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notified. The FBI and other government agencies were quickly asked to
provide background information on BERN. "Members of the SSOC,
Facilities Security, Public and Media Affairs, and Protective Services
convened to enact an NSA Emergency Management Plan to address the
threat," said an internal document. "Protective Services activated their
Special Operations Unit." They then notified the military police at Fort
Meade, "who mobilized a contingent to augment the Protective Service
Officers' force."
Prepared for anything except all-out nuclear war, the agency must
have been disappointed. About 10:30 A.M. a motley group of about thirty
late-sleeping activists arrived at the outer fence, carrying a few placards
protesting illegal NSA operations. They then began to read Scripture.
Next someone recited a "Declaration of Independence from the National
Security Agency," which was mounted on a large placard for presentation
to the director, Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan. After a few
hours in the warm sun, the group headed back to Baltimore.
Pleased that the agency had once again been saved from imminent
peril, the author of a classified internal document declared the operation
"an unequivocal success. The orchestration of a multitude of NSA and
non-NSA emergency response resources proved extremely effective." Even
Philip Berrigan was impressed. "Very efficient," he said, "very sterile."
After leaving the SSOC, the visitor walks down a passageway and
enters the $56.3 million OPS 2B Building, a rectangle of black glass, and
is immediately impressed by the large polished wall of black granite.
Carved in the structure, twelve feet wide and eight feet high, is a triangle
containing the NSA seal. Above, inlaid in gold, are the words "They
Served in Silence." And below, in eight columns, are the names of 152
military and civilian cryptologists, intercept operators, and analysts who
have given their lives in the line of duty. Among those listed on the
National Cryptologic Memorial Wall, which was dedicated in February
1996, is Army Specialist James T. Davis, the first American soldier killed
in Vietnam. Also listed on the wall are the seventeen airmen who died
when their C-130 ferret was shot down over Soviet Armenia in 1958 and
the thirty-four crewmembers of the USS Liberty who died when it was
attacked by Israel.
The highly polished black granite was designed to allow workers
viewing the memorial to see their own reflections and thus remind them
that they, too, serve in silence and support the cause for which those
honored gave their lives.
Nearby is the Canine Suite, named after the first director. It is often


414
used to host visiting VIPs.
Up on the eighth floor of OPS 2B, the mayor of Crypto City, Air Force
Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden, has his suite of offices. On a
typical day, Hayden's alarm wakes him up about 5:45 A.M. but he stays
in bed, eyes closed, listening to National Public Radio's six o'clock news
summary. After a quick shower, he climbs into his Volvo and drives the
three miles to the NSA. "I drive myself, or my son or wife will drop me off
if they need the car," he says, "and more often than not they will drop me
off."
Arriving about 6:50, Hayden enters the lobby, inserts his badge into
the CONFIRM reader, and pushes through the turnstile. If he is in a
hurry, he can slip a key into his small private elevator, off to the right.
But on most days he simply crowds with the other early-morning arrivals
into one of the large employee elevators.
On the eighth floor, he walks to the end of the hallway and enters the
executive suite, which includes the offices of the director, deputy
director, and chief of staff. The suite was once referred to as Mahogany
Row, but today there is no mahogany. Instead, past the receptionist, the
walls are covered with large framed pictures of NSA's largest listening
posts, including Menwith Hill Station with its dozens of eavesdropping
antennas hidden under radomes. Hayden takes a left through an
unmarked wooden door and enters his corner office.
Standing at the eavesdropping-proof windows he can look out on his
burgeoning empire, stretching far into the distance. Against a beige wall
is a large bookcase containing mementos from his hometown football and
baseball teams, the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pirates. On another wall is a
framed, yellowing newspaper article from October 1941 announcing that
his father, Harry V. Hayden, Jr., has been inducted into the service as a
private and has arrived in Northern Ireland. In the center of the large
office is a dark conference table surrounded by eight green chairs; a
couch with a gold print design stands off to the side. There is also a
lectern, so the director can work standing up.
Hayden sits in a green high-back chair. Nearby is a small space
heater to keep out the winter chill. On his walnut desk rests a pen holder
from his days as the number two commander in Korea, a notepad
printed with the word "DIRECTOR," and a Brookstone world clock. On a
table behind him, next to his NSA flag, are three computers”one for
classified work, another for unclassified work, and a secure laptop
linking him with members of his NSA Advisory Board, a small group of
outside consultants. There are also several telephones on the table. One
is for secure internal calls; another is a secure STU-III for secret external
calls; and a "red line" with buttons that can put him through instantly to
the secretary of defense, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and



