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531 "From my perspective": NSA, "Everything You Ever Wanted to
Know About NSA but Weren't Allowed to Ask."
531 "Perhaps one of the first security practices": NSA, NSA
Handbook (undated), pp. 1-2.
532 "We in NSA comprise": NSA, "Editorial Comment: Why Work for
NSA?" NSA Technical Journal (undated), pp. i”ii.
532 "Your challenge": NSA, recruitment brochure, "If Math Is Your
Area of Expertise, We'd Like to Introduce You to Ours" (undated; circa
1998).
532 "The challenge is": Bob Drogin, "Help Wanted: U.S. Intelligence
Agencies Make No Secret of Need for Workers," Minneapolis Star Tribune,
November 16, 1999.
532 "We're looking": ibid.
532 Undergraduate Training Program: NSA, "NSA Salutes 'Father of
the Undergraduate Training Program (UTP),' " NSAN (February 1999), p.
2.



622
533 "It is appalling": NSA, Action Line, NSAN (September 1997).
533 Co-operative Education Program: NSA, "1997 Co-op Graduation,"
NSAN (September 1997), p. 12.
533 "Our recruiting strategy has historically been built": NSA,
videotape, "A Conversation Between Deputy Director for Services Terry
Thompson and the NSA Technical Workforce" (September 30, 1999).
533 initiated a streamlined hiring process: NSA, Cynthia Scourtis,
"Hiring for the Future," NSAN (November 1998), p. 2.
533 e-mail address: Resumes can also be mailed to NSA, P.O. Box
8787, Gaithers-burg, MD 20898, or faxed to (301) 947-2086.
534 "they undoubtedly represent": NSA, Confidential/Comint
Channels Only, "Beyond Codes and Ciphers: The Expanding Meaning of
Cryptology in the Late Twentieth Century," Cryptologic Quarterly (Winter
1990), p. 31, n. 5.
534 One math major: Internet posting by <proff@iq.org>, "An
Interview with the NSA" (February 11, 1999).
535 SSBI: General Accounting Office, "Background Investigations:
Impediments to Consolidating Investigation and Adjudicative Function"
(1995).
In 1992 the NSA spent about $154,000 on SSBIs. This, however, did
not include the costs associated with SSBIs conducted on military
personnel assigned to the NSA, which were paid for by the individual
military services. General Accounting Office, Classified Information: Costs
of Protection Are Integrated with Other Security Costs (October 1993), pp.
11-12.
535 Rob Fuggetta: This account appears in Paul Mandelbaum, "Your
Boss Is Spying on You," Baltimore Magazine (May 1985), pp. 79, 127.
535 NSA officials are fighting a new proposal: "Background
Investigations Procedures Change," Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1998;
"Pentagon Security Investigation Backlog," AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes
(June 11, 1999).
536 900,000 investigations: Walter Pincus, "900,000 People Awaiting
Pentagon Security Clearances," Washington Post, April 22, 2000.
536 94 percent: GAO, National and International Affairs
Division, Report
B-283901, "DOD Personnel”Inadequate Personnel Security
Investigations
Pose National Security Risks" (October 27, 1999), p. 8. 536 arrested
on October 28 and charged with espionage: Department of Defense,
Rear Admiral Craig Quigley news conference (November 30, 1999).
536 allegedly confessing to mailing a computer disk and details on NSA's
undersea
cable-tapping operations: CBS Evening News (November 29, 1999).
536 "respiration, electro-dermal responses": NSA, NSA/CSS
Regulation No. 122-3, "Polygraph Examination and Examiners," Annex



623
D (April 6, 1984), p. 2.
537 "Polygraph! The word alone": NSA, "To Tell the Truth," NSAN
(October 1994), pp. 8-9.
537 a study at NSA: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on
Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities,
Polygraphs in the Workplace: The Use of "Lie Detectors" in Hiring and
Firing, 95th Cong., 1st Sess. (1986), pp. 147-70.
537 From July 1983 to June 1984: U.S. House of Representatives,
Committee on Armed Services, Investigations Subcommittee, Hearing on
H.R. 4681 Relating to the Administration of Polygraph Examinations and
Prepublication Review Requirements by Federal Agencies, 98th Cong.,
2nd Sess. (1984), p. 111.
538 "The worst experience of my life": Kirkwood, "Our Friendly
Neighborhood Colony of Spies."
538 "termination of employment": NSA memorandum, "Personnel
Security Procedures" (September 27, 1982).
538 four leaks a year: Testimony of the chief of NSA's Operations
Directorate Intelligence Staff [name deleted], U.S. House of
Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and
Constitutional Rights, Presidential Directive on the Use of Polygraphs
and Prepublication Review, Hearings, 98th Cong., 1st and 2nd Sess.
(1983-1984), p. 150.
538 topics covered during NSA's counterintelligence polygraph
examination: NSA, For Official Use Only, NSA/CSS Regulation No. 122-
06, Personnel Security Programs for Continued Access (July 29, 1991), p.
4.
539 "the work force at NSA": U.S. House of Representatives,
Committee on Armed Services, Investigations Subcommittee, Hearing on
H.R. 4681 Relating to the Administration of Polygraph Examinations and
Prepublication Review Requirements by Federal Agencies, 98th
Cong., 2nd Sess. (1984), pp. 46-47.
539 Under the aperiodic exam program: ibid.
539 According to the chief of the Polygraph Division: ibid.
540 an analysis of 20,511 applicants between 1974 and 1979: U.S.
House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor,
Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities, Polygraphs in the
Workplace: The Use of "Lie Detectors" in Hiring and Firing, 95th Cong.,
1st Sess. (1986), pp. 147-70.
541 Polygraph Assisted Scoring System: NSA, "Computerized Soft
Decision Making from Multiple Sensor Inputs," NSA Technology Fact
Sheet (1999).
542 "In the near future": NSA, "To Tell the Truth."
542 Asked whether: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the
Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Presidential
Directive on the Use of Polygraphs and Prepublication Review, 89th
Cong., 1st and 2nd Sess. (1983-1984), p. 59.


