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bombe machine of, 587
Rota listening post of, 194-95
spyship program of, 240,
241-43
NEC, 598-99, 611-12 Neff, PaulE., 11-12 NESTOR voice encryption
machine, 352, 353 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 203 Netherlands, 19, 134,
462 New Enterprise Team,
470-71
Newsweek, 378, 464, 492 Newton, Frank, 566 New York Times, 378,
379,
380-81, 435, 492, 610 New Zealand, 403, 409, 547 New Zealand
Combined
Signals Organisation,
403
Nguyen Cao Ky, 316 Nikolaevsk, 114 Nikolaj Burdenko, 76-77,
114
Nitze, Paul, 89-90, 246 Nixon, Richard M., 56, 60,
340, 429-34, 543 in 1968 election, 278 Norland, Selmer S., 13, 17
Normalizer computer system, 452-53 Norstad, Lauris, 81 North
American Aerospace
Defense Command
(NORAD), 622,
631-32, 634 North, Oliver L., 391, 392,
413
North Pole 8, 142-46 Northwoods, 82-91, 300,
301 Guantanamo scheme
and, 84-89 McNamara and, 86”88,
89 proposed bombings and
schemes for, 85-86,
89-91 Nowicki, Marvin E.,
195-96, 204-5, 213,
216,221,231 NSA Handbook, 531 NSA Newsletter, 131, 486,
544, 550
NSA SIGINT Digest, 515 NSA Technical Journal,
531, 560-61
Observation Island, 504 Oceanarium, 606-7 O'Connor, Jim, 188
Odom, William, 389-93,



661
474
Odonovich, Paul, 27, 30 Office of Defense Mobilization, 356 Office of
Naval Intelligence (ONI), 115 Office of Naval Research
(ONR), 143, 581 Office of Special Operations (OSO), 78-79 Office of
Strategic Services
(OSS), 7
Ogier, Herbert, 295 O'Grady, Scott, 513 Oilstock software system,
505
O'Malley, Jerry, 323-24 Omand, David, 547-48 one-time pads, 20-21,
23,
303, 521
OP-20-G, 98, 580 Operational Plan 34A (OPLAN 34A), 291-92, 293,
298 Operations Command, U.S.,
502
Organization of American States (OAS), 89, 175 Orlov, Alexander,
45”46 Oswald, Lee Harvey, 132,
135, 137
Oxcart aircraft, 149-50 Oxford, 94-95, 99-100, 101-3, 107, 109-14,
126, 175-80, 186, 197, 292, 295, 339 off China, 316-17 sent to
Vietnam, 313”15,
333, 336
Seven Nations Conference and, 315”16 Oxygen, 462
Pageler, Donald W., 217, . 219,228
Paige, Mitchell, 66
Painter, Lloyd, 207,
209-10,214,215,219
Pak Chung Kufc, 253, 255
Pakistan, 43, 124, 402, 409, 412, 433, 503
Palladium system, 107-8
Palmer, Bruce, Jr., 341
Palmer, Charlie, 81
Parish, Harold L., 99-100, 101, 111, 113, 118, 119, 122-23
Park Chung Hee, 255-56
Parker, Barrington D., 61-62
Parks, David, 157, 158, 325-30, 334, 337-39
Payne, Robert, 548
Peacetime Airborne Reconnaissance Program (PARPRO), 246
Peak, James P., 513
Pease, Philip T., 539
Pendergrass, James T., 581-82
Peres, Shimon, 40
Perry, 76
Perry, William I, 562
Phillips, Cecil, 20-21
Phillips, Samuel C., 342, 346
Pike, John, 574


662
Pinchasy, Pinchas, 204
Pine Gap satellite base, 368-69
Platform computer network, 404, 592
Poindexter, John, 413 Poland, 134-35, 399 Polygraph Assisted
Scoring System (PASS), 541-42
polygraph tests, 536”42 counterintelligence and,
538-39 espionage discovered
with, 540-41 for job applicants,
536-37 personal questions issue
and, 537-38 Poteat, Gene, 107-8 Powers, Francis Gary, 43, 44-
48,51,59, 62n, 107, 322, 365 PRD-1, 328-29, 337 Preparedness
Committee,
57
President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities,
356, 357
Prestel, Robert L., 405 Prettyman, Barbara, 551 processor-in-memory
chips
(PIMs), 607 Project Alert, 66 Project X, 375 Pueblo, 243, 292, 339
spy equipment of, 254”55 Pueblo incident, 240-82,
333 A-12 overflights in,
273-75 Blue House raid and,
253-57 court of inquiry after,
278-79 crew's fate in, 268”69,
275, 277, 278 emergency destruction of classified materials in, 259-
60, 261, 264-68
North Korean warnings
in, 252-54, 255, 280 NSA's warning message
prior to, 248-51,
269-70, 280 Pueblo fired upon in,
260-61, 262, 264 Pueblo's operations order
and, 251-52 Pueblo surrendered in,
266-68
secret materials compromised in, 263-64, 266,
275-77, 307-8 U.S. casualties in, 264 U.S. military's response
to, 261-62 U.S. war preparations in,
270-72 Walker spy ring and,
276-77, 307-8 Purple code, 301, 312, 397,
526 Purple Dragon analysis, 311
Qaddafi, Muammar, 390 quantum computing, 609-12
Rabin, Yitzhak, 203
Radio Intelligence Companies, 19
Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi, 418
Rainess, Ira, 492
Rainfall, 359, 370
Rakfeldt, Harry O., 225, 273-75



