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Northwoods and, 82-83 Paris summit and, 62 Suez crisis and, 40, 41
U-2 crisis and, 43, 49-^0, 51-52, 53-54, 55-60, 62, 116-17,322
Eismann, Bernard, 80 elephant cage antenna, 77,
95, 154 Elint, 8 El Quseir, 230, 234-35
Emmel, Judith A., 496-97
EMR Improvement Program (EIP), 324-25
Energy Department, U.S., 542
Engineering Research Associates, 580, 581, 591
Englander, Owen, 103
Engstrom, Howard, 591
KNIAC, 580-81
Enigma encryption machine, 9, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18,98,301,312, 397,
486
Ennes, Jim, 230
Enterprise, 262
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 560, 565
E-Systems, 523, 604
ETA, 593-94, 596
Ethiopia, 19, 160, 161-62
European Space Agency, 406-7
Evron, Ephraim, 229
Explorer system, 343-46
Fan Song radar, 154, 324
Farley, Robert D., 96
Farm Team, 318
Far Right, The, 80-81
Fast, Barbara G., 498
Fastlane encryption program, 515
Faurer, Lincoln D, 387-89, 604
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 355, 379, 429, 437, 441, 449,
493, 543
NSAs domestic spying opposed by, 430-31 NSA's embassy break-ins
dispute with, 432-33
ferret missions, 32”38, 47, 54, 366
fiber optic cables, 460”63, 465, 510
Finder, 321
Firebase Sarge, 343”46
Fire Can radar, 154
Fish cipher machine, 14,


650
15, 18, 20, 397 Russian, 15-17, 18, 23, 355, 583
Ford, Gerald, 88, 103, 350, 439
Foreign Broadcast Information Service, 191, 253
Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 88, 131
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 440
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, 440-41
Forrestal, Michael, 297-98
Forsberg, Steven J., 166
Fort Meade, Md., 41, 43, 93, 302, 404, 452, 573
France, 19, 22, 68, 80, 81, 137-38, 147, 402, 421 China engine sales
of,
414-15
Holocaust and, 10”11 Indochina conflict of,
284, 285-87 Suez crisis and, 39”41 Vichy government of, 11
Freedom of Information Act, 520
Freeh, Louis I, 542
Frequent Wind, 347
Friedman, William Frederick, 1-2, 4, 22, 354, 477, 558, 586
Frost, Laurence Hugh, 93, 96, 97, 288
Frostberg computer, 597
Fuggetta, Rob, 535
Fujitsu, 595-96
Fulbright, J. William,
60-62 Fulton, Robert Edison, Jr.,
143-44
Fulton Skyhook, 143-46 FUNNEL messages, 102
Gaddy, Dave, 287
Gagarin, Yuri, 154”55
Gailey, C. K., 64
Galactic Radiation and
Background (GRAB), 365-66
Gardiner, Don, 131
Gardner, Meredith K., 135 , Garfinkel, Simson, 607
Garment, Suzanne, 378-79
Gates, Robert, 474, 475, 520
Gates, Thomas, 49-50, 53, 54,57
Gavin, James M., 68
Gayler, Noel, 340-42, 430, 431, 433
Geis, Lawrence R., 226
Georgetown, 187
Gerecht, Reuel Marc, 474
Germany, Democratic Republic of (East Germany), 43, 150, 151, 492
NSA overflights of, 153-54
Germany, Federal Republic of (West Germany), 43, 72, 124, 150-51,
152, 492
Germany, Nazi, 10, 11, 16, 19, 20, 312


