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557 "Group Three languages": ibid.
557 "We need to hire a lot more people": NSA videotape, "A
Conversation between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and
the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
558 In a series of lectures at NSA: NSA, National Cryptologic School,
The Friedman Lectures on Cryptology (1965).
558 "The philosophy here": Neal Thompson, "Call for Mathematicians
No Secret," Baltimore Sun, January 10, 1998.
558 "the agency succumbed": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels
Only, "Beyond Codes and Ciphers: The Expanded Meaning of Cryptology
in the Late Twentieth Century," Cryptologic Quarterly (Winter 1990), pp.
27-29.
558 "irrelevant to (and unintelligible to)": ibid.
559 "The Cold War": Thompson, "Call for Mathematicians." 559 "Over
a three-year period": ibid.
559 42 percent fewer graduates: interview with Michael X Jacobs
(September 23, 2000).
559 "I have been here at NSA": This and the following quotations are
drawn from U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Inspector General,
"Review of Hiring and Promotion Practices at the National Security
Agency" (1994), pp. 56”57.
560 "The philosophy": ibid., p. 20.
560 Southwestern Recruiting Office: ibid., p. 17.
560 in 1993 women made up: U.S. House of Representatives,
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hearing, Central
Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency and National Security
Agency: Minority Hire, Retentions and Promotions, 103rd Cong., 1st
Sess. (1994), p. 2.
561 "we have probably": ibid., pp. 27”33.
561 encouraging his recruiters to make: U.S. House of
Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hiring,
Promotion, Retention and Overall Representation of Minorities, Women
and Disabled Persons Within the Intelligence Community, 103rd Cong.,
2nd Sess. (1995), pp. 61-63.
561 fewer than 200: NSA, "Director Appears on TALK NSA," The
Communicator (June 19, 1996). There was a projection of 500 hires for
1996.
561 "So far I haven't gone to court": U.S. House of Representatives,
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hiring, Promotion,
Retention and Overall Representation of Minorities, Women and Disabled



628
Persons Within the Intelligence Community, 103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.
(1995), p. 124.
561 presentation by storyteller Penny Gamble Williams: NSA, Jennifer
Pelletier, "The Native American/Alaskan Employment Program," NSAN
(November 1999), pp. 8-9.
562 6917 Electronic Security Group: NSA, From the Director's Desk,
The Communicator (March 12, 1996). 562 one of his chief assignments:
R. Jeffrey Smith, "Military Men Named to Top
Intelligence Posts," Washington Post, January 25, 1996, p. 9. 562
"They would use the phrase": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only,
Oral
History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999),
pp. 1-26.
562 "It... really surprised me": ibid.
563 "He was a 'geek' ": Fredrick Thomas Martin, Top Secret Intranet
(Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999), pp. 271-72.
563 "The DDIR [deputy director] is part of the seducing": NSA, Top
Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General
Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999), pp. 1-26.
563 "I was very disruptive": ibid.
563 "My first two or three weeks": ibid.
564 "You could hear the groans": ibid.
564 "Ann knew": NSA, Top Secret/Talent/Keyhole/Umbra, Oral
History of Admiral Bobby Ray Inman (June 18, 1997).
564 "I am honored to have been sworn in before you today": NSA,
"Day of Celebration," NSAN (January 1998), p. 4.
564 race and gender issues: In 1998 Asian Pacific Americans (APAs)
comprised only 1.3 percent of the NSA workforce, compared to 3.9
percent of the federal workforce. Between 1990 and 1996 NSA hired 89
APAs. See NSA, "Come Celebrate Asian Pacific American Heritage
Month," NSAN (May 1998), p. 8.
565 By 1997: The material in this and the following paragraphs
draws on Scott Wilson, "NSA's Quest for Diversity Called Threat,"
Baltimore Sun, July 6, 1997.
565 the government later settled with him [Sonntag]: James C. Ho, "A
Year of Bill Lan Lee," op-ed article in Washington Times, December 24,
1998.
565 Mary Ann Sheehy: NSA, Office of the Inspector General, Report
CO-94-0317 (April 18, 1996); interview with Mary Ann Sheehy.
At NSA, "Personnel Employment Information" is defined in NSA/CSS
PMM 30-2, chapter 303, paragraphs 1”4 and 2”2(b), as "information
contained in an employee's Official Personnel Folder and limited to
1. Name and present or forwarding address
2. Present and past position titles, grades, tenure, and salaries
3. Civil service status, if applicable



