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CRH gene transcription 220
median eminence (ME) 115, 203
HPA axis 218
adult pancreatic morphology 127
neuroendocrine terminals 218
adult-onset disease
RNA transcripts 218
fetal physiology 2
basal plasma 43, 120, 158
glucocorticoids 6, 8
bed nucleus 8, 11, 92, 215, 246, 250, 258
hypothalamic“pituitary“adrenal (HPA) 6
-endorphin ( E) 20, 38, 183
epidemiological studies 89
3-adrenoceptors 144
allergic symptoms 251
betamethasone administration 122, 124
amygdala 8, 92, 93, 94, 157, 162, 163,
betamethasone exposure 124, 161
184“185, 203, 243, 252
270 Index


closed-loop feedback
binding protein
negative-feedback signals 203, 204, 206
activin A 53
secretogogue peptides 204
CBG 122
upper- and lower-limit values 204
CRE 213
CNS programming mechanisms 161
CRH 24, 80, 97, 191, 242
CNS
IGF 101, 154
antenatal glucocorticoids 145, 160
receptors 52
calcitonin-gene-related peptide 42
birth and behavior 1, 235
estrogens 145
blood“brain barrier 235, 243
glucocorticoid programming 156“157
body mass index (BMI) 90, 124
neuropeptide Y 40
brain and placenta 1“15
programming mechanisms 161
brush-border membrane 41, 43
programming the HPA axis 157
comfort foods
CBG 122, 128
saccharin 93
calcitonin-gene-related peptide 40, 42
compromised immune system 91
calcium channel blockers 46
concept of programming 142
calcium homeostasis 46
corpus callosum 123
cAMP 24, 30, 49, 52, 54, 81, 117, 164, 213
corpus luteum 104
cannabinoid receptors 19
corticosteroid binding globulin 122 see also
carbenoxolone 120, 127, 149, 150, 151, 154
CBG
catecholaminergic inputs 214, 215
corticosteroid“receptor complexes 243
cell specificity
corticosterone™s long-term actions
glucocorticoids 209
AVP gene expression 217, 218, 220, 221,
CRH gene expression 208, 211, 215, 225
227
CRH neuroendocrine motor 207, 209, 214
CRH hnRNA levels 218, 220, 227
cell: actions on mechanisms
CRH immunoneutralization 220
receptor mechanism 213
extero- and interosensory information
signal transduction mechanism 210, 213
221
cell culture 16, 24, 56
corticosterone 115, 121, 147, 153, 162, 206,
cellular proliferation 117
214, 217, 222
central nervous system 2, 3, 8, 40, 98, 145,
corticotropin-releasing gene expression 258
184, 202 see also CNS
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 9, 93,
acetylcholine 22, 25, 163
162, 184, 203, 241
arginine vasopressin 22, 25, 30, 115, 159,
cerebral palsy 74, 85
202
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 12, 249
cerebrospinal fluid 12, 13, 249
CGRP, effect of
fetal plasma 21, 28
sex steroid hormones 49, 50
glucocorticoids 8, 10, 25, 79, 80, 93, 96,
chorionic corticotropin 24
186, 202, 207, 212
chorionic plate 42, 49
neurons 8, 9, 10, 116, 203, 207, 211, 214,
chromogranin A
216, 221, 226
colocalization 32
paraventricular nucleus 8, 92, 115, 157,
enkephalins 33
202, 239
vasointestinal peptide 32
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
enkephalins 33
cortisol
classic review 216
treatment 129
classical lifestyle risk factors 142
271 Index


CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) 23, 94, 190,
starvation time 98
239
synthesis 31, 81
CRH-cortisol axis 96
CRE-binding protein (CREB) 213“214
CRH hnRNA
CRH or AVP gene transcription
signal transduction cascades 211
initiation 222
CRH regulation
CRH, NPY, effect of 47
cell type 10, 202, 207, 227
CGRP, effect 49
intracellular and extracellular factors 10,
PTHrp, effect 50
207
CRH gene expression
cultured placental cell
autonomic 208
ACTH 24, 25
behavioural actions 208
CRH 22, 24, 81
neuroendocrine 208
GnRH 55
CRH gene transcription 213, 214, 216, 217,
OT 25, 35
218, 220, 224, 225, 226, 227
cultured trophoblast cells 24, 52
CRH immunoneutralization 220
Cushing™s syndrome 129, 146
CRH messenger ribonucleic acid see also
cyclic adenosine monophosphate 24, 79, 117,
CRH mRNA
212, 238 see also cAMP
amygdala 203, 243, 248
cytoarchitechtural development
human placenta 8, 10, 203
hippocampal neurons 125
CRH mRNA 10, 11, 94, 206
cytotrophoblast cell
CRH neuroendocrine motor
ACTH 24
CRH gene control 209
CRH 20, 81
CRH neuronal function
gonadotropin-releasing hormone 52, 54
CRH hnRNA 211, 217
NPY, CGRP role 40
peptide biosynthesis 202, 211
opioid peptides 38
CRH neurons 8, 9, 209, 211, 213, 214, 216,
221, 245
decapeptidic hormone 54
CRH programming
decidual cells 20, 23, 26, 32, 42, 43, 50
acetylcholine transmission 163
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) 116
amygdala 162
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 30, 80, 92
hippocampal GR mRNA 164
see also DHEA-S
monoaminergic system 165
deoxyribonuclei acid (DNA) 195
neuronal pathway and mechanism 164
developmental programming of adult
CRH receptors 21, 36, 80, 81, 243, 248,
disease
254
coronary artery disease 118
CRH release 21, 81, 131, 158, 228, 247
hypertension 118
CRH synthesis
lower birth weight 124
endoplasmic reticulum 211
dexamethasone (DEX) 238
Golgi complex 211
DHEA-S 30, 36, 37, 81, 92, 95, 96, 107, 108
CRH system
DNA-binding factors 243
appetitive behaviors 93
Doppler flow studies 80
survival elicit approach 93