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99, 100, 102-3,
107-12, 125-26 moon-bounce antenna
of, 94
Russian, 93, 308-9 off South America,
175-78 U.S. Navy program for,
240-43
in Vietnam War, 313-16 see also Liberty, Israeli
attack on; Pueblo incident SR-71 Blackbird, 149,
273/z, 318, 323-25 Stahr, Elvis J, Jr., 68 Stapleton-Gray, Ross, 511
Stassen, Harold, 41 State Department, U.S., 3,
31, 75, 147, 175, 192,
193, 225, 230, 235,



666
286, 287, 355, 409,
417,420,424,502,
516
Steakley, Ralph, 249-50 Stephanopoulos, George,
386, 387
Stevens, Robert E., 522 Stevenson, Adlai E., 59-60,
128
Stimson, Henry, 3 Stockmeier, Mike, 147 Strategic Air Command
(SAC), 112-13, 117,
131, 508-9, 322 Stretch, 586-87 Stroiazzo-Mougin, Bernard,
415
Strott, Robert R., 5 Studeman, William O., 5,
393-94,411,423-24,
425, 523, 544-45, 549,
550 STU-III security telephone,
482, 508-9, 573 submarine cables, tapping
of, 370-74
Suez crisis (1956), 38-41 Sugar Grove antenna,
362-63, 404-5 Sulzberger, A. O., 379 . supercomputers, 578
Automated Cartridge
System for, 603-4 biological processes in,
612-13 Cray's development of,
590-93, 596-602
data storage and, 603”4,
606-7 Harvest system and, see
Harvest computer Japan and, 594-96,
598-99 miniaturization and,
609-12 NSA's facility for, 579,
602-6 parallel processing and,
596-98 quantum computing
and, 609-12 speed measure used in,
592-93 speeds attained by,
607-8 Supercomputer Systems,
597
Supplementary Radio System, 396 Swordfish cipher machine,
14 SX-4 supercomputer,
598-99 Syria, 19, 40, 134, 191,
197
System-V intercept equipment, 44
SYSTRAN translation program, 555”56
Takkoush, Abed, 238 Talbott, Strobe, 386 Tall King missile system,
149-50, 154 Tattletale, 364-65 Taylor, James R. (Rich),
499-500
Taylor, Keith, 113 Taylor, Maxwell, 69, 87,
118, 131
Taylor, William, Jr., 278 Teaball warning system,


667
319-20 Technical Extracts of Traf-
fic Analysis (TEXTA), 112
Tellman processing system, 504
Tempest emissions, 110
Tenet, George J, 418, 476-77, 496, 542
Tera Computer, 600, 602
Terek, 111, 112
Tester, Ralph, 15
Tet offensive, 284, 332-40 casualties in, 336 growth of NSA and,
339-40 warnings of, 332”33
Thailand, 19, 322, 325
Thatcher, Margaret, 398, 399, 400
Thinking Machines Corporation, 597
3rd Radio Research Unit, U.S., 288-91, 318
Thompson, Terry, 464, 465, 481, 533, 554, 557, 574, 575, 576-77
Thorn, Larry B., 220
303 Committee, 246, 250
TICOM (Target Intelligence Committee) missions, 8”12, 583
cryptologic targets and objectives of, 9-10
Nazi codebreakers interrogated by, 17-18 Russian Fish machines
discovered by, 15”17, 18
Ticonderoga, 298-99
Time, 378, 590
Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 299
Tooma, Sam, 242
Top Secret Intranet, 515
Tordella, Louis, 97-99, 103,
136, 222, 223, 232-33, 235, 269, 299, 377, 407, 428, 430-33, 526,
578
NSA's computer development program and, 580-83, 588-89 Shamrock
scheme as outlined by, 436-38
Tordella Supercomputer Facility, 579, 602-3
Torii Station, Okinawa, 156-57, 159
Torricelli, Robert, 446
Tour, James, 611
Tourney, Phillip K, 219-20, 233
Tovey, Brian, 398-99
Tower, John, 435
Trinidad plan, 74
Truman, Harry S., 7, 28, 30, 66, 286, 337, 436
TRW, 367, 523, 552
Turing, Alan, 485-86
Turkey, 19, 44, 48, 49, 51, 120-21, 124, 134, 147, 154, 179
Turner, Stansfield, 383-85, 479
Turner Joy, 297, 346



