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language authority.
According to Meyer, even though nearly half the world (47 percent)
speaks English, there is a growing tendency for people to return to local
languages. "Cultural pride has reemerged," said Meyer. "People use their
'own' languages, and there are all kinds of speakers." The number of
languages being used around the world, she said, is enormous”over
6,500”many of which are growing. Also, it takes a tremendous amount
of time to train language analysts in many of these "low-density"
languages, such as those used in Afghanistan. Simply to reach the
minimum professional capability”level 3”takes from three to eight
years of study.
By the summer of 2001, the agency had at last put together a
language database showing who in the agency speaks what languages
and where in the world they are located. By the fall, Meyer said, she
hoped to complete a Daily Language Readiness Indices”a daily printout
of the constantly changing database that would be placed on the
director's desk every morning. Thus, in the event of a crisis, such as the
attacks on September 11, the agency could identify and locate
immediately everyone who speaks the critical languages of the area.
When she was appointed to the new position Director Hayden told her
she had until October 15, 2001 to fix the system. The terrorists of
September 11, however, did not wait. "The bad guys are everywhere. The
bad guys do not always speak English," she said. "We are not always


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ready for the bad guys."
Adding to the problems, the agency has become spread far too thinly.
Largely as a result of politics, NSA has become burdened with thousands
of targets that pose little immediate risk to the nation while drawing
critical resources away from those, like bin Laden and Al Qaeda, that are
truly dangerous and time sensitive. One of those targets in which far too
many resources are spent is China. Since the end of the Cold War, a
number of fire-breathing conservatives and China hawks have sought to
turn it into a new Soviet Union. Among those is Robert Kagan, a former
aide to State Department official Elliot Abrams. "The Chinese leadership
views the world today in much the same way Kaiser Wilhelm II did a
century ago," Kagan said in an address to the Foreign Relations
Committee. Another is Michael Ledeen, a key player in the Reagan
administration's arms-for-hostages deal with Iran. "So long as China
remains a ruthless Communist dictatorship," he wrote in the Weekly
Standard, "the inevitability of conflict must inform all our thinking and
planning."
As a result of this new containment policy, fully endorsed by the Bush
administration, millions of dollars and thousands of people are used for
such things as daily, Cold War”style eavesdropping patrols throughout
the area, such as the one that crash-landed on China's Hainan Island in
the spring of 2001.
Another mission that draws valuable dollars, equipment, and
personnel away from critical operations is the use of NSA in the endless
drug war. According to NSA officials, the Drug Enforcement
Administration is constantly pressuring the agency to provide it with
ever-greater assistance and resources.
Yet even with the continued growth in targets and missions
throughout the 1990s, from wars to drugs to terrorists, the agency's
budget and personnel ranks were slashed by a third.
Shortly before he tragically killed himself in the summer of 2000,
House Intelligence Committee staff director John Millis was asked about
the readiness and capabilities of NSA and the other spy agencies. "I
think," he said, "we're in big trouble."
For half a century, NSA had fought a war against a giant nation with
fixed military bases, a sophisticated communications network, a stable
chain of command, and a long history from which future intentions could
be anticipated. Now that has all changed. Terrorists are stateless and
constantly on the move, their organizational structures are always in
flux, and the only thing that is predictable is that they will be
unpredictable. And when they do communicate, their infrequent
messages join with billions of other pieces of communication”e-mail, cell
phones, data transfers”zapping around the world at the speed of light in
a complex digital web of bits, bytes, and photons.
To succeed against the targets of the twenty-first century, the agency
will have to undergo a metamorphosis, changing both its culture and


540
technology.
More than eight decades earlier, another metamorphosis took place.
Walking into a twenty-five-foot vault in the old Munitions Building,
William F. Friedman yanked on a dangling cord attached to an overhead
lightbulb. Surrounding him was all that remained of what had been
America's Black Chamber. Yet with just a few assistants, over the course
of the next ten years he transformed the defunct Black Chamber into the
Signal Intelligence Service, which succeeded against all odds in breaking
the Japanese Purple code. This ended up shortening World War II and
thus saving thousands of lives. That kind of heroic breakthrough is the
challenge for NSA. But they do not have a decade.


