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People's Democratic
Republic of (North
Korea), 24-26, 42, 93,
155, 242, 244-45, 293,
333, 408, 503 RB-47 shootdown attempt by, 246-48 Korea, Republic
of (South
Korea), 25, 124,
245, 249, 261, 397,
402 Blue House raid in,
253-57 Korean War, 24-30, 182,
537 China's intervention in,
27-29
Korgie, Leonard, 26 Kosygin, Alexei, 193, 194,
225 Kullback, Solomon, 2, 582,


655
586, 587 Kura, 114 Kursk, 173-74 Kuwait, 474, 475, 516, 544,
545 KW-7 cipher system, 245,
254-55, 266, 276, 307 KW-37 cipher machine,
266, 277 KY-8 telephone, 305-6,
307, 352
La Belle discotheque bombing, 390, 553
Lacy, Gene, 259, 264
Lansdale, Edward G., 78-79, 83, 84
Laos, 62, 305, 322
Larson, Doyle, 320 Lebanon, 19, 167, 197, 203,
391 Lechuga, Carlos, 129,
136-37
Lee, Derek, 397 Lemnitzer, Lyman L., 63,
65, 67-72, 81-82 civilian command of military opposed by, 81-82
congressional testimony
of, 68, 73, 88 Cuban invasion advocated by, 70-71, 72, 74-75 JFK's
first meeting with,
71-72
later career of, 88 Northwoods proposals
and, 84-88, 90 and Senate's investigation of military's right-wing
extremism, 80-81
Lentini, Joseph C., 218-19 LeSchack, Leonard A.,
143-46 Levenson, Arthur, 13, 15,
585 Lewis, David E., 200,
211-12,226 Liberty, 181-84, 185, 228,
241, 339 Liberty, Israeli attack on,
187-239,494 alleged El Quseir confusion in, 230, 234-35 casualties
in, 226,
227-28 compensation payments
for, 228-29 cover-up of, 225-26, 228,
229-30 CRITIC message in,
221-22 and decision to deploy
Liberty in Middle East, 187-88, 190
distress signal sent in, 210-11,221,224
Israeli reconnaissance prior to, 199-200, 204, 206
Israel's El Arish atrocities and, 201-3, 235-36
Israel's justification of, 229-31
by jet air craft, 209-15
LBJ and, 222-26, 230
"mistake" theory of, 230-37
by motor torpedo boats, 215-20
NSA's airborne surveillance of, 204-6, 212-13,216,220-21, 227, 231
NSA's safety concerns prior to, 197-98
security concerns in, 223-24, 227
Sixth Fleet's response to, 221-22, 224, 226-27, 236



656
U.S. probes of, 230-38
U.S.-Soviet exchanges and, 224-25
warning message foul-up and, 198-99, 230, 236 Libya, 150, 182, 381,
390,
443, 553
Lighthizer, James, 5 Lightning, 582-90, 604 Lilly, James, 411-12
Lindauer, Edwin R., 392 Lin Piao, 28 listening posts, 139”74
at Adak, 148-49
in Aden, 161-62
in Arctic region, 139”43, 147-48, 546
in Australia, 402-3, 409,
547, 616
in Bahamas, 360”61 in Barents Sea, 167”72 in Canada, 139, 141^-
2,
394-96 at Cape Chiniak,
147-48
on Cyprus, 166”67, 187 deactivation of, 545”48 in Eritrea, 160-61
first in space, 367”‚¬8 in Germany, 150”54 in Great Britain, 174-75,
407, 616 in Iran, 149, 179 in Japan, 155-56, 407-8,
546 Kursk disaster and,
173-74 in Libya, 150 in New Zealand, 403,
409, 547
oceanic, 162-5, 167 at Okinawa, 156-59 at Rota, Spain, 194-95 in
Turkey, 154-55, 179 see also spy ships Littleton, Clay, 160 Lockwood,
Bryce, 189-90,
208-10, 216-19 Lodestone computer system, 590 Long Beach, 343
Lord, Charles R., 523 Lovett, Robert A., 30-31 low-level voice intercept
(LLVI), 27 Lucent Technologies, 462,
612
Lukashevich, Yakof, 245 Lumumba, Patrice, 181 Lund, Howard R., 94
McAdam, Gregor, 165 MacArthur, Douglas, 19, 26, 28-29
McCarthy, Richard,
318-19, 333-34 McCaslin, Tami, 531 McClintock, Ralph, 268 McCone,
John, 100, 110,
112, 113, 115, 116,
126, 128, 132, 137,
340, 358 McConnell, J. Michael, 458,
523, 550, 552-55,
560-61, 562, 573 • McFarland, Terry, 213 McGonagle, William L.,
185, 197, 200, 207,
209-10, 214-16,
219-20, 226, 229-30,
233
McGowan, Bill, 151 MacKenzie, 294 McNamara, Barbara,
458-59, 460, 467, 471,
497, 498, 564 McNamara, Robert S., 68,