651
Germany, reunified, 462, 492
Gerson, Nate, 139, 141-42, 360-64
Gertz, Bill, 393
Gladding, Everett B., 250-51
Gleason, Everett, 31
Glenn, John, 84
Golden, George H., 220 Goldwater, Barry M., 60,
378, 439
Goodman, Melvin A., 475 Goodpaster, Andrew, 52, 54 Gordon, John
A., 496 Gore, Al, Jr., 80, 512 Gore, Albert, Sr., 80, 88 Goss, Porter J.,
457, 475 Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), 10, 40,
398-402, 407, 409, 454, 502, 538, 547-48, 592 China-Iran missile deal
and, 412-13 industrial espionage and,
426-27 Zircon satellite and,
400-401
Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), 403, 421
Graham, Daniel O., 502 Graham, Richard H., 324 Grantham, Gary L.,
529-30
Gray, David W, 70, 88 Gray, Gordon, 55-56 Gray, L. Patrick, 433
Great Britain, 19, 27, 89,
422, 462, 513, 599 Aden listening post of,
161-62 Chagos Archipelago and,
163-65 cryptoanalytic activities
of, 397-402 Hong Kong and, 547 listening posts in,
174-75
Suez crisis and, 39”41 Green Hornet missions, 44 Groundbreaker,
573-74 Grover, Lov K., 610 Guatemala, 62, 446
Guerin, James, 575, 582 Guevara, Che, 150, 180,
185 Gulf of Tonkin incident,
90-91, 290-500, 322 Maddox attacked in,
296-97, 299 Gulf War of 1990, 167,
474, 512 NSA's performance in,
544-45
Hagelin M-209, cipher machine, 22, 585-86 Haldeman, H. R., 433
Halfbeak, 167-72 Halibut, 371-74, 465 Halman, James, 210-11 Hamry,
John, 496 Hanjour, Hani, 617, 619,
621
Hanyok, Robert J., 10-11 Harriman, Averell, 116”17 Harris, Stephen
R., 243, 244, 251-52, 256, 264, 266, 279-81
Harvest computer, 583”89 Harvey, William, 477-79 Hatch, David,
564 Hayden, Michael V., xiii, 402, 443, 451-57, 464, 465, 469, 501, 524,
557,573,614,617, 619,646-49 reforms by, 470”73 typical day of, 494-99
Helms, Richard, 61-62, 99,
125, 531, 552 Henault, Emile I, Jr., 565 Henry, Harold, 26 Herrelko,
Frank L., 39 Herrick, John, 295-98 Herter, Christian, 52,
53-54, 61, 62 Herzfeld, Charles, 361-62 Hitler, Adolf, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14,


652
358
Ho Chi Minh, 284-85, 286, 287, 288-89, 292, 347 Hodges, Duane,
264, 278 Holt, Carl, 58 Homerun, 35”57 Hooper, Edwin B., 245 Hooper,
Leonard, 407 Hoover, J. Edgar, 429-31,
433, 434, 543-44 Horrock, Nicholas, 379 Horton, Russell H., 20
House of Representatives,
U.S., 68, 231 Appropriations Committee, 103
Intelligence Committee, 377-78, 381, 384, 457, 464, 467, 475, 523-
24, 557, 569, 570, 572 Un-American Activities
Committee, 66 Howard, Lisa, 128, 129-30,
156-57
Hughes, Richard I, 611 Humphrey, George, 556 Humphrey, Hubert,
278 Hungary, 18, 19, 71 Hunt, Peter, 395 Hussein, King, 238 Hussein,
Saddam, 475, 516,
544-45 Huston, Tom Charles, 430,
432
Huston Plan, 430-31 Hyland, John I, 281
IBM, 580, 585, 593, 597,
603, 608, 610 Stretch computer of,
586-87
Ichthyic missions, 244 Ignatius, David, 451 imitative communications
deception (IMD), 306 India, 409, 435, 505, 574 industrial espionage,
422-27
Inman, Bobby Ray, 574-82,
393, 398, 399, 443,
470, 553-54, 564
alleged homosexuality
of, 380, 385-86 appointments by, 376”77 CIA-NSA rivalry and,
583-85 Congress and, 377-79,
381, 384
defense secretary nomination and, 385”86 Guerin and, 375, 382
media and, 379-81 public appearances of,
381-82 Satire's confrontation
with, 380-81 Inouye, Daniel, 385 Institute for Defense
Analysis, 591, 604 Intelink, 511-15, 565, 572,
606
Intelligence Advisory Committee, 556, 382 Intelligence Authorization
Act, 570
Intelligence Board, U.S., 101 Intelligence Systems Secretariat (ISS),
512 INTELSAT, 404-11, 414,
616
Internal Security Act, 4 International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO), 86
Internet, 419, 457-59, 462, 479, 525-24, 546
NSA and, 463-65, 648 NSA's version of, 511-15,
563