624
542 Senate Select Committee: Walter Pincus, "Senators Question
Polygraph Use," Washington Post, July 24, 1999.
542 "In our situation": ibid.
543 "The Soviets seem to have": White House, Top Secret
memorandum, "Discussion at the 463rd Meeting of the National Security
Council, October 13, 1960" (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, NSC Series, Box
13).
543 Anderson was also concerned: ibid.
544 GLOBE: NSA, Club Notes, NSAN (October 1999), p. 12; NSA,
Club Notes, NSAN (December 1999), p. 12.
544 "Clearly during the Iran-Iraq war": Studeman's comments were
made in an address before the Association of Former Intelligence Officers
(February 4, 1991), reprinted in NCVA Cryptolog (Fall Extra, 1991), pp. 2,
11.
545 "While standing amongst the weeds": Rodney R. Ingram,
"Marietta, Washington, Forty Years Later," NCVA Cryptolog (March 1994),
p. 2.
546 deactivation ceremonies at Edzell: "Final Flag Lowered at RAF
Edzell, Scotland," Dundee (Scotland) Courier & Advertiser (October 1,
1997), p. 1.
546 Kamiseya ordered closed: Jay R. Browne, "Kami Seya”The Last
Years," NCVA Cryptolog (Fall 1997), p. 43.
546 Eckstein: F. Harrison Wallace, Jr., "The History of Eckstein
Border Site 1958-1993." Web posting at
http://asa.npoint.net/eckstin.htm (October 2, 2000).
547 "Most of the [intercepted information]": Nicky Hager, Secret
Power: New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network (Nelson, New
Zealand: Craig Potton, 1996), pp. 85-88. The Unit was located next to the
DSD headquarters building on the grounds of the Australian Department
of Defence's Victoria Barracks on St. Kilda Road, Melbourne.
547 Hong Kong: Glenn Schloss, "U.K. Spy Site Razed to Keep Its
Secrets," South
China Morning Post, November 30, 1997, p. 4. 547 Planted in the
walls: "British 'Bugs' Listen In on Generals," Intelligence
Newsletter (April 23, 1998).
547 "If we can stay at 4,500": Bill Goodwin, "Overmanned and
Expensive to Run?" Electronic Times (November 30, 1995).
548 "Who remembers what we did": Robert R. Payne, "I Was Never
There, But I Remember Skaggs Island . . . ," NCVA Cryptolog (Special
Issue 1996), pp. 3”4.
548 "Technology has progressed": Jay R. Browne, "Introduction,"
NSGA Cryp-tolog (Fall 1997), p. 2.
549 a retired Navy cryptologist wrote: Commander Mike Loescher,
United States Naval Institute Proceedings (February 2000).
549 "There will continue to be a Naval Security Group": As of 1999,



625
the Naval Security Group operated the following stations. Naval Security
Group Detachments: Barbers Point, Hawaii; Brunswick, Maine; Digby,
U.K.; London, U.K.; Monterey, California; Pensacola, Florida; South
Korea; Yakima, Washington. Naval Security Group Activities: Bad
Aibling, Germany; Bahrain; Denver, Colorado; Fort Meade, Maryland;
Fort Gordon, Georgia; Groton, Connecticut; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba;
Kunia, Hawaii; Medina, Texas; Menwith Hill, U.K.; Misawa, Japan;
Naples, Italy; Norfolk, Virginia; Northwest, Virginia; Pearl Harbor, Hawaii;
Rota, Spain; Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico; San Diego, California; Sugar
Grove, West Virginia; Whidbey Island, Washington; Yokosuka, Japan.
Naval Security Group Communications Detachment: Washington, D.C.,
Naval Security Group Support Detachment Four, Edzell, U.K. Naval
Security Group Departments: NAVCOMTELSTA Guam; NAVCOMTELSTA
Diego Garcia; NAVCOMTEL Area Master Station, Pacific, Wahiawa,
Hawaii. See "Security Group Listing," NCVA Cryptolog (Spring 1999), p.
10.
549 "people [were] stacked almost three deep": Thomas Hasler,
"Security Agency Expanding Facilities," [Baltimore] Evening Sun, June
18, 1982.
549 NSA building projects: Thomas Hasler, "The Secret's Out: Hush-
hush NSA Is Expanding," [Baltimore] Evening Sun, April 23, 1983.
549 what it had been in 1980: CIA, Robert Gates, quoted in John H.
Hedley, "The Intelligence Community: Is It Broken? How to Fix It?"
Studies in Intelligence (1996), p. 14.
549 number of spy satellites: ibid.
549 "NSA's relative piece": Studeman's comments are from NSA,
memorandum, Admiral W. O. Studeman to All Employees (April 8, 1992),
pp. 1-2.
549 cut its staff by 17'/2 percent: NSA, "NSA Transition Book for the
Department of Defense" (transition from Bush to Clinton
administrations) (December 9, 1992), p. 13.
549 24 percent by 2001: "U.S. Spy Agencies Bloated, Panel Finds,"
Los Angeles Times, March 2, 1996.
549 Brown said that at least: ibid.
549 "We found that the growth of the Agency": Department of
Defense, Inspector General, Intelligence Review Directorate, Policy and
Oversight Report, "Final Report on the Verification Inspection of the
National Security Agency" (February 13, 1996), p. 11.
550 "NSA personnel will be deeply affected": NSA, "NSA Plans for the
Future," NSAN (January 1993), p. 4.
550 A White House study: Commission on the Roles and Capabilities
of the United States Intelligence Community, "Preparing for the 21st
Century: An Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence" (March 1, 1996), p. 96.
550 "Employees should": NSA, "NSA Plans for the Future."
551 "While our neighbors and family members": NSA, Action Line,



626
NSAN (December 1992), p. 11.
551 a bond had been broken: NSA, "Rep. Steny Hoyer Visits NSA," The
Communicator (September 5, 1996).
551 "I had visions": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History
of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 130-31.
551 Soft Landing: NSA, Karen Anderson Cianci, "NSA's Soft Landing
Program," NSAN (April 1997), p. 7. See also "Soft Landing for Ex-Spies,"
Intelligence Newsletter (September 3, 1998); Defense Information and
Electronics Report (August 21, 1998).
551 Barbara Prettyman retired: NSA, "Update on Soft Landing," NSAN
(November 1998), p. 4.
552 "Four Navy chiefs and one NSA civilian": NSA, "The Magic of
CSGs," The Communicator (March 4, 1996).
552 "I have three": Loch K. Johnson, Secret Agencies: U.S. Intelligence
in a Hostile World (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press), p. 21.
553 "There now exists a world full of 'Navajo Code Talkers' ": Vice
Admiral J. M. McConnell, USN, "New World, New Challenges: NSA Into
the 21st Century," American Intelligence Journal (Spring/Summer 1994),
p. 8.
553 fully 58 percent... 13 percent: CIA, former CIA director Robert
Gates, quoted in Hedley, "The Intelligence Community, p. 11.
553 asked fifteen colleges: Mark Mayfield, "Feds Recruit Students to
Study Russian," USA Today, September 13, 1983, p. 3A.
553 a shortage of Berber translators led to a critical delay: Frank
Greve, "Linguist Might Have Averted Fatal Disco Terrorist Bombing,"
Knight-Ridder News Service (November 28, 1986).
553 "steadily deteriorating language training": ibid,
554 "a group of approximately 125 linguists": Al Kamen, "Join the
Army and See Sarajevo," Washington Post, May 4, 1993, p. 19.
554 "When Haiti blew up": NSA videotape, "A Conversation between
Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Technical
Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
554 the tedium of the job: Kirkwood, "Our Friendly Neighborhood
Colony of Spies."
554 Florida A&M University: "Language Program with Spy Ties,"
Intelligence Newsletter (December 16, 1992).
555 "NSA is faced with the growing problem": NSA, "Multi-Lingual
Document Image Analysis," NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1995).
555 The machine was eventually able: Colin Campbell, " 'Intelligent'
Computer Reads Many Typefaces," New York Times, August 19, 1984, p.
22.
555 SYSTRAN: SYSTRAN Software, Inc., fact sheet (undated), pp. 2, 9.
555 NSA has also developed a technique: NSA, "Information Sorting
and Retrieval by Language or Topic," Technology Fact Sheet (1999).
556 Semantic Forests: Suelette Dreyfus, "Spies in the 'Forests,' " The



627
Independent (November 22, 1999).
556 Berger-Liaw Neural Network: University of Southern California
Press Release #0999025 (September 30, 1999).
557 "It's a good-size problem": Interview with Lieutenant General
Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).

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