657
79, 87-88, 89, 99,
131-32, 270, 292, 333,
502 Cuban missile crisis
and, 99, 100, 118, 122,
124 Liberty incident and,
222-23
Northwoods and, 86-88 Six-Day War news and,
193-94 Tonkin Gulf testimony
of, 299-300 Maddox, 293-98 Magnum program, 401 Mahon, George,
232, 384 Maine, 84 Major, John, 401 Mann, Thomas C., 75 Mansfield,
Mike, 60 Mao Zedong, 27-28, 157 Marcos, Ferdinand E., 316 Marshall,
Bill, 452 Marshall, George C., 8, 27
Martin, Frederick T., 512,
515, 563
Martin, Graham, 348-51 Martin, William H., 92-93,
96, 97, 543 Mashey, John, 599 Massey, 226
Massoud, Ahmed Shah, 615 Mattison, Hobart D., 247-48 Mauritius,
163-64, 165 Mayo, Reid D., 364-66 Mellon, Chris, 497 Memphis, 173-74
Menzel, Donald H., 362 Meredith, James, 79 Mexico, 19, 129, 133, 397
Microturbo, SA, 412, 413, 414-15,418,421-22 microwave
communications, 176,366-69, 490
Midway Island, 162-63 Mielziner, Jo, 21 Military Assistance
Command, Vietnam (MACV), 330-31 Military Intelligence Code
Number 11, 18 Millington, Henry, 263 Millis, John, 457, 463, 466,
467, 476, 650 Minaret program, 429 Minihan, Kenneth A., xiii,
422,453,471,473, 494, 510, 523, 525, 526, 559, 561-64, 579
management style of,
567-72
MIT, 585, 610, 612 Mitchell, Bernon F., 92-93,
96, 97, 543
Mitchell, John, 430-31, 433 Mobutu, Joseph-Desire,
181, 182
Money, Arthur L., 496 Mongoose, 79, 83, 108, 125
moon-bounce antenna, 94,
101, 188, 207, 208 Moore, Brian, 547 Moore, Jim, 81 Moorefield,
Kenneth, 550 Moorer, Thomas H., 109,
230, 237-38, 250, 271 Moqed, Majed, 617 Morris, Brent, 529 Morris,
Coy R., 505 Morrison, John E., Jr., 119,
233, 263, 269, ,523 Morton, George, 132 Moussa, Abdelsalam, 202
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick,
xiii Mutter, 103, 126, 130-31,
187, 246
Murphy, Ed, 259 Murray, Frank, 272 Murrow, Edward R., 66
Musketeer Foxtrot, 153”54 Myer, Charles R., 304,
306