663
RAMPART National Program Office, 499
Rapid Analytical Machines (RAMs), 579-81, 608
Raven, Frank, 96, 178-79, 185, 187, 188-89, 197-98,217,429
Ray, Bill, 96
RB-47 Strato-Spy, 32-35,
36,37-38, 102, 119,
320-21 North Korea's attempt to
down, 246-48 Reagan, Ronald, 382, 387,
388, 389-90, 394, 399 Reno, Janet, 449, 567 Rhyolite satellite, 367-
68,
400
Rich, Monty, 165 Richardson, Earl, 174 Ringe, Bobby, 182-83 Ripken,
Gal, Jr., 492 Rissman processing system,
504-5
Rockefeller, Nelson, 435 Rogers, William P., 543 Rollwagen, John, 591
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 66 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 22,
357-58
Rosser, J. Barfcley, 605 Rostow, Walt, 191-92, 222,
223 Rowe, William E., 332,
335 Rowlett, Frank B., 2, 6,
22-23, 136, 355, 477,
526 Rowley, Charles L., 208,
210, 215, 220 Rudman, Warren B., 476 Rusk, Dean, 100, 108, 120,
191, 194,297 Russell, Richard, 103 Russell, Stu, 254, 257, 267,
269
Ryan, John, 319 Ryan 147 drone, 119, 321 RYCOM, 176 Rye system,
589
SA-2 missile, 47, 49, 102, 106-7,321-22,324, 342-43, 370
Sabertooth, 289-90
Sadat, Anwar, 475
Safire, William L., 380-81,
386
Samford, John, 92, 93 Sample, Tim, 567 Samuel R. Aitken, 92, 94
Sandia National Laboratory, 593, 595 San Francisco Conference
(1945), 21-23 Sannes, Mike, 127 San Roman, Pepe, 77”78 Saratoga,
211, 212, 222, 224 satellites and satellite espionage, 359-69, 393, 460,
615 decline of, 549 giant antennas used for,
361-63 ground stations for,
368-69
INTELSAT, 404-11, 414 microwave communications detected by, 366-
69, 466 Solar-Rad, 365-66 technology revolution
and, 466-67 toxic experiment for,
360-61 training courses for,
408-9
Zircon, 400-401 Schatz, James R., 558, 559 Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr.,
116-17


664
Schlesinger, James R., 436 Schwartz, Frederick A. O.,
438-39 Schwarzkopf, H. Norman,
512
Scorpion, 105, 246 Searchlight program, 509 Secret Intelligence
Service
(MI-6), British, 421 Security Affairs Support Association (SASA), 523
Seigrist, Connie M., 144”45
Semantic Forests program, 556
Senate, U.S., 60, 68, 231 Foreign Relations Committee, 55, 56, 58,
59, 60-61, 80, 300 Intelligence Committee, 377-78,381,384, 542
military's right-wing extremists investigated by, 80-81
Senghor, Leopold, 178
Sevareid, Eric, 66
Seven Days in May, 67, 80
Seven Nations Manila
Summit Conference (1966), 315-16
Shamrock program, 133, 434, 436-40
Sharon, Ariel, 202-3
Sheck, Gene, 197, 240-41, 244, 248, 249-50, 258-59, 263, 268, 269-
72, 280
Sheehy, Mary Ann, 565-67
Shelton, William, 44-45
Shkval, 111, 114
SIGABA code machine, 18
Sigint, 8
Sigint Communications System, 588
SIGINT Summary, 515
Signal Intelligence Agency, German, 15
Signal Intelligence Division, U.S., 8
Signal Intelligence Service, U.S., 1, 3, 526
Signal Security Agency
(SSA), 24, 426, 579-80 Language branch of, 19
Silicon Graphics, Inc.
(SGI), 599, 601,602
Silkworth, 490
Simons, Howard, 380
Single-Scope Background
Investigation (SSBI), 535-36
Sinkov, Abraham, 2, 477
Six-Day War, 154, 190-97
El Arish and, 201-3,
236, 238-39
Israeli electronic surveillance in, 237-38 Soviets and, 192-93,
208-9 see also Liberty, Israeli
attack on
"Six Point Program for Improved Intercept," 360 Sixth Fleet, U.S., 211,


665
221-22, 226, 227, 236 Smith, Burton, 600, 602 Smith, James E, 140-
41,
144-46
Smith, Melvm, 199 Smith, Walter Bedell, 30 Snepp, Frank, 350
Snider, L. Britt, 434-35,
436, 438, 439-40 Snyder, Sam, 582 Solar-Had satellite, 365-66
Solomatin, Boris A.,
276-77, 307 Sone, lun'ichi, 611”12 Sonntag, William I., 565 Soviet
Union, 7, 18, 19, 23-24, 28, 42, 71, 93, 134, 153, 186, 352, 368, 402,
450, 492, 502, 540, 553, 555 Afghanistan invaded by,
389, 398, 399 arctic listening posts of,
142-43 arms shipments to Cuba
of, 76-77 Barents Sea surveillance
of, 167-70 computer development
in, 589-90 Homerun and, 35-37
Korean War and, 25, 27 manned space program
of, 154-55
microwave communications used by, 366-67 one-time pad security
breach of, 20-21 Pueblo intelligence coup
and, 275-77, 307-8 Six-Day War and,
192-93,208-9 Sputnik launched by,
360, 588 spy ship fleet of, 93,
308-9
Suez crisis and, 39, 42 tapping of submarine
cables of, 370-74 U-2 affair and, see U-2
crisis Venona program against,
21, 23, 303, 355 Spain, 19, 23, 40 Special Collection Service
(SCS), 477, 479-80 Special Comint Committee,
356
Special U.S. Liaison Officers (SUSLOs), 498 Spoon Rest radar, 106,
117-18
Sputnik 1, 360, 588 spy ships, 94-95, 339 off Africa, 175, 180-84,
313 in Cuban missile crisis,

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