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Swedish
Syrian
Tagalog
Tajik
Tamil
Thai
Tibetan
Tigrinya
Turkish
Turkmen
Tunisian
Ukrainian
Urdu
Uzbek
Vietnamese (all dialects)
Visayan-Cebuano
Xhosa
Yemeni
Yoruba
Zulu

Also, all dialects of Arabic, including Libyan, Algerian, Moroccan,
Tunisian, Egyptian, Levantine, Syrian, Jordanian, Sudanese, Saudi,
Kuwaiti, Iraqi, Yemeni, and Modern Standard.




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APPENDIX C

CRYPTOLOGIC OCCUPATIONS AT NSA

EXPERT SIGINT LINGUIST SENIOR LANGUAGE ANALYST
LANGUAGE ANALYST LANGUAGE INTERN These occupations are
involved with the translation into English of technical documents and the
content analysis of materials of special significance or priority.
EXPERT VOICE LINGUIST SENIOR VOICE LANGUAGE ANALYST
VOICE LANGUAGE ANALYST Convert foreign language voice intercept
into written English. This may involve gisting (reproducing the essence of
an intercepted conversation) and content analysis of voice intercepts to
determine significance and priority.
EXPERT CRYPTOLOGIC LINGUIST SENIOR CRYPTOLOGIC
LANGUAGE
ANALYST CRYPTOLOGIC LANGUAGE
ANALYST
The application of linguistic principles, theories, and practices to the
analysis and solution of a wide variety of cryptologic problems
concerning foreign written and voice communications. Analysts advise on
the construction, grammar, and syntax of language, and vocabulary
development. Other work may involve translation, transcribing, gisting,
and scanning.
EXPERT RESEARCH LINGUIST SENIOR LANGUAGE RESEARCH
ANALYST
LANGUAGE RESEARCH ANALYST The planning and development of
glossaries, course materials, dictionaries, and reference works. These
occupations also involve computer studies of the characteristics of target
languages.
CRYPTANALYTIC EXPERT SENIOR CRYPTANALYST
CRYPTANALYST”GENERAL CRYPTANALYST”MACHINE
CRYPTANALYST”MANUAL CRYPTANALYTIC SUPPORT
TECHNICIAN CRYPTANALYSIS INTERN The application of analytic
techniques, methods, and procedures for the analysis or solution of
complex cipher problems.
TRAFFIC ANALYTIC EXPERT SENIOR TRAFFIC ANALYST TRAFFIC
ANALYST TRAFFIC ANALYST INTERN The analysis of
telecommunications patterns for intelligence and cryptanalytic purposes.
SIGNALS ANALYSIS EXPERT
SENIOR SIGNALS ANALYST
SIGNALS ANALYST
SIGNALS ANALYSIS INTERN
The analysis and evaluation of foreign
signals to derive and compile strategic,
technical, and scientific intelligence. Also the exploitation of raw
electronic signals and processed signal components to derive valuable


546
intelligence information on the identity, function, characteristics, and
capabilities of the signal and radiating equipment.
COLLECTION EXPERT SENIOR COLLECTION MANAGER
COLLECTION MANAGER Development and evaluation of programs,
policies, requirements, and instructions involved in signals intelligence
collection.
SENIOR COLLECTION OPERATIONS
CONTROLLER COLLECTION OPERATIONS
CONTROLLER
Managing, administering, directing, advising on, or performing work
involved with the production of signals intelligence.
MORSE COLLECTOR All positions with duties involved in the study or
interception of radio emanations transmitted in international Morse or
similar codes. The intercept operator may search for, identify, collect,
record, and/or transcribe the signals.
MULTIMODE COLLECTOR Duties involving the identification,
reporting, and processing of foreign electromagnetic emissions.
SIGNALS CONVERSION EXPERT SENIOR SIGNALS CONVERSION
SPECIALIST
SIGNALS CONVERSION SPECIALIST Advise on, supervise, or perform
work involving the transformation of signals into a format or media
amenable to their identification for further analysis.
CRYPTOLOGIC ENGINEER ENGINEERING INTERN Positions at the
supergrade level that require the highest degree of technical knowledge
and skill in order to plan, develop, direct, advise on, and implement
engineering programs that deal with NSA's key cryptologic missions.
CRYPTOLOGIC COMPUTER
SCIENTIST
COMPUTER SCIENTIST COMPUTER ANALYST Study and analyze
cryptanalytic problems to evaluate whether and how solutions might be
obtained using computer technology.
SENIOR FREQUENCY
MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST FREQUENCY MANAGEMENT
SPECIALIST
Perform a variety of duties associated with radio frequency
engineering and management, radio-wave propagation, and
electromagnetic compatibility. The work requires the ability to study and
advise on technical and general operational aspects of
telecommunications systems with a view toward supporting NSA
projects.
EXPERT CRYPTOLOGIC
MATHEMATICIAN SENIOR CRYPTOLOGIC
MATHEMATICIAN CRYPTOLOGIC MATHEMATICIAN CRYPTANALYTIC
MATHEMATICIAN
INTERN
Perform work involving the development and application of