658
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 186,
192, 225, 238 National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
(NASA), 51-52, 514 National Center for Atmospheric Research,
598-99 National Cryptologic
School, 388, 52-1-26,
534 courses offered by,
408-9, 525 identification badges
used by, 489-90 National Reconnaissance
Office (NRO), 366,
367,466-67,511,
576 National Security Agency
(NSA): A Group, 93, 100, 354,
355, 359, 370, 376-77, 500, 562-63
American Black Chamber as predecessor of, 1-3, 4, 6
archives and records of, 519-20
background investigations by, 535”36, 543
B Group, 93, 100, 130, 246, 248, 500
biometric identification system of, 507
budget of, 93, 146-47, 339-40, 341, 356-57, 383, 388-89, 456-57,
472-73, 475, 481-82, 549-50, 553, 557-58, 569, 574, 576, 584
CIA's relations with, 358-59, 382-85, 473-79, 500
civilian-military friction in, 100, 341-42
computer crash of January 2000 at, 451-53, 454, 457
computer development and, 579-82
congressional probes of, 357, 434-40
creation of, 31
cryptologic occupations at, 618-21
CSS, 482, 498, 501, 541
declassification project of, 520
defense industry lobby and, 576-77
"defense" role of, 424-25
dèmarches to foreign governments by, 420
digital cellular communications and, 463”65
disposal of classified materials by, 516-19
dissemination of names by, 442-49
diverse workforce of, 528-31
domestic espionage by, 428-31, 434, 435, 440-41
domestic telecommunications companies' agreement with, 133, 434-
40
downsizing of, 549”52, 562, 573-74, 576
education at, 524-25, 532-33
Future Day program of, 568-69
G Group, 93, 178-79, 185, 187, 197,217, 233, 239, 377, 429, 500
Hayden's reforms at, 470-73
headquarters of, see Crypto City


659
hiring program of, 531-38, 542-43, 559-60, 574-75, 576
homosexual purge at, 543-44
industrial espionage and, 424-26
Inman's tenure at, 374-84
insular culture of, 382-83, 385, 387, 471-72
intelligence analysis routine of, 418-20
Intranet of, 511”15
JFK assassination and, 135-36
K Group, 197, 240, 244, 248
law enforcement involvement of, 449”51
linguistic capability of, 616-17
linguists shortage of, 553-57
management crisis of, 456-57, 467-71
management types at, 530-31
Martin-Mitchell defection scandal and, 92-93, 96, 97, 543
mathematician shortage at, 558-59, 561
M Group, 500-501
minorities and, 559”61, 564-66
National Security Operations Center, 100, 490, 493, 501-2, 569
National Sigint Operations Center, 501, 569
number of employees of, 482
outside contracts of, 522-23, 574-75, 577
partner agencies of, 394-405
polygraph program of, 536-42
post-Vietnam growth of, 339-40
post-World War II growth of, 355-57
recruitment program of, 531-38, 542-43, 559-60, 574-75, 576
reorganizations of, 42, 93, 500-501, 549-50
Scientific Advisory Board, 458, 462, 529, 605
secrecy obsession of, 3”5, 382-83, 385, 387, 471-72, 491-93, 507-
10, 532
security classification system of, 489-90
Suez crisis as test of, 39-42
Supercomputer Research Center, 579, 598, 600, 602-3,604, 607-8,
609
Support Services Operations Center, 482, 492-93
surveillance navy developed by, 178-80; see also spy ships
technology revolution and, 457-58, 479
wages at, 576
women and, 559”61, 564-66
World Trade Center attack and, 646
Y2K problem and,
452-54
National Security Council (NSC), 30, 31, 47, 54, 55-56,58-59, 72,
112, 136,288,391,543, 588
303 Committee of, 246 National SIGINT File,


660
515-16, 646 National War College, 79,
530
Nautilus, 104-6 Naval Research Laboratory,
362-63, 514
Naval Security Group, 98, 104, 166, 178, 222, 244, 250, 253, 257,
280-81, 292, 339, 408, 498, 520-21, 549, 580, 581
Detachment Key West of, 104
Sigint patrols of, 292-93 Navy, U.S., 18, 103-4, 156, 197-98, 230, 250

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