415
other senior officials.
No phones, however, connect the director to the White House; indeed,
during Hayden's first year in office, he never once spoke directly to
President Clinton. "When I've talked to the people who've been in the
chair before," he said, "it seems to me that it's been pretty distant in the
past that the director of NSA has had routine contact with the president.
My routine contact has been”I've met with Jim Steinberg, who's the
deputy national security adviser, I wouldn't say 'routinely,' but the fact is
if I picked the phone up I could talk to Jim if I wanted to. John Hamry,
the deputy secretary of defense, although routinely I talk to Art Money,
his assistant secretary. At the CIA it's both [Director George] Tenet and
[Deputy Director Lieutenant General John A.] Gordon routinely on
anything that comes to mind."
To the side of his desk are two Sony television sets, one connected to
the outside world with the Weather Channel muted, and the other
connected to Crypto City's own secret television network. Over that set,
every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 7:15 A.M., Hayden gets a
private intelligence briefing from an NSOC official.
Next, on those same days, is an early morning briefing by his staff.
"I'll have a stand-up meeting in here with just my personal staff," said
Hayden, "public affairs, inspector general, lawyers, each of the key
components represented. It's real quick. Literally a stand-up, everyone's
standing, including me. The room is about a third full. We'll go quickly
around”hot news of the day."
On Tuesdays and Thursdays, Hayden walks down to the NSOC for an
8:00 A.M. meeting with all his senior officials. "It's something I started
here because I wanted the seniors to get a sense of the ops tempo. And
so we'll get a briefing in the NSOC from the ops officer, right there”
about five to seven minutes, and I keep beating them to keep it shorter.
And then we'll retire to a little room privately next door and have a quick
staff meeting. . . . By eight or eight-thirty we've kind of gotten the burst
communications and now you're into your work schedule."
Next comes a round of meetings and phone calls. Monday, January
31, 2000, for example, was spent cleaning up from the massive computer
crash a week before. Hayden's morning meetings centered on NSA's
Information Technology Backbone program; he spoke on the phone with
Arthur L. Money, the assistant secretary of defense for Command,
Control, Communications and Intelligence, and with Charles E. Allen,
the CIA's assistant director for collection. He also talked with Judith A.
Emmel, the chief of public affairs, about a candidate for the job of
legislative affairs officer.
Lunch also varies depending on the day. "Today [February 2, 2000] I
had lunch with the [NSA] Advisory Board," said Hayden. "Yesterday I had


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lunch with four randomly selected employees up here. The day before I
had lunch in the cafeteria. Every now and again we'll have a visitor.
Tomorrow Chris Mellon [the principal deputy assistant secretary of
defense for intelligence] . . . will be here and we'll have a formal lunch. I
have a little dining room off to the side here, seats eight comfortably."
After lunch there are more meetings, often out of the building. Much
of Hayden's time is spent being driven to and from Washington in his
official black Ford Grand Marquis, "going to [CIA headquarters at]
Langley [Virginia], over to the Pentagon. And so frankly that's the
reflective time, that's when I can work the telephones, that's when I can
get a little reading done. It's sort of a chockablock day of going from
meeting to meeting to meeting."
Hayden tries to leave by around 5:50 P.M., but he frequently brings
home a briefcase packed with secrets for late-night homework. "I've got
secure comms [communications] at home. I bring work home. I have a
vault at home where I can keep materials," he said. "And the big thing I
do the night before is this: my to-do list for the day, people I want to call,
hot things, long-term things." When Hayden isn't working, he enjoys
going to movies and reading about the Civil War. "I'm really a fan of the
Civil War," said Hayden. "I hate to be called a buff, but in my darker
moments my kids would call me that. I like battlefields. My wife and I
love movies, we see a lot of movies. All kinds of movies”you'd be
surprised."
An inner door in Hayden's office, past his private bathroom labeled
WATERCLOSET and a framed picture of the Pittsburgh Steelers,
connects him to his deputy director next door. That office, about half the
size of the director's, had a French provincial motif while Barbara
McNamara occupied it and southwestern after her successor, William
Black, moved in. A few steps away, behind the door to Room 2B8020, is
the Director's Large Conference Room”a circular, futuristic center where
high-level briefings are conducted. At the center is a wooden, doughnut-
shaped conference table with twenty-four rose-colored padded chairs.
Behind, like a mini-theater, are another sixty-six seats, and on the
opposite wall are three large, silvery multimedia screens. During
Operation Desert Storm the room was turned into a crisis center, and it
was also here where many of the crisis meetings were held during the
U.S. air attacks on Kosovo.
Also nearby is Barbara G. Fast, an Army brigadier general, who is
deputy chief of the little-known Central Security Service (CSS). In
addition to being the director of NSA, Hayden also commands the CSS,
NSA's own army, navy, and air force. In that second universe, he is
responsible for operational control of all signals intelligence collection, "in
consonance" with the commanders of the individual security services”
Naval Security Group Command, Army Intelligence and Security


