CIA official.
479 Springfield Road: Federation of American Scientists, Intelligence
Resource Program, at FAS web site
http://www.fas.org/irp/facility/cssg.htm (June 21, 2000).
479 live room: Tom Bowman and Scott Shane, "Espionage from the
Front Lines," Baltimore Sun (special series, December 3”5, 1995).
479 "Sometimes that's a very small antenna": "Spy Machines," Nova
(PBS, 1987).
480 "in motion" .., "at rest": interviews with senior intelligence
officials.
480 first transatlantic intercept station: See James Bamford, The
Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency (Boston:
Hough ton Mifflin, 1982), pp. 155-56.

CHAPTER 12: Heart
Page
481 fifty buildings: NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special
Partnership Breakfast," NSAN (January 2000), p. 4.
481 more than $500 million: Baltimore/Washington Corridor
Chambergram (March 1989), p. 1.
481 1.5 million square feet: Vice Admiral William Studeman, Address
to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29,
1990).
481 $152.8 million more: NSA, "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know
About NSA but Were Afraid to Ask," NSAN (July 1994), p. 9.
481 "Were we a corporate company": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation
Between Deputy Director for Support Services Terry Thompson and the



613
NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
481 NSA's overall budget: These figures were the result of a slip
accidentally included in Part Three of the Senate defense appropriations
subcommittee's fiscal 1994 hearing volumes.
482 approximately 38,000 people: This figure is an extrapolation
from a chart, "Relative Personnel and Funding Sizes of Major Intelligence
Agencies," contained in the report "Preparing for the 21st Century: An
Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence" (March 1, 1996), p. 132. The report was
prepared by the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the U.S.
Intelligence Community.
482 secret city's own cops: Until 1986 the city was protected by the
General Services Administration's Federal Protective Service. That year
the GSA delegated protection authority to the director of NSA.
482 3,850 miles each month: NSA, T. C. Carrington and Debra L. Z.
Potts, "Protective Services”More Than Meets the Eye," NSAN (September
1999), pp. 8-10.
482 Emergency Response: NSA, Andrew Plitt, "Emergency!
Emergency!" NSAN (September 1991), pp. 8-9.
482 Emergency Reaction Team: NSA, "Here Come the Men in Black,"
NSAN (June 1999), p. 4.
482 Executive Protection Unit: Carrington and Potts, "Protective
Services”More Than Meets the Eye."
482 $4 million screening center: Tanya Jones, "NSA, Fort Meade
Await Federal Building Funds," Baltimore Sun, July 24, 1997.
483 Explosive Detection Canine Unit: NSA, "NSA's Anti-Terrorism
Security Measures," NSAN (February 1999), p. 4.
483 monthly electric bill: NSA, "The National Security Agency: Facts &
Figures" (1999). NSA pays more than $21 million a year to the Baltimore
Gas and Electric Company.
483 243,000 pounds: Some of the statistics in this paragraph are
from Vice Admiral William Studeman's Address to the
Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29, 1990).
483 fire department: NSA, "Fire Prevention Week, NSAN (January
2000), p. 11.
483 blood donor program: NSA, "Work/Life Services" (1999). Also
NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special Partnership Breakfast." Laura
Sullivan, "Secret Spy Agency Puts on Human Face," Baltimore Sun,
March 21, 2000.
484 Pathfinder and ToukiBouki.- NSA, NSAN (June 1997), p. 12.
484 My tillage at Sunset NSA, "CLA Film Festival," NSAN (May 1999),
p. 5. 484 Wolof: NSA's keen interest in Wolof likely stems in part from
Mauritania's
support of Saddam Hussein in Desert Storm. In particular, Saddam
sent his
wife and other relatives to Mauritania for protection. 484 WendKuuni:



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NSA, "September Film Festival," NSAN (September 1999), p. 12.
484 Harvest: 3000 Years: NSA, "March CLA 1998 Film Series 'Africa-
Asia Month,' " NSAN (March 1998), p. 12.
484 A Mongolian Tale: NSA, "May CLA Film Festival 2000," NSAN (May
2000), p. 11.
484 more than 105 films in 48 foreign languages: NSA, "CLA Film
Library Acquisitions," NSAN (August 1999), p. 12.
484 its own ticket agency: Baltimore/Washington Corridor
Chambergram (March 1989), p. 1.
484 twentieth largest in the country: Vice Admiral William Studeman,
Address to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce
(June 29, 1990).
484 Children's World: NSA, "Child Care: NSA, the New National
Priorities," NSAN (Inly 1998), pp. 8-10.
485 "a lot of junk food addicts": NSA, Sherry Copeland, "A Look
'Lnside' NSA's Drugstore," NSAN (December 1999), pp. 4-5.
485 Arundel Yacht Club: NSA, Club Notes, NSAN (May 2000), p. 16.
485 More than 3,200 employees: NSA, "NSA's Civilian Welfare Fund,"
NSAN (December 1998), p. 10.
485 Family Historians Genealogy Club: NSA, "Family Historians
Genealogy Club," NSAN (February 1999), p. 7.
485 Sex Hormones vs. GS Ratings: NSA, NSAN (August 1996), p. 12.
485 Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Employees (GLOBE): NSA, Club Notes,
NSAN (February 2000), p. 12.
486 "All American Festival": NSA, " 'Agency Ail-American Festival'
Schedule of Events," NSAN (June 2000), pp. 10-11.
486 "For many years": ibid.
486 eleven cafeterias: NSA, NSAN (June 1998), p. 11.
486 on December 13: NSA, NSAN (February 1994), p. 3.
487 food sales totaled: NSA, NSAN (November 1994) p. 4.
487 SHAPE: NSA, NSAN (August 1993), p. 10; NSA, "SHAPE”Your
New Year's Resolution Solution," NSAN (January 1998), p. 12; NSA,
NSAN (December 1998), p. 5; NSA, "Work/Life Services" (1999).
487 Learned Organizations: NSA Crypto-Linguistic Association
brochure (February 1973).
488 "Accumulated along every hallway": NSA, Action Line, "Trapped
Down Under," NSAN (April 1995), p. 12.
488 burned-out car: NSA, Action Line, "Let's Talk Trash," NSAN
(August 1999), p. 12.
488 "If I use the south tunnel": NSA, Action Line, "Dark Tunnels and
Deserted Stairwells," NSAN (April 1994), p. 11.
488 the real building: NSA, "On a Clear Day You Can See the
Washington Monument?" NSAN (April 1984), pp. 4-5.
488 shielding technique is used throughout much of the city: Barton
Reppert, Associated Press, " 'Electromagnetic Envelope' for NSA,"



615
Washington Post, March 30, 1984.
490 "NSOC": personal observation.
490 Operation Silkworth: "Silkworth Security Guidelines," in United
States of America ex ret Margaret A. Newsham and Martin Overbeek
Bloem v. Lockheed Missiles and Space, Inc., U.S. District Court, Northern
District of California, Civil Act. No. C88-20009.
490 red badge: interview with former NSA official.
490 "clearance status not indicated": ibid.
490 "After you leave an NSA installation": NSA, For Official Use Only,
"NSA Employee Handbook."
490 Visitor Control Center: personal observations.
490 "sinister talons": NSA, "The National Security Agency Insignia."
490 Aperiodic Inspection Team: NSA, "Protective Services Celebrates
10th Anniversary," NSAN (October 1996), pp. 8-9.
491 "Furby Alert": Vernon Loeb, "A Toy Story of Hairy Espionage,"
Washington Post, January 13, 1999.
491 "No Classified Talk!": Personal observations.
491 14,000 security posters: NSA, Action Line, NSAN (January
1991), p. 11.
492 On the very day: ibid. 492 "a not-too-subtle": ibid.
492 "must find them surreal": NSA, Action Line, NSAN (June 1991) p.
11.
492 "If Cal's identified": Tony Capaccio, "Ripken in a Matter of
National Security," USA Today, June 6, 1996.
493 "Members of the SSOC": NSA, "Protesters at NSA on the 4th of
July," The Communicator (August 27, 1996).
494 "an unequivocal success": ibid. 494 "Very efficient": ibid.
494 National Cryptologic Memorial Wall: NSA, Picture This, NSAN
(July 1996), p. 7; NSA, "NSA/CSS Memorial Day Observance," NSAN
(July 1997), p. 12.
494 "I drive myself": Interview with Lieutenant General Michael V.
Hayden (February 2, 2000).
495 his corner office: personal observations during several visits in
2000.
496 "When I've talked": Hayden interview (February 2, 2000).
498 "in consonance": NSA, For Official Use Only, NSA/CSS Regulation
No. 10-11, "Release of Unclassified NSA/CSS Information," Annex B
(June 16, 1987), p. H-2.
498 his own "ambassadors": ibid., p. B-3.
499 United States Signals Intelligence Directives: Until 1957 it was
known as the Manual of U.S. Sigint Operations (MUSSO). NSA, Top
Secret/Codeword, Oral History of Herbert L. Conley (March 5, 1984), p.
87.
499 "pursuing an area": This and the information about Taylor's
background come from NSA, "The Newest SALT Members," The



616
Communicator (April 9, 1996).
499 "Operations encompasses all the activities": NSA, Linda Lewis,
"DO and DT Focus Days," NSAN (January 2000), p. 2.
500 Tiiu Kera: U.S. Air Force, biography of Major General Tiiu Kera

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