653
Ipsaro, Anthony J., 486 Iran, 19, 44, 124, 149, 179, 384-85, 589,
391, 402, 408, 474, 503, 545, 555
China's missile deal with,
409-18, 421-22, 458 Iran-contra scandal,
390-91, 413 Iran-Iraq War, 544 Iraq, 19, 382, 402, 474-75,
544, 545 Israel, 154, 417-18, 475,
503 onset of Six-Day War
and, 190-91, 197 Suez crisis and, 39”41 see also Liberty, Israeli
attack on
Italy, 19, 134, 147, 358 Ivy Bells, 370 Izmeritel, 309-10 Izquierdo,
Chary, 503
Jabara, Abdeen, 428 Jacobs, Michael }., 509, 559 Jacobsen, Walter
L., 236 Jafari, Hossein, 416, 417 Jamestown, 187, 315, 316 Janson,
Donald, 80 Japan, 16, 19, 124, 150,
155-56, 285, 312, 397,
402, 426
supercomputer development and, 594-96,
598-99
Jarrah, Ziad, 618, 619 Jiang Zemin, 414, 416, 447 Jimmy Carter, 465
Jin Xuekuan, 409-10, 416,
417
Ji Yanshu, 416, 417 John Birch Society, 66, 79 Johnson, Lyndon B.,
57,
132, 134, 137-38, 191,
270, 316, 323, 526 Liberty incident and,
222-26, 230 Pueblo affair and, 270,
278 Six-Day War and,
191-94
Vietnam War and, 284,
291, 299, 333, 337 Johnson, Tom, 355”56 Johnston, Thomas, 395-
96 Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S., 28, 54, 57, 63, 64, 82, 103, 117, 122, 131,
186, 197-98, 226, 250, 271, 284, 330, 340, 342, 389, 393, 570 Bay of
Pigs invasion
and, 71-75
and decision to send Liberty to Middle East, 187-88, 190 JFK's first
meeting with,
71-72
Joint Reconnaissance Center of, 187-88, 197-98, 226, 245, 249
Lemnitzer appointed to,
67, 68-69
OPLAN-34A of, 291-93 "pretext" wars advocated by, 84-88, 89, 90,
300-301 Pueblo mission and,
245-46
Senate investigation of right-wing extremism in, 80-81
Jones, David C., 385 Jordan, 191



654
Jumpseat satellites, 369
Justice Department, U.S.,
382, 428, 538
Kalugin, Oleg, 93, 275-76,
277, 281, 307-8 Kane, Jock, 162, 426-27 Kantor, Mickey, 426
Karadzic, Radovan, 445 Karin, Sid, 600 Karpov, Yevgeny, 155 Kassar,
Monzer al-, 413
Kemper, Ronald, 453, 570 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald,
62, 87, 92, 287, 358 assassination of, 131”34 Bay of Pigs invasion
and, 72-75
Cuban missile crisis and, 101-2, 110, 113-14, 115, 116, 118 Cuba-
US, rapprochement and, 129-30, 137 inauguration of, 64”65,
69-70
U.S. military's distrust of, 65-66, 69, 79-80 Vietnam conflict and,
287-88, 290, 291 Kennedy, Robert F, 78, 79,
83, 108, 125, 129 Cuban missile crisis and,
108, 119-22, 123 Kennedy administration,
79, 83, 126, 128 military's right-wing extremism and, 79”80 Kera,
Tiiu, 500 Kerr, Richard E., Jr., 315,
339 KG-14 cipher machine,
266, 277 KGB, 20-21,23
Pueblo intelligence coup
and, 275-77 Khalil, Ziyad, 615 Khrushchev, Nikita S.,
45-46, 50-53, 59-60 Cuban missile crisis and,
116-17, 120-21, 125 Paris summit ended by,
54-55 U-2 revelations by,
50-51, 52-53 Killian, James R., Jr.,
356-57, 360, 582 Kim II Sung, 281 King, Daniel, 536
King, Martin Luther, Jr.,
429
Kisler, Earl M, 252-53 Kissinger, Henry, 349 KL-47 cipher machine,
245 Klein, Joel, 386 Knebel, Fletcher, 67 Kokalis, David P., 462 Korea,

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