668
Twining, Nathan, 54, 57
U-2 crisis, 116-17,322 congressional investigation of, 53-62
Eisenhower's role in, 43,
49-50, 51, 52, 53-54,
55-60, 62 Khrushchev's revelations
to Supreme Soviet in,
50-51, 52-53 Northwoods and, 82-83 Paris summit in, 54-55,
57 perjured testimony in,
60-62
Powers shot down in,
46-48 U-2 spy planes, 37, 43-44,
77, 90, 108, 318 in Cuban missile crisis, 109, 117, 118-19, 120, 122
successor to, 149-50 in Vietnam War, 322-24 Ultra, 8-9
Unified Cryptologic Architecture, 522 United Arab Republic (UAR),
147, 186, 191-92,209 '
United Kingdom-USA
(UKUSA) Communications Intelligence Agreement, 40, 394-405, 406,
409, 415, 420, 441 dissemination of names
by, 442-49 industrial espionage and,
422-24
key targets of, 407-8, 410 privacy issue and, 427”28 see also
satellites, satellite espionage United Nations, 21-23, 83,
186, 426, 444, 447 JFK assassination and,
134
Korean War and, 25 U-2 crisis and, 50 United States Signals
Intelligence Directive (USSID), 499 USSID 18, 442, 444, 449 Universe
computer system,
452
Urgench, 115, 116 Uruguay, 19, 147, 175 USA-512J, 194, 204, 216,
221, 227
"U.S. Identities in Sigint," 442-43
Valdez, 132, 179-81, 182,
185, 259
Vallejo, Rene, 129-30 Van Fleet, James, 30 Vault Type Room (VTR),
507-8 Velasquez, Efrain Bamaca,
446
Venezuela, 19, 133, 511 Venona program, 21, 23,
303, 355
see also one-time pads Vietcong, 288, 313, 315,
327-28, 329, 332 Vietnam, Democratic Republic of (North Vietnam),
93
creation of, 284-85 Sigint efforts of, 303-4,
306-7
Vietnam, Republic of (South Vietnam), 352 Vietnam War, 261,
283-353, 403, 429 airborne Sigint in,
317-25


669
Arc Light in, 308-10 CIA and, 331, 333,
337
classified materials abandoned and lost in, 352-53 French
colonialization
and, 284-86 jungle Sigint missions
in, 325-30
North Vietnamese cryptography in, 288-89, 303-4, 306-7 NSA buildup
in, 301-2 OPLAN-34A in, 291-92,
293, 298 Pueblo security breach
and, 307-8 Sigint in, 289-90, 292-93, 295, 301-6
U.S. bombing raids compromised in, 308-11 U.S. evacuation from,
346-52
U.S. security shortcomings in, 304-7, 311-12 see also Gulf of Tonkin
incident; Tet offensive Vint Hill Farms Station (Monitoring Station
Number 1), 19-20, 133
Vogt, John, 319 Volador, 273-75 von Neumann, John, 582 VQ-2, 195,
204
Walcott, John, 378 Walker, Edwin A., 66, 79 Walker, John (James
Harper), 244-45, 276-77, 307-8, 353 Walker, Walton H., 26 Wallace, F.
Harrison,
152-53
Walsh, Lawrence E., 391 Ward, Joseph, 210-11, 224 War
Department, U.S., 18 Confidential Code Number 2 of, 18 Warren, Earl,
66, 69 Warren Commission, 135,
136 Washington- Moscow
Emergency Communications Link, 192-93
Washington Post, 365, 378, 379-80
Watergate scandal, 431,
434
wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), 461,
463, 465 Weaver, Larry, 200, 207,
209,213-14,217-18,
219, 228
Webworld, 512, 606 Weinberger, Caspar W,
388, 389 Weisband, William, 24, 29,
30
Wescott, Gary, 344-46 Western Union, 22, 133,
434 Westmoreland, William,
284, 330-33, 334 Wetwash cable, 302 Weyand, Frederick C.,
334
Wheatley, Robert, 159 Wheeler, Earle G., 271 Whiff radar, 100
Whitaker, Paul K., 12-15 White, Lincoln, 53, 54 White, Stan, 208, 210-
11,
214,217,219,228 White Birch, 289 White Cloud satellite program,
165-66 Whitman, Ann, 53 Whitworth, Jerry, 277 Wieland, Daniel T.,
182-83 Wigglesworth, Michael I,


670
566 Williams, Penny Gamble,
561 Wilson, Craig L., 554
Wilson, Ralph, 66-67 Wilson, Robert L., 227-28 Winchester, Simon,
164”65 Winters, Robert C., 246-47 WLR-1 intercept receiver,
255 Wobensmith, John C.,
391-92
Woelk, Steven, 264 Wood, Jack, 155 Woodward, Bob, 379-80
Woodward, Gilbert, 278 Woolsey, R. James, 425 World Trade Center
attack,
617-45 World War II, 160, 285,
312, 355-56, 397, 403,
486, 587
Wright, Beverly, 472-73 Wright, Wesley, 155
Xerox, 606-7
Y2K problem, 452-54 Yardley, Herbert O., 3 Yasson, Phillip, 163
Yitzhaki, Aryeh, 202,
203 Yom Kippur War of 1973,
153
Yugoslavia, 19, 147, 554 Yurke, Bernard, 612
Zaslow, Milton S., 28,
269-70, 341 Zimmer, Jeanne Y,
500-501
Zircon satellite, 400-401 ZR/RIFLE, 477-79




671

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