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Herald (September 12, 2001).
620 "Don't do anything foolish": Mark Clayton, "Controller's Tale of
Flight 11," Christian Science Monitor (September 13, 2001).
621 "American seventy-seven, Dulles tower"; this and subsequent
quotes from flight crew aboard Flight 77 and the air traffic controllers are
derived from: "Transcript of Flight 77," New York Times (October 16,
2001).
621 "Good luck___I usually say": "Get These Planes on the Ground,"
20/20, ABC
News (October 24, 2001). 623 around 700 miles per hour: Glen
Johnson, "Timeline Shows Fighters Were
Closing on Jets," Boston Globe (September 19, 2001).
623 Sharing an armrest: Information concerning Mark Bingham, Tom
Burnett, and Jeremy Click is derived from Karen Breslau, "The Final
Moments of United Flight 93," Newsweek (September 22, 2001).
624 Details on George Tenet's breakfast derived from: Barbara Slavin
and Susan Page, "CIA Recovering After Failure to Prevent Attacks," USA
Today (October 2, 2001).
624 a shaken flight attendant managed to telephone: Peter Finn and
Charles Lane, "Will Gives a Window into Suspect's Mind," Washington
Post (October 6, 2001).
624 Details on Steve Mclntyre and the employees of the American
Bureau of Shipping are derived from: John McLaughlin and Alison Bate,
"Cheating Death," Lloyds List (September 17, 2001).
625 Jules and Gedeon Naudet: "ABC Halts Replay of WTC Attacks,"
Daily News (September 19, 2001).
625 "Oh my God, all my people"; "Oh, shit": John McLaughlin and
Alison Bate,
"Cheating Death," Lloyds List (September 17, 2001). 627 "This just
in": Live at Daybreak, Cable News Network (September 11, 2001).
627 "I just witnessed": ibid.
628 Christopher Hanley . . . worked for a division of Reuters:
Sukhdev Sandhu, "Aliens and Others," London Review of Books (October
4, 2001).
628 Hanley called fire rescue: "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed in
Calls to 911," New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
628 Cantor Fitzgerald employee called: "Second-by-second Terror
Revealed in Calls to 911," New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
628 Ian Schneider background; called his wife: "Lives Remembered,



639
Ian Schneider, Kept Everyone Laughing," [New Jersey] Star-Ledger
(October 5, 2001); Janny Scott, "In Neckties or Fire Helmets, Victims
Shared a Work Ethic," New York Times (November 4, 2001).
628 Schneider . . . called fire rescue: "Second-by-Second Terror
Revealed in Calls to 911," New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
628 "It's the other building"; this and subsequent quotes from
Beverly Eckert and Sean Rooney are derived from: Michael Howerton,
"Bittersweet Goodbye: Stamford Widow Finds Solace in Final Phone Call,"
Stamford Advocate (Date not available).
629 His cell phone went off: "Get These Planes on the Ground,"
20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
630 "We lost him, too": 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
630 "It appears that there is more": Good Morning America, ABC News
(September 11,2001).
630 "My God!"; "That looks like a second": ibid.
631 "I couldn't believe"; "Well, I better get out": Weekend Magazine,
MSNBC (date unavailable).
633 "A second plane has hit the World Trade Center": Howard
Fineman and Martha Brant, "This Is Our Life Now," Newsweek
(December 3, 2001).
633 "Really good readers, whew!": Nancy Gibbs, "Special Report: Day
of the Attack," Time (September 12, 2001).
633 "Unable to land on roof": "Second-by-second Terror Revealed in
Calls to 911," New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
633 "People falling out of building": ibid.
633 "One hundred twenty people trapped on the 106th floor": ibid.
634 "You guys never": "Transcript of Flight 77," New York Times
(October 16, 2001).
634 "Fast moving primary target": "Get These Planes on the Ground,"
20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
634 "Oh my God!": ibid.
635 "Barbara is on the phone"; this and other details concerning Ted
and Barbara Olson are derived from: Ted Olson interview, Larry King
Live, CNN (September 14, 2001).
636 "I, unfortunately, will be going back to Washington": "Remarks
by the President After Two Planes Crash into World Trade Center," White
House transcript (September 11, 2001).
636 "He's twelve miles west": "Get These Planes on the Ground,"
20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
637 "We're moving now, sir; we're moving": Nancy Gibbs, "Special
Report: Day of the Attack," Time (September 12, 2001).
637 "Six miles"; "And we waited": "Get These Planes on the Ground,"
20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
637 "It looked like a plane coming in for a landing": Paul Haring,
"Pentagon Crash Eyewitness Comforted Victims," Military District of