629
4. Date and reason for separation, if applicable, and
5. Comments provided by management constituting a letter of
reference."
566 "I am quite concerned about this": NSA letter from Dr. Michael X
Wig-glesworth, clinical psychologist, to Mary McGowan (October 5,
1994).
567 "no evidence of improper or illegal activity": NSA, letter from
Reginald J. Bowman, Senior Assistant Inspector General for
Investigations to Mary Ann Sheehy (April 18, 1996).
567 "NSA believes it is above the law": Letter, Mary Ann Sheehy to
Attorney General Janet Reno (May 17, 1999).
567 "While we sympathize": letter from Department of Justice,
Criminal Division, to Mary Ann Sheehy (November 26, 1999).
567 The U.S. Attorney's Office responded: letter from United States
Attorney, District of Maryland, Northern Division, to Mary Ann Sheehy
(April 13, 2000).
567 The U.S. Attorney's Office eventually dismissed her complaint:
letter from United States Attorney, District of Maryland, Northern
Division, to Mary Ann Sheehy (April 26, 2000).
567 "You should look for another job": interview with Mary Ann
Sheehy (September 22, 2000).
567 "all parts of the Agency together with ideas": NSA, Lieutenant
General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (January
1998), p. 3.
567 "I think it's magnificient": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels
Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8,
1999), p. 8.
568 "No one will work harder": NSA, Lieutenant General Kenneth A.
Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (April 1996), p. 3.
568 "Out-of-the-box thinking": NSA, From the Director's Desk, The
Communicator (March 12, 1996).
568 Skunk Works: NSA, "Skunk Works," The Communicator (April 16,
1996).
568 "Now is the time for Team NSA": NSA, Lieutenant General
Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (January 1997), p.
3.
568 "Where are my hip boots?": NSA, Action Line, NSAN (March
1997), p. 11.
569 "We now have people talking about both sides": Terry L.
Thompson in "Terry L. Thompson, Deputy Director for Support Services,"
NSAN (September 1997), p. 4.
569 "very large changes": Walter Pincus, "Panel Ties NSA Funds to
Changes at Agency," Washington Post, May 7, 1998.
570 "The NSA FY 1997 financial statements": "Black Money Hole,"
Federal Computer Week (August 31, 1998).



630
570 "cannot track allocations": Pincus, "Panel Ties NSA Funds to
Changes." 570 In a plan approved in late April: U.S. Department of
Defense News Release,
"DOD Announces Reorganization of C3I Office" (May 13, 1998). See
also
Richard Lardner, "The Secret's Out," p. 27.
570 seriously mismanaging: NSA, "The Agency's CIO," NSAN (July
1998), p. 2.
571 "Just as control of industrial technology": NSA, Lieutenant
General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (November
1997), p. 3.
571 "Information will give us the power to pick all the locks": Major
General Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, "The Challenge for Intelligence,"
American Intelligence Journal (Spring/Summer 1995), p. 38.
571 "Information dominance for America": NSA, Top Secret/Comint
Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan
(March 8, 1999), pp. 6-7.
571 "Though new technologies provide": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN
(July 1998), p. 3.
571 "Information warfare poses a strategic risk": NSA, Lieutenant
General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (May
1996), p. 3.
572 "The committee believes": Vernon Loeb, "A Key Panel Asks: Why
Only One Spy Probe?" Washington Post, July 7, 1999.
572 "Looking back": Richard Lardner, "New National Security Agency
Director Sure to Face Major Challenges," Inside the Pentagon (November
5, 1998).
572 "It's the hardest job I've ever had": NSA, Top Secret/Comint
Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan
(March 8, 1999), p. 24.
572 "I think it will be catastrophic": ibid., p. 17.
572 Minihan walked between: NSA, "Agency Events Celebrate
Distinguished Career of Lt. Gen. Minihan," NSAN (May 1999), p. 2.
572 chilly air of retirement: Minihan became president and chief
operating officer of TeleHub Communications Corporation, a provider of
voice, video, and data to ATM networks worldwide. "TeleHub
Communications, Inc., Secures 'Million Dollar' Men," Canadian Corporate
News (July 7, 1999).
573 near the kitchen is a plaque: Personal observation.
573 outside contractors: NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special
Partnership Breakfast," NSAN (January 2000), p. 4.
573 Groundbreaker: Vernon Loeb, "NSA to Turn Over Non-Spy
Technology to Private Industry," Washington Post, June 7, 2000.
573 "more than 3,000": NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special
Partnership Breakfast."



631
574 "information technology infrastructure": Loeb, "NSA to Turn Over
Non-Spy Technology."
574 "They're buying all those new toys": Neal Thompson, "Putting NSA
Under
Scrutiny," Baltimore Sun, October 18, 1998. 574 "the intelligence
failure": ibid.
574 "There is a significant amount of concern": NSA, videotape, "A
Conversation Between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and
the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
575 Employee Assistance Service: NSA, "NSA's Helping Hand," NSAN
(January 1999), p. 5.
575 "It's a real worry": Richard Lardner, "The Secret's Out," p. 24.
575 "Our hiring program skims": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation
Between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA
Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
576 "While average starting salaries": U.S. Department of Commerce,
"America's New Deficit: The Shortage of Information Technology Workers"
(1997).
576 "the unique nature of our work": Arik Hesseldahl, "Uncle Sam
Wants Spooks," Wired News (October 26, 1998).
576 "This is simply insufficient": Commission on the Roles and
Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community, report,
"Preparing for the 21st Century: An Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence" (March
1, 1996), pp. 96-97.
576 "Our budget has declined": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation
Between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA
Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
577 "The nose is pointing down": "Federal Bytes," Federal Computer
Week (February 3, 1997).

CHAPTER 14: Brain
Page
578 "I had five and a half acres": interview with Lieutenant General
Marshall S.
Carter (July 17, 1980). 578 "It's double that today": interview with an
NSA official.
580 SSA's cryptanalytic: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Ultra
report, "The Achievement of the Signal Security Agency in World War II"
(February 20, 1945), p. 16.
581 "The author believes": NSA, I. T. Pendergrass, "Cryptanalytic Use
of High-Speed Digital Computing Machines" (1946), pp. 1”2.
581 "We had the biggest collection": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels
Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 75, 89.
582 "A copy of this report hit my desk": Sam Snyder, "Sam and Ray
and Abner," The Phoenician (a publication of the Phoenix Society, the



632
association of NSA retirees) (Winter 1995-1996), pp. 13-14.
582 "We chose the name": ibid.
582 "From then on": NSA, Tom Johnson, "The Plan to Save NSA"
(undated NSA brochure issued upon the death of Dr. Louis Tordella), pp.
7”8.
583 PACE 10: NSA, "The Decent Book" (January 1996), p. 25.
583 "Dammit, I want you fellows": NSA, "Influence of U.S. Cryptologic
Organizations on the Digital Computer Industry" (May 1977), pp. 1”28.
583 "After the ideas of Harvest": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only,
Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 62.
583 "We were always surprised": ibid., pp. 73”74, 76.
584 "In the late sixties": ibid., pp. 74, 88, 95.
584 to less than 4 percent: NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only,
Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999),
p. 3.
584 "What the research-and-development people": NSA,
Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne
(June 29, 1983), pp. 83-84.
585 "There is no such thing": ibid., p. 104.
585 "All those committee chairs were very friendly in those days":
NSA, Arthur Levenson quoted in "Louis Tordella: As Colleagues
Remember Him," Cryp-tolog (Spring 1996), p. 13.
585 "We didn't have any in those days": Cecil Corry quoted in ibid.
585 "We had in the past": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral
History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 73.
586 "As the computers became": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels
Only, Oral History of Dr. Solomon Kullback (August 26, 1982), p. 136.
586 "The idea ... was to have": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only,
Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 62. 586 "He
didn't interfere with us": ibid., p. 85.

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