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586 "IBM regarded it as": ibid., p. 62.
587 "It was clear to us": ibid., p. 64.
587 "You save enough": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only,
Oral History of Dr. Solomon Kullback (August 26 1982), p. 129.
588 not only: Details of Harvest are from NSA, "HARVEST: NSA's
Ultra High-Speed Computer," Cryptologic Milestones (November 1968),
pp. 1”4.
588 "there was little purpose": White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only
memorandum, "Discussion at the 378th Meeting of the National Security
Council, August 27, 1958" (August 28, 1958), p. 2. (DDEL, Ann Whitman
Files, NSC, Box 10). See also CIA, Top Secret/Eider memorandum,
Huntington D. Sheldon to Andrew J. Goodpaster (January 19, 1959)
(DDEL, Office of Staff Secretary, Intelligence, Box 15).
588 CRITICOMM: NSA, "The SIGINT Communications System,"
Cryptologic Milestones (September 1965), pp. 1”4; Tom Johnson, "The
Plan to Save NSA."


633
589 Rye: NSA, "Remote-Access Computer Systems," Cryptologic
Milestones (August 1965), pp. 1-4.
589 "It's beautiful, but it doesn't work": NSA, Top Secret/Comint
Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Solomon Kullback (August 26, 1982)
(comment by Robert D. Farley, pp. 133-34).
589 "The Soviet Union could achieve": White House, Top
Secret/Noforn, "Report of the Computer Panel of the President's Science
Advisory Committee" (September 11, 1959), p. 3.
590 "expensive love seat": interview with an NSA official.
590 "is to supercomputers": Phillip Elmer-DeWitt, "Fast and
Smart," Time, March 28, 1988, pp. 54-57.
591 "I work when I'm at home": ibid., p. 57.
591 Engineering Research Associates: See Erwin Tomash and Arnold
A. Cohen, "The Birth of an ERA: Engineering Research Associates, Inc.,
1946”1955," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 1, no. 2 (October
1979), pp. 83”96.
592 Butterfly processor ... about 1 million: "New Computer," Aviation
Week (April 15, 1985), p. 13.
592 Details on the CRAY-2:. Philip Elmer-DeWitt, "A Sleek,
Superpowered Machine," Time, June 17, 1985, p. 53.
593 "we should be at 100 billion gigaflops": IBM vice
president Irving Wladawsky-Berger quoted in Eimer-Dewitt, "Fast and
Smart," p. 58.
593 Ncube: "Faster Than a Speeding Chip," Newsweek, March 28,
1988, p. 63.
594 ETA 10: "Filter Center," Aviation Week (July 13, 1987), p. 147;
"Fast Computer in a Small Package," Insight (July 18, 1988), p. 54.
594 all of humanity: William B. Scott, "Los Alamos Carries Research
Beyond All Physical Boundaries," Aviation Week (July 25, 1988), p. 36.
594 minutes of a Department of Defense study group: Keith Bradsher,
"Industries Seek Protection as Vital to U.S. Security," New York Times,
January 19, 1993.
595 "U.S. firms would be most fortunate": David E. Sanger, "A High
Tech Lead in
Danger," New York Times, December 18, 1988. 595 National
Semiconductor: "Electronic Intelligence," Aviation Week (April 19,
1989), p. 86. 595 20,000 square feet: NSA, "Microelectronics
Completes the Circuit," NSAN
(November 1989), p. 8.
595 "If a hostile agent": William D. Marbach, "Developments to
Watch," Business Week (April 3, 1989), p. 110.
596 CRAY 3: John Markoff, "A Computer Star's New Advance," New
York Times, February 17, 1994.
597 ETA Systems: Charles J. Murray, The Supermen (New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 1997), p. 196.