417
Command, and Air Force Intelligence Agency. As deputy chief of CSS,
Fast helps manage NSA's vast network of worldwide listening posts.
In addition to his own armed forces, Hayden also has his own
"ambassadors," Special U.S. Liaison Officers (SUSLOs), who represent
NSA in various parts of the world. The job of SUSLO London is so choice
that it frequently serves as a preretirement posting for NSA's deputy
directors. Thus it was no surprise when Hayden's first deputy, Barbara
McNamara, decided to spend her final NSA days sipping tea and
shopping at Harrods. Other SUSLOs are located in Ottawa, Canada;
Canberra, Australia; and Wellington, New Zealand. Hayden also has
senior representatives to the major military commands. Based in Hawaii,
the chief, NSA/CSS Pacific, serves as the top cryptologic liaison with the
commander of American forces in the Pacific and the chief, NSA/CSS
Europe, has similar responsibilities with respect to the top U.S.
commander in that region. Finally, other officials, known as NSA/CSS
representatives, are posted in a variety of countries and with other
agencies, such as the Pentagon and the State Department.
Other residents of the eighth floor include the agency's chief scientist,
mathematician George R. Cotter. He is responsible for keeping NSA
abreast of fast-changing technologies in the outside world. Another is
Robert L. Deitz, NSA's general counsel, who manages the agency's forty-
five lawyers. For two decades, NSA has picked its top attorney, who
usually serves for about three years, from private practice. Deitz was
formerly a product liability lawyer.
Down the hall from Robert Deitz is Rear Admiral Joseph D. Burns, the
chief of staff. Among other things, his office helps formulate the top
secret United States Signals Intelligence Directives (USSIDs), which
govern NSA's worldwide eavesdropping operations. The USSIDs tell
eavesdroppers what to do; Technical Instructions (Techins) are then
issued to explain how to do it. The office also deals with the agency's
legislative, contracting, and budget issues.
Past the Russian Technical Library, through a breezeway decorated
with an American flag made up of photographs of NSA personnel, and
one is in OPS 1, the original A-shaped building built in the 1950s. Today,
as then, it is the principal home of the Directorate of Operations (DO).
First among equals, the DO constitutes the agency's largest single
division. With its legions of eavesdroppers, codebreakers, linguists, and
traffic and signals analysts, it encompasses the entire spectrum of
signals intelligence, from intercept to cryptanalysis, high-level diplomatic
systems to low-level radiotelephone chatter, analysis of cleartext to
analysis of metadata”information about information. Its brief covers the
analysis of cipher systems belonging to friend as well as foe, democracies
as well as dictatorships, microcountries as well as giants. It is the Black
Chamber's Black Chamber.


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Behind the door to Room 2W106”once the director's office before
OPS 2B was built”is James R. (Rich) Taylor, the deputy director for
operations. Formerly the agency's executive director, Taylor began his
civilian career at NSA in 1974, having graduated from the Air Force
Academy and spent five years as an officer with the NSA's air arm, the
Air Force Security Service. During the 1990s he became one of the
agency's top weapons experts. He also served as director of the RAMPART
National Program Office, a big-budget and highly secret joint intelligence
community activity "pursuing an area of major investment for future U.S.
intelligence operations."
"Operations," Taylor says, "encompasses all the activities that enable
analysts to provide intelligence to meet customer requirements. Many
agency personnel, in different jobs, have a stake in ensuring that Sigint
continues to be America's most valued source of intelligence." Essential,
he says, is a close relationship between those who collect the information
and those who build the ultra-advanced systems that make the collection
possible. "The key to our success is a strong dynamic partnership
between DT [the Directorate of Technology and Systems] and DO."
Taylor's deputy is Air Force Major General Tiiu Kera, a stocky woman
with reddish hair. A native of Germany, she was born in
Balingen/Württemberg at the end of World War II. In 1969, during the
height of the antiwar period, Kera received a master's degree in political
science from Indiana University. Four years later she was commissioned
a second lieutenant in the Air Force. During much of her career she held
a number of routine assignments as a personnel officer, mostly within
the United States. But in 1987 her career got a boost when she was sent
to the National War College for nine months. Kera spent the Gulf War not
making policy in the Pentagon or directing air missions over Baghdad
but hanging out in Harvard Square as a student, this time at Harvard's
Center for International Affairs. After her tour in Cambridge, she became
the first U.S. defense attach© to Lithuania and later was named director
of intelligence for the U.S. Strategic Command in Omaha, Nebraska.
Because of the growing closeness between NSA and CIA”especially
through the joint Special Collection Service, which uses clandestine
personnel and techniques to assist NSA”one of Taylor's top deputies
always comes from the CIA.
For nearly forty years the DO was organized along geographic lines.
The codebreakers of A Group focused on the Soviet Union, while those of
B Group analyzed the communications of Communist Asia and G Group
tackled the cipher systems of all other areas. But when the Cold War

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