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(March 1999).
501 "leadership and management of a newly formed organization":
"DOD Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Presented," Regulatory
Intelligence Data (November 4, 1999).
501 NSOC: personal observation during visit in April 2000.
501 USS Cole: interview with senior NSA official.
502 Worldwide Video Teleconferencing Center: NSA, "Across the
World”By Video Teleconferencing," NSAN (September 1998), pp. 4-5.
502 the organization's seal: NSA, "Celebrating a Quarter Century,"
NSAN (July 1989), p. 7.
502 "You didn't want NORAD": interview with Lieutenant General
Daniel O. Graham (December 1984).
503 "initial analysis and reporting": NSA, "DEFSMAC
Dedication,""Director's Talking Points" (April 7, 1998).
503 more than doubled: "DEFSMAC: A Quiet Hero in Anti-
Proliferation Fight," Intelligence Newsletter (November 26, 1998).
503 "It has all the inputs from all the assets": Harvard University,
Center for Information Policy Research, Program on Information
Resources Policy, Seminar on Command, Control, Communications and
Intelligence (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980),
Raymond T. Tate lecture, p. 30.
503 "DEFSMAC not only detects": interview with former NSA official.
503 "the .. . premier": NSA, Chary Izquierdo, welcoming remarks at
DEFSMAC Dedication Ceremony (April 7, 1998).
503 Topol-M single-warhead: David Hoffman, "Russian Rocket
Explodes in Test," Washington Post, October 24, 1998. See also Sid
Balman, Jr., "U.S. Sees More Iranian Tests," UPI (July 23, 1998).
504 DEFSMAC officials would immediately have sent: NSA, Chary
Izquierdo, welcoming remarks at DEFSMAC Dedication Ceremony (April
7, 1998).
504 DIA Alert Center: This is a twenty-four-hour-a-day indications
and warning center, responsible for providing time-sensitive intelligence
to the secretary of defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and others.
504 National Telemetry Processing Center: For the information in this
paragraph, I have drawn on NSA, telemetry display, NSA Cryptologic
Museum.
505 mobile medical center: NSA, "OHESS Is Going Mobile ... AgainI"
NSAN (August 1999), pp. 4-5.
505 Oilstock: NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996), p. 26. 505
Main Library: NSA, Ann Bubeck, "NSA/CSS Libraries”'Putting
Knowledge to Work,' " NSAN (April 1997), pp. 4-5.



617
505 "an astounding record of successful operations": "DOD
Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Presented," Regulatory Intelligence
Data (November 4, 1999).
506 "With today's rapidly evolving": NSA telemetry display, NSA
Cryptologic Museum.
506 "Consider that hundreds or thousands of channels": NSA, "Career
Opportunities in Signals Analysis" (2000).
506 "Demodulating and unraveling the internal structure": ibid. 506
"extremely sensitive": NSA, security handout, "NSA Security 'Seal' of
Approval" (July 1987).
506 "completely by a black cloth": ibid.
507 "The Malfunctioning Santallite": NSA, "CWF Holiday Door
Decorating Contest," NSAN (February 2000), p. 16.
507 "Using biometrics for identifying and authenticating": Gerald
Lazar, "Agencies Scan Biometrics for Potential Applications," Federal
Computer Week (January 20, 1997).
507 In 1999, NSA installed: Charlotte Adams, "Software Bundles
Biometric Solutions," Federal Computer Week (May 10, 1999).
507 High Security Portal: NSA, "Eye Scans and Key Access
Machines," NSAN (June 1993), p. 5.
508 Automated Key Access Machine: ibid.
508 secure phones: For details on the STU-I, STU-II, and STU-III, see
NSA, "The Decent Book" (January 1996), p. 24.
509 Details on the STE: interview with Michael J. Jacobs (September
23, 2000). 509 it will remain fully secure: ibid.
509 NSA's ACCESS menu: NSA, "ACCESS the NSA/CSS Connection,"
NSAN (April 1997), p. 12.
509 Operators average 250,000 assisted calls: NSA, Kathy Gleason,
"Telephone Switching Services (J532)," NSAN (June 2000), p. 6.
510 "because it was the only bidder": Bob Berwin, "Intercepts,"
Federal Computer Week (May 11, 1998).
510 Channel 50: NSA, "Multimedia Expo '93," NSAN (March 1993), p.
4.
510 Television Center: NSA, "On the Air in 5-4-3-2-1 . . . ," NSAN
(June 1999),
p. 6. 510 "If you enjoy": NSA, "Attention Talk Show Junkies!" NSAN
(August 1994),
p. 10.
510 On March 25: NSA, "Talk NSA 'On Location,' " NSAN (March
1998), p. 12. 510 "Ask short, straightforward questions": NSA, "How to
..., for Future Day's
Worldwide Virtual Event," The Communicator (October 8, 1996).
510 6,000 people ... 36,711 lines of text: NSA, The Communicator
(November 6, 1996).
511 "long before CNN": George Lardner, Jr., "On This Network, All