634
597 the outer frame for the SS-1: ibid., p. 211. 597 Details on
Frostberg: NSA, NSA Museum.
597 the agency awarded: William M. Bulkeley, "Technology: Cray
Computer Gets U.S. Pact," Wall Street Journal, August 18, 1994.
597 "the world's ultimate": John Markoff, "A Spy Agency Gives
Contract to Cray Computer," New York Times, August 18, 1994.
598 Splash 2: NSA, "A New Direction in High Performance
Computing," NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1993).
598 "start from a clean sheet of paper": Murray, The Supermen, p.
219.
599 meterological centers in Australia, Canada, England: John
Markoff, "Cray Said to Have Lost Sale Because Offer Was Inferior," New
York Times, August 28, 1997.
599 "Simply put, Cray Research lost": ibid.
After the contract was awarded to NEC, Cray Research accused the
Japanese company of "dumping" its computer in the United States.
Political pressure was also exercised in favor of Cray, and in 1997 the
U.S. International Trade Commission ruled unanimously against NEC,
saying, in essence, that the Japanese were selling four machines for the
price of one.
599 "The rules changed when it became clear": Alexander Wolfe and
Loring Wirbel, "Quirky Cray Hailed for Vision, Tenacity," Electronic
Engineering Times (October 14, 1996), p. 1.
599 "In the days before": ibid.
600 "There are no other major players left standing": Steve Alexander,
"SGI Will Buy Cray Research: Supercomputer Firm Has Price Tag of $736
Million," Minneapolis Star Tribune, February 27, 1996.
600 "We don't have a lot of innovative architects": John Markoff, "A
Maverick Builds
a New Supercomputer in a PC World," New York Times, February 9,
1998. 600 "Burton's folly": ibid. 600 "Most people": ibid.
600 "Burton Smith is the last": ibid.
601 "The question was": Jaikumar Vrjayan, "SGI Results Worse Than
Expected; McCracken Out, Layoffs Planned," Computerworld (November
3, 1997), p. 3.
601 Its stock had plunged: "Silicon Graphics Will Spin Off Cray, Cut
Up to 3,000 Jobs in Restructuring," Minneapolis Star Tribune, August 11,
1999.
601 "The United States is committed": "U.S. Government to Support
SGI Vector Supercomputer," Mainframe Computing (November 1, 1999).
602 Tera Computer acquired Cray Research from SGI: "Tera
Computer Company to Acquire Supercomputer Pioneer Cray from SGI,"
Business Wire (March 2,2000).
602 One report said: Steve Alexander, "Struggling Firm Buys
Struggling Cray Research," Minneapolis Star Tribune, March 3, 2000.



635
602 upgrade a CRAY T3E-1200 supercomputer: "Cray Inc. Lands
$18.5 Million U.S. Army Contract for One of World's Most Powerful
Supercomputers," Business Wire (May 10, 2000).
602 Tordella Supercomputer Facility: NSA, Dedication brochure
(October 29, 1996), p. 4; NSA, Tom Johnson and Jerome Taylor,
"Tordella Supercomputer Facility Transition Begins," NSAN (January
1997), p. 4.
603 RS/6000 SP: Daniel Verton, "IBM Upgrades SP Server," Federal
Computer-Week (February 8, 1999).
603 Automated Cartridge System: NSA, "The Docent Book," p. 26.
603 robotic arm: ibid.
604 5 trillion pages of text: John Mintz, "The Secret's Out: Covert E-
Systems Inc. Covets Commercial Sales," Washington Post, October 24,
1994.
604 Supercomputer Research Center: NSA, "Questions and Answers
with Regard
to the Supercomputer Research Center," pp. 1”5. 604 According to
Lieutenant General Lincoln D. Faurer: Rudolph A. Pyatt, Jr.,
"R&D Center Set for P.G.," Washington Post, November 28, 1984. 604
10,000 times faster: ibid. 604 $12 million on a twenty-acre site: "Cray
Inc. Lands $18.5 Million U.S. Army
Contract."
604 part of the Institute: For further details, see James Bamford, The
Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1982), pp. 342-43.
605 "That one piece of equipment": NSA, "NSA Research Institute,"
Cryptologic Milestones (March 1965), p. 2.
605 IDA-C3I: General Accounting Office, "Federally Funded R&D
Centers: Information on the Size and Scope of DOD-Sponsored Centers"
(April 1996), p. 24,
605 Laboratory for Physical Sciences: NSA, Lois G. Brown, "The
Laboratory for Physical Sciences," NSAN (November 1996), p. 6.
606 "We don't know": Jayson T. Blair, "Spy Agency Toils Quietly on
Campus," Washington Post, July 10, 1997.
606 magnetic microscopy: NSA, "Applications of Magnetic Microscopy
to Magnetic Recording," NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1999).
606 synthetic diamonds: NSA, "NSA Pioneers New Diamond-Based
Technology," NSAN (November 1999), p. 4.
606 Project Oceanarium: Fredrick Thomas Martin, Top Secret Intranet
(Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999), p. 275.
606 microscopic magnets: John Markoff, "Tiny Magnets May Bring
Computing Breakthrough," New York Times, January 27, 1997.
607 "A spy could remove": Charles C. Mann, "The Mole in the
Machine," New York Times Magazine (July 25, 1999).
607 drive-controlled disk sanitization device: NSA, "Drive Controlled