640
Washington News Service (September 28, 2001).
638 "I saw it crash into the building": ibid.
638 "Did you see that?": "USA Under Terrorist Attack," Associated
Press (September 12, 2001).
638 "Dulles, hold all of our inbound": "Get These Planes on the
Ground," 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
638 "I want you to protect the White House": Matthew L. Wald with
Kevin Sack, '"We Have Some Planes,' Hijacker Told Controller," New York
Times (October 16, 2001).
638 "I did and I didn't want to": Ted Olson interview, Larry King Live,
CNN (September 14, 2001).
639 Beware, cockpit intrusion; "Nobody move, please":
"Transcripts from Sept. 11 Reveal Voice from Cockpit," Associated Press
(October 16, 2001).
639 "Good Morning, Cleveland": Karen Breslau, Eleanor Clift, and
Evan Thomas,
"The Real Story of Flight 93," Newsweek (December 3, 2001). 639
"We're being hijacked!": ibid.
639 "Somebody call Cleveland?": ibid.
640 "Ladies and gentlemen": ibid.
640 World Trade Center details: Catherine Pepinster, "The World
Trade Centre, New York," [London] Independent (September 12, 2001);
Warren E. Leary, "Years to Build and Moments to Destroy: How the Twin
Towers Fell," New York Times (September 25, 2001).
641 the stairway had collapsed: "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed
in Calls to 911," New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
641 "They're in the cockpit now"; details on Flight 93: Karen Breslau,
Eleanor Clift, and Evan Thomas, "The Real Story of Flight 93," Newsweek
(December 3, 2001).
643 "People still jumping off the tower"; "People need help on the
105th floor!": "Second-by-second Terror Revealed in Calls to 911," New
York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
643 "It was terror, sheer terror": Interview with James Grillo, Larry
King Live, CNN (September 12, 2001).
644 "How bad is the smoke?"; details concerning Beverly Eckert and
Sean Rooney are derived from: Michael Howerton, "Bittersweet Goodbye:
Stamford Widow Finds Solace in Final Phone Call," Stamford Advocate
(Date not available).
645 "I was thinking"; details concerning employees of American
Bureau of Shipping and Steve Mclntyre are derived from: John
McLaughlin and Alison Bate, "Cheating Death," Lloyds List (September
17, 2001).
646 Details concerning the response of NSA to the crisis are derived
from: interviews with senior NSA officials.
647 "U.S. intelligence operates what is probably": Admiral William 0.



641
Studeman, Remarks at the Symposium on "National Security and
National Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions" (December 1, 1992).
647 "We don't come near to processing": Vernon Loeb, "Portrait of a
Pessimist,"
Washington Post (March 6, 2000). 647 "Forty years ago": Lt. Gen.
Michael V. Hayden, USAF, Director, National Security Agency, Address to
Kennedy Political Union of American University, 17 February 2000.
647 "faced with profound": U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional
Research Service, Richard A. Rest, Jr., "The National Security Agency:
Issues for Congress," Report RL 30740 (updated January 16, 2001), p. 3.
648 "NSA headquarters was brain dead": David Martin, "National
Security Nightmare," CBS EveningNews (February 13, 2001).
648 "an act of God": Neil King, Jr., "Big Technology Players Vie to
Upgrade NSA
Computers," Wall Street Journal (March 13, 2001). 648 "There's
simply too much out there": Neil King, Jr., "In Digital Age, U.S. Spy
Agency Fights to Keep from Going Deaf," Wall Street Journal (May 23,
2001).
648 "NSA is ... not well positioned": U.S. Library of Congress,
Congressional Research Service, Richard A. Best, Jr., "The National
Security Agency: Issues for Congress," Report RL 30740 (updated
January 16, 2001), unpaginated page.
649 "Cultural pride has reemerged": Renee Meyer's remarks were
derived from a lecture she gave at NSA on June 11, 2001, at which the
author was present.
649 "The Chinese leadership views"; "So long as China remains":
John B. Judis, "The China Hawks," The American Prospect Online
(September 1, 1997-October 1, 1997).
650 "I think . . . we're in big trouble": Vernon Loeb, "Portrait of a
Pessimist," Washington Post (March 6, 2000).