618
the News Is Top Secret," Washington Post, March 3, 1992.
511 "If Warren Christopher": William F. Powers, "Cloak and Dagger
Internet Lets Spies Whisper in Binary Code," Washington Post, December
8, 1994.
511 "a major breakthrough": ibid.
512 "Essentially": ibid.
512 "pizza truck" and "a brilliant use of cyberspace": press release,
Computer Sciences Corporation, 1998.
512 "Collaboration with our counterparts": Fredrick Thomas Martin,
Top Secret Intranet (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999), p. 34.
513 Wer'zit!?: ibid., p. 164.
513 WebChat. ibid., p. 186.
513 have caused concern: ibid., p. 189.
514 four separate networks: ibid., pp. 53”55.
514 "Intelink-P": press release, Computer Sciences Corporation, 1998.
514 single largest data repository. Martin, Top Secret Intranet, p. 55. 514
expanding worldwide: ibid., p. 56.
514 Advanced Technology Demonstration Network: Don Clark,
"What's Ahead: New Technologies Promise a Quantum Leap in
Performance," Wall Street Journal, November 14, 1994.
515 Fastlane: Charlotte Adams, "Reorg Stresses Schedules,
Customers," Federal Computer Week (July 4, 1994), p. 24.
515 "afeast of the world's most": Martin, Top Secret Intranet, p. 270.
515 SIGSUM: ibid.
515 Beamrider: ibid., pp. 272-74.
515 the National SIGINTFile: ibid, pp. 276-79.
516 "Is the National Security Agency": U.S. House of Representatives,
Committee on Appropriations, "Military Construction Appropriations,"
Hearings for 1974, 93rd Cong, 1st Seas., p. 466.
516 "That means": General Accounting Office, Report to the Congress
by the Comptroller General of the United States, "Oversight of the
Government's Security Classification Program”Some Improvements
StiLL Needed," LCD-81-13, December 16, 1980, p. 14.
518 "Try to imagine": NSA, "Latest Findings in the Automatic Waste
Collection System," NSAN (April 1983), pp. 4-5.
518 In 1998, the agency took in: NSA, Karen Gray, "Reduce + Reuse
+ Recycle = Good Business," NSAN (December 1998), pp. 4-5.
519 "The Paper Chase": NSA, "The Paper Chase," NSAN(September
1999), p. 5. 519 438 tons of metal: NSA, "NSA Does It All and Does It
Well!" The Communicator (October 8, 1996).
519 degausser operators: NSA, "New Data on Electromagnetic Field
Exposure," NSAN (February 1999), p. 5.
519 more than 129 million documents: GPO, "Report of the
Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy" (1997), p.
74.



619
519 "The sheer number of records": NSA, "E.G. 12958”A
Classification Update," The Communicator, vol. 6, no. 1 (1996).
520 11 million "permanent records": NSA, "Archives and Records
Center Gets New Look," NSAN (March 1991), p. 5.
520 "The German was a past master": Tim Weiner, "Pentagon Spy
Agency Bares
Some Dusty Secret Papers," New York Times, April 5, 1996. 520
Automated Declassification System": NSA, The Communicator
(Summer
1998). 520 "Sometimes I think we just collect": CIA, John H. Hedley,
"The Intelligence
Community: Is It Broken? How to Fix It?" Studies in Intelligence
(1996), pp.
17-18.
521 CYPRIS microprocessor: NSA, "The CYPRIS Microprocessor," NSA
Technical
Fact Sheet (1999). 521 At one time NSA accounted for 50 percent:
NSA, Focus Your Intelligence (2000).
521 electron-beam maskmaking: ibid.
522 "The problem of providing power": NSA, "The Microencapsulated
Betacell," NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1999).
522 Robert E. Stevens: SASA, SASA Spring 1997 program, "National
Cryptologic Strategy for the 21st Century."
522 computer wafers to half a micron: NSA, "Wafer and Die Thinning
Technology," NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1999).
522 $2 billion market: "Sigint Is Hot Market," NCVA Cryptolog (Winter
2000), p. 16.
522 more than 15,000 contracts: Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special
Partnership Breakfast."
523 J. Michael McConnell: "Roster," Federal Computer Week (April
15, 1996). 523 William P. Crowell: SASA, SASA Spring 1997 program,
"National Cryptologic
Strategy for the 21st Century."
523 Charles R. Lord: "In Memoriam," NCVA Cryptolog (Spring 1993),
p. 16. Lord died of a cerebral hemorrhage on February 8, 1993.
523 bridge between: SASA was established in April 1979 to "enhance
the relationships and understanding among those in government,
industry and academe ..." (SASA, SASA Fall 1998 program, "The
Emerging Challenge.")
523 2001 budget authorization: Subsequent quotations are drawn
from U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on
Intelligence, Report, Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001,
106th Cong., 2nd Sess. (May 16, 2000).
524 "The explosive growth of the global network": NSA, DIRNSA's
Desk, NSAN (July 2000), p. 3.