636
Disk Saniti-zation," NSA Technology Fact Sheet (1999).
608 femtoseconds: a femtosecond is one millionth of a nanosecond.
608 Blue Gene: Justin Gillis, "IBM to Put Genetics on Fast Track,"
Washington Post, June 5, 2000; Steve Lohr, "IBM Plans Supercomputer
That Works at Speed of Life," New York Times, December 6, 1999.
608 "It will suck down": Gillis, "IBM to Put Genetics on Fast Track."
608 "It is the greatest play box": Richard Lardner, "The Secret's Out,"
Government Executive (August 1998), p. 24.
609 seventy of them would fit: The SPL reduced the feature size (the
smallest dimension of any feature of an ASIC, typically the transistor
gate length) of an ASIC to 0.5 micron.
609 size of a small suitcase: NSA, "NSA Pioneers New Diamond-Based
Technology." 609 fit into a cube six inches on a side: ibid.
609 about $4 million a year: Tom Siegfried, "Computers Poised for a
Quantum Leap," Dallas Morning News, March 16, 1998.
610 "On paper, at least": Lov K. Grover, "Quantum Computing," The
Sciences (July/August 1999).
610 "bust": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Cryptolog (March 1982).
610 A breakthrough into quantum computing: John Markoff,
"Quantum Computing Is Becoming More Than Just a Good Idea," New
York Times, April 28, 1998.
610 rudimentary electronic logic gates: John Markoff, "Computer
Scientists Are Poised for Revolution on a Tiny Scale," New York Times,
November 1, 1999.
611 wires less than a dozen atoms across: ibid.
611 "It looked for a long time like a solution": Siegfried, "Computers
Poised for a Quantum Leap."
611 "What's intriguing is that": Markoff, "Quantum Computing Is
Becoming More Than Just a Good Idea."
611 moletronics: C. P. Collier, E. W. Wong, M. Belohradsk,
"Electronically Configurable Molecular-Based Logic Gates," Science (July
16, 1999), pp. 391-94; John Markoff, "Chip Designers Search for Life
After Silicon," New York Times, July 19, 1999.
611 "A single molecular computer": John Markoff, "Tiniest Circuits
Hold Prospect of Explosive Computer Speeds," New York Times, July 16,
1999.
611 "We have made a big step": Yoshiko Hara, "Computers Make a
Quantum Leap," EE Times (July 6, 1999).
612 "great leap forward" meetings: Ivars Peterson, "Pentacrunchers,"
Science News (April 15, 1995), p. 23.
612 "I don't think": ibid.
612 Ecofcibid.
612 "We would like to make processors": Markoff, "Chip Designers
Search for Life
After Silicon." 612 "motors" out of DNA: Andrew Pollack, "Researchers



637
Harness DNA for Tiny
Motors That Could Widen Use of Genetic Code," New York Times,
August 10,
2000. 612 according to Bell Labs physicist Bernard Yurke: ibid.
614 "This is Morning Edition": Bob Edwards, Morning Edition, National
Public Radio (September 11, 2001).
614 "This is not the first time": Michael Sullivan, "Death in
Afghanistan," Morning Edition, National Public Radio (September 11,
2001).
614 For highly cleared visitors: Interview with an intelligence official.
615 Khalil had become: Details on Ziyad Khalil are derived from Mark
Morris, "Jihad phone linked to former Missouri student," Kansas City
Star (September 19, 2001).
616 sent word from London: Details concerning the calls between
London and Afghanistan are derived from Vernon Loeb, "NSA Intercepts
Are Foundation of Bombing Case," Washington Post (January 8, 2001).
616 currently waiting extradition: Details concerning the legal status
of the embassy bombing suspects are derived from United States
Attorney, Southern District of New York, Press Release, May 29, 2001.
616 listening post... at Geraldton: Australia's station at Geraldton:
Frank Cranston, "Australia's Plans for New Listening Post," Jane's
Defense Weekly (April 4, 1987), p. 582.
616 One such call, picked up by NSA: Neil A. Lewis and David
Johnston, "Jubilant Calls on Sept. 11 Led to F.B.I. Arrests," New York
Times (October 28, 2001).
617 blue, four-door Toyota, "We saw them every day": "Many Recall
Terror Suspects," Atlanta Journal-Constitution (September 20, 2001).
618 "It's like a neighborhood": Brooke A. Masters, Leef Smith, and
Michael D. Shear, "Dulles Hijackers Made Maryland Their Base,"
Washington Post (September 19, 2001).
618 "He used the dryer in the back": Hamil R. Harris, "Possible Ties to
Attacks
Cast Shadow on Laurel," Washington Post (September 27, 2001). 618
Mohamed Atta used a supermarket: "Hijackers' Money Trail Again Points
to
Laurel," WBAL (Baltimore) News Report (October 3, 2001), p. 6. 618
Hani Hanjour took flying lessons: Brooke A. Masters, Leef Smith, and
Michael
D. Shear, "Dulles Hijackers Made Maryland Their Base," Washington
Post
(September 19, 2001). 618 "They blended in pretty well": ibid. 618
Ziad Jarrah, "Is there really a devil?" Pin-Del Motel: Laura Vozzella,
"Terror Trail Brings FBI to County Men Who Stayed at Motels," Baltimore
Sun (September 20, 2001).
619 "Good Morning"; this and subsequent quotes from flight crew



638
aboard Flight 11 and the air traffic controllers are derived from:
"Transcripts of Flights 11 and 175," New York Times (October 16, 2001).
619 3.1 million parts; 23,980 gallons of fuel; enough to fill the tanks
of 1,200 mini-vans: Boeing 767 Fact Sheet, The Boeing Company.
620 "When his hands were dirty"; Ogonowski's background: Dave
Weber and Ed Hayward, "Pilot's Greatest Love Was His Family," Boston

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