547
mathematical methods for the investigation and numerical and analytical
solution of cryptologic problems in various subject-matter fields where
the exactitude of the relationships, the rigor and economy of
mathematical operation, and the logical necessity of results are the
controlling consideration.
SENIOR OPERATIONS RESEARCH
ANALYST
OPERATIONS RESEARCH ANALYST OPERATIONS RESEARCH
INTERN Design, develop, and adapt mathematical, statistical,
econometric, as well as other scientific methods and techniques to
analyze cryptologic problems. Performance of this responsibility requires
the ability to construct quantitative models that will provide insight into
the probable effects of alternative solutions to the problems. The primary
purpose of operations research studies and evaluations is to provide a
decision maker with sound, scientific, and quantitative bases by which to
sharpen intuition and judgment in making his decisions.
CRYPTOLOGIC SCIENTIST Positions at the supergrade level that
require the highest degree of technical knowledge and skill in order to
plan, develop, direct, advise on, and implement one or more complex and
important physical science (physics or chemistry) programs to
accomplish NSA's cryptologic mission.
CRYPTOLOGIC EDUCATION AND
TRAINING EXPERT Advise on, administer, and perform professional
work involving research, conceiving and planning comprehensive training
programs for use at the National Cryptologic School and elsewhere.
SENIOR INVESTIGATOR
INVESTIGATOR
Positions involved with investigating
candidates for employment or access,
reinvestigations of employees and other affiliated personnel, and
counterintelli-gence activities and the investigations of other matters
under the jurisdiction of the director, NSA.
SENIOR POLYGRAPH EXAMINER POLYGRAPH EXAMINER
Administration and supervision of polygraph examinations as part of
counterin-telligence and personnel security investigations.
TECHNICAL SECURITY OFFICER TECHNICAL SECURITY
SPECIALIST Performs technical security research and
surveys.
SENIOR CRYPTOLOGIC MATERIAL
CONTROLLER CRYPTOLOGIC MATERIAL
CONTROLLER
Involved with the planning, development, and operation of systems
that assure accountability of cryptologic equipment and other materials,
such as magnetic tapes. This also includes the forecasting of cryptologic
material requirements and trends.
CRYPTOMATERIAL CHECKER Operation of inspection and quality


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control systems for the prepublication editing, proofreading, and
checking of cryptographic materials.
INFOSEC EXPERT /^
Perform research into programs designed to safeguard U.S. and other
designated telecommunications from unauthorized disclosure or
exploitation.
INFOSEC OPERATIONS OFFICER INFOSEC OPERATIONS ANALYST
Develop Infosec systems for U.S. and other designated communications.
Review established information security programs for communications
insecurities. Analyze foreign intelligence systems and practices,
technological advances, trends, and developments in order to develop
and interpret data on the crypto-logic accomplishments and potential of
foreign countries.
INFOSEC SYSTEMS OFFICER INFOSEC SYSTEMS ANALYST
INFOSEC INTERN Determine vulnerabilities of communications systems
and devise or develop the methodology for minimizing those
vulnerabilities.

NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES
HSTL: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library
DDEL: Dwight David Eisenhower Presidential Library
JFKL: John Fitzgerald Kennedy Presidential Library
LBJL: Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library
NSAN: National Security Agency Newsletter
NSA: Unless otherwise noted, all NSA items came from the National
Security Agency.
JCS: Joint Chiefs of Staff
FRUS: U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the U.S. Series
ARRB: Assassinations Records Review Board
TICOM: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Cream report, "European
Axis Signal
Intelligence in World War II as Revealed by 'TICOM' Investigations and
by Other
Prisoner of War Interrogations and Captured Material, Principally
German" (May
1, 1946). Nine volumes.
Lemnitzer's Private Summary: Long-hidden, handwritten fifty-two-
page private
account of the Bay of Pigs affair by General Lyman L. Lemnitzer
(undated). Kept
in Lemnitzer's private papers at his family home in Pennsylvania.




549
CHAPTER 1: Memory /
Page
1 The Munitions Building was located at the corner of Nineteenth
Street and Constitution Avenue in Washington.
1 Friedman walk to the vault: Frank B. Rowlett, The Story of Magic:
Memoirs of an American Cryptologic Pioneer (Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean
Park Press, 1998), p. 34.
2 "Welcome, gentlemen": ibid., p. 35. 2 Rowlett's clothes: ibid., p. 34.
2 Sinkov and Kullback background: James Bamford, The Puzzle
Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 30.
2 more than 10,000 messages: ibid., p. 16.
3 the Chamber's demise: ibid., pp. 16”17.
3 given its cautious approval: Rowlett, op. cit., pp. 37”38. 3 State
Department... never to know: ibid.
3 vault twenty-five feet square: ibid., p. 34.
4 "The NSA Christmas party was a big secret": NSA, Top
Secret/Umbra, Oral history of Robert L. Prestel (December 21, 1993), p.
14.
4 "For a long time we didn't tell anybody": Laura Sullivan, "Secret Spy
Agency Puts On Human Face," Baltimore Sun (March 21, 2000).
5 "They picked him up": ibid.
5 NSA leased the entire building: ibid.
5 "I do this with some trepidation": Address by Vice Admiral William
O. Stude-man to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber (June 29,
1990).

CHAPTER 2: Sweat
Page
7 "the United States will be": Office of Strategic Services, secret
memorandum, William O. Donovan to President Truman, with attached
report, "Problems and Objectives of United States Policy" (May 5, 1945),
pp. 1, 2 (HSTL, Rose Conway File, OSS Memoranda for the President,
Box 15).
8 TICOM: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Cream report,
"European Axis Signal Intelligence in World War II as Revealed by
'TICOM' Investigations and by Other Prisoner of War Interrogations and
Captured Material, Principally German," (May 1, 1946). Nine volumes.
(Hereafter referred to as TICOM.)
8 Colonel George A. Bicher: TICOM, vol. 1, p. 2.
8 Marshall message to Eisenhower: War Department message,
Marshall to Eisenhower (August 7, 1944), contained in TICOM, vol. 8, p.
55.
9 "the plan contemplated": ibid., p. 3.
9 "a. To learn the extent... war against Japan": ibid. 10 "was no longer

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