APPENDIX A
DIRECTORS AND DEPUTY DIRECTORS OF THE AFSA
AND NSA
Armed Forces Security Agency
Director
Rear Admiral Earl E. Stone, USN 15 July 1949-25 July 1951
Major General Ralph J. Canine, USA 15 July 1951-4 November 1952
Vice Director
The following served concurrently and had specific areas of
responsibility in addition to representing their respective services.
Colonel S. P. Collins, USA Captain Joseph N. Wenger, USN Colonel
Roy H. Lynn, USAF
National Security Agency
Director
Major General Ralph Canine, USA
(Acting)
4 November 1952-21 November 1952
Lieutenant General Ralph Canine,
USA
21 November 1952-23 November 1956
Lieutenant General John A. Samford,
USAF
24 November 1956-23 November 1960
Vice Admiral Laurence H. Frost, USN 24 November 1960-30 June
1962
Lieutenant General Gordon A. Blake,
USAF
i July 1962-31 May 1965
Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter,
USA
1 June 1965-31 July 1969
Vice Admiral Noel Gayler, USN 1 August 1969-31 July 1972



541
Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips,
USAF
1 August 1972-14 August 1973
Lieutenant General Lew Allen, Jr.,
USAF
15 August 1973-4 July 1977
Vice Admiral Bobby R. Inman, USN 5 July 1977-31 March 1981
Lieutenant General Lincoln D. Faurer,
USAF
1 April 1981-27 March 1985
Lieutenant General William E. Odom,
USA
5 May 1985-31 July 1988
Vice Admiral William O. Studeman, USN 1 August 1988-8 April 1992
ZZYZX page number

Vice Admiral J. M. McConnell, USN
22 May 1992-22 February 1996
Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF
23 February 1996-15 March 1999
Lieutenant General Michael V Hayden,
USAF
25 March 1999-
Deputy Director
Rear Admiral Joseph N. Wenger, USN* 2 December 1952-28 July
1953
Brigadier General John B. Ackerman,
USAF*
26 October 1955-4 June 1956
Major General John A. Samford, USAF* 4 June 1956-24 November
1956
Joseph H. Ream
2 February 1957-18 September 1957
Dr. Howard T. Engstrom
18 October 1957-1 August 1958
Dr. Louis W. Tordella
1 August 1958-21 April 1974
Benson K. Buffham
22 April 1974”50 April 1978
Robert E. Drake
1 May 1978-30 March 1980
Ann Z. Caracristi
1 April 1980-30 July 1982
Robert E. Rich
31 July 1982-3 July 1986
Charles R. Lord


542
9 July 1986-13 March 1988
Gerald R. Young
14 March 1988-28 July 1990
Robert L. Prestel
29 July 1990-1 February 1994
William P. Crowell
2 February 1994-12 September 1997
Barbara A. McNamara
8 November 1997-30 June 2000
William B. Black, Jr. 22 September 2000
*Title was actually vice director.

APPENDIX B

NSA LINGUISTIC CAPABILITY
NSA has provided training for linguists in at least ninety-five
languages, including:
Afrikaans
Albanian
Algerian
Amharic
Arabic
Armenian
Azerbaijani
Basque
Belarussian
Bengali
Berber
Bulgarian
Burmese
Cambodian
Chinese, all dialects
Czech
Danish
Dari
Dutch
Egyptian
Estonian
Finnish
French
Georgian
German
Greek
Haitian Creole (Kreyol)
Hebrew
Hindi


543
Hungarian
Icelandic
Ilocano
Indonesian
Iraqi
Italian
Japanese
Jordanian
Kazakh
Kirghiz
Korean
Kurdish
Kuwaiti
Lao
Latvian
Levantine
Libyan
Lingala
Lithuanian
Macedonian
Malaysian
Moldovan
Mongolian
Moroccan
Nepali
Norwegian
Papiamento
Pashto
Persian-Farsi
Polish
Portuguese, all dialects
Punjabi
Pushto
Quechua
Romanian
Russian
Saudi
Serbo-Croatian
Sinhalese
Slovak
Slovene (Slovenian)
Somali
Sotho
Spanish
Sudanese
Swahili


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