620
524 "The magnitude of their education": Interview with Lieutenant
General Marshall S. Carter (July 17, 1980).
525 Military Elint Signal Analysis Program: NSA, Picture This, NSAN
(September 1992), p. 5.
525 NSA Graduate Studies Center: NSA, "JMIC Graduate Center
Dedicated," NSAN (April 1997), p. 11; NSA, Michael L. Barksdale, "The
Part-time Master of Science of Strategic Intelligence Program," NSAN
(December 1999), p. 2.
525 master of science in strategic intelligence: NSA, Mary C. Parker,
"A Master's Degree: Yours for the Taking," NSAN (November 1996), pp. 8-
9.
525 largest computerized training: NSA, "NSA Testing Center," NSAN
(May 1993), p. 7.
525 Senior Technical Development Program: NSA, "STOP Class of
1998 Graduates," NSAN (September 1998), p. 5.
525 "best of the best": ibid.
525 Roadhouse Cafe: NSA, " 'Roadhouse' Rhonda," NSAN (October
1996), p. 10.
525 $5 million for additional courses: Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special
Partnership Breakfast."
525 "have the potential": NSA, NSA/CSS Office of Contracting,
Research Grant, 7/30/84.
526 "His brilliant achievements": NSA, "Frank Rowlett Retires," NSAN
(Special Edition) (January 1966), p. 1.
526 "This building": NSA, Tom Johnson, "OPS 3 Building Dedicated
to Crypto-logic Pioneer," NSAN(March 1999), p. 10.
527 "Despite NSA's size and success": NSA, Confidential/Comint
Channels Only, "Beyond Codes and Ciphers: The Expanded Meaning
of Cryptology in the Late Twentieth Century," Cryptologic Quarterly
(Winter 1990), pp. 27, 34.
527 "labyrinth of letters": Jorge Luis Borges, "The Library of Babel,"
quoted in Emir Rodriguez Monegal, Jorge Luis Borges: A Literary
Biography (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1978), p. 26.

CHAPTER 13: Soul
Page
528 with between fourteen and eighteen years of experience: Richard
Lardner,
"The Secret's Out," Government Executive (August 1998), p. 26. 528 59
percent of the workers are male: NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (March
1998), p. 3. 528 Sixty-three percent: NSA, "Deputy Director for
Support Services," NSAN
(April 1993), p. 7. 528 13 percent... 27 percent... 3.3 percent: NSA, "A
Quick True or False Quiz,"
NSAN (May 1993), p. 3. 528 four generals and admirals: General



621
Accounting Office report (June 16, 1997),
Appendix III. 528 the top 10 percent... $9.4 million in air travel. .. $65
million in state income
taxes: NSA, "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About NSA But
Weren't
Allowed to Ask," NSAN (July 1994), p. 9.
528 largest collection of mathematicians: NSA, Focus Your Intelligence
(2000).
529 "She's known as the 'tire lady' ": interview with former
intelligence official.
529 "There is no dress code at all": Cort Kirkwood, "Our Friendly
Neighborhood Colony of Spies," Baltimore Magazine, reprinted in NCVA
Cryptolog (Winter 1994), pp. 1,9.
529 Brent Morris: NSA, "From Magic to Math and Back Again," NSAN
(July 1993), p. 7.
529 Eileen Buckholtz: NSA, Read-All-About-It, NSAN (January 1991),
p. 16.
529 Frederick Bulinski: NSA, Read-All-About-It, NSAN (November
1992), p. 24.
529 "The results show that the personality": NSA, Gary L. Grantham,
Who Is NSA (April 1985), p. 1 (National War College).
530 "This contrasts markedly": ibid., p. 8.
530 "You can always tell an NSA extrovert": Warren P. Strobel,
"Incredible 3-Day NSA Computer Failure”Sound of Silence," U.S. News
& World Report, February 6, 2000.
530 "The great predominance of introverts": NSA, Grantham, Who Is
NSA, p. 9.
530 "The predominance of thinking types": ibid., p. 11.
531 "The overwhelming preference among NSA managers": ibid.

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