INDEX
A-3 telephone scrambler,
357-58
A-4 firebase, 343-44, 346 A-12 reconnaissance aircraft, 272 Abel,
Rudolf, 62n Abelson, Harold, 612 Abner, 582 Abrams, Creighton W., 306,
330
Acheson, Dean G., 30”31 Adams, Ralph, 347, 566 Adolphsen,
Arthur, 161 ADONIS encryption equipment, 353
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 361-62 Afghanistan, 18,
44, 389,
398, 399, 410, 555 Ahmed, Nasser, 427-28 Air Force, U.S., 159, 174,
-
323, 357 Pueblo incident and,
261-62, 268 Air Force Intelligence



642
Agency, 498 Air Force Security Service,
96, 194
Albert, A. Adrian, 605 Albright, Madeleine, 418 Aide, Robert O., 360
Alert, 139, 141-42, 396-97,
546
al-Fawwaz, Khalid, 615 Algeria, 80, 81 Alhazmi, Nawaf, 617”18
Alhazmi, Salem, 617,
619
Allen, Charles E., 496 Allen, Lew, Jr., 346-47, 376, 439
Almihdhar, Khalid 617, 619
al-Zawahiri, Ayman, 616
America, 222, 224
American Black Chamber, 1-3, 6, 499, 580
American Legion, 66”67
American Thermogen Corporation, 517”18
Ames, Aldrich, 562
Anderson, Robert, 58, 543
Anderson, Rudolf, 118
Ansley, Norman, 559, 542
Aquarian, 397
Aquitania, 13
Arc Light, 308-10
Arecibo Ionosphere
Observatory (AIO), 361-62
Argentina, 19, 134, 176-77, 400
Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA), 24-25, 28-31, 537
Army, U.S., 18, 103-4, 198, 288, 428, 581
Army Intelligence and Security Command, 498, 554
Army Security Agency (ASA), U.S., 22, 24, 27-28, 29, 88, 150, 152,
298, 325
Arnold, Larry K., 631
Arnold, John, 104-6, 343, 370, 371, 373-74
Aspin, Les, 385
AT&T, 460-61, 462
Atlantika, 114
Atlas computer, 581
Atta, Mohamed, 618, 619, 620, 621
Attwood, William, 128-29, 130, 136-37
Austin, Harold, 38
Australia, 368-69, 409, 513, 547, 599
Automated Cartridge System, 603”4
Azzole, Pete, 114-15
Back, George V., 246-48 Baer, Bill, 126-27 Bailey, Bruce, 33-34, 119,
320-23 Bailey, Charles Waldo, II,
67 Bailey, Don, 259, 260-61,
263, 265-67 Baker, Howard, 439 Baker, Stewart A., 450-51,


643
463
Baker, William 0., 357, 462 Ball, Dave, 132 Ball, George, 116,301
tanner, 241-44, 250, 258,
270-72, 300-301 Barbour, Walworth, 192 Bary, Abdel 616 Bates,
Edward Bryant, 148 Batista, Fulgencio, 73 Bauman, Ethan L., 567 Bay
of Pigs invasion, 63,
66-67, 70-79, 82, 88,
358 CIA and, 70, 72, 73-76,
78,79 JFK-JCS meeting on,
71-73 Joint Chiefs of Staff
and, 71-75 landing site for, 74 Lemnitzer and, 73”75 NSA's role in,
75-76
onset and failure of,
77-78
proposed secret deceptions and, 70”71 Soviet arms shipments
prior to, 76”77 Beamrider, 515 Beeman, Karl, 148-49 Begin,
Menachem, 186 Bell Laboratories, 98, 357, 462, 580, 609-10, 612
Belmont, 187, 223 Beloretsk, 95-96 Ben-Gurion, David, 40 Bennett,
Donald V., 430 Berens, Ronald L., 252 Berger-Liaw Neural Network
Speaker Independent Speech Recognition System, 556-57
Berlin Wall, 450, 492, 544 Berrigan, Philip, 493-94 Bicher, George A.,
8, 12 Biden, Joseph, 378 Billygate scandal, 380-81,
443 bin Laden, Osama, 410,
441,614-17 Biro, Arye, 202 Biryuzov, S. S., 46 Bishop, Robert P., 241,
243 Bissell, Richard M., 43, 79,
358 Black, William B., Jr., 473,
497
Black Friday (1948), 23-24 Blake, Gordon Aylesworth, 96-97, 99-101,
102-3, 118-19, 151-32, 136 Blalock, Donald L., 227-28 Bletchley Park,
10, 12-14,
15, 17, 162,398 Bloor, A. W, 520 Blue, Allen M., 227 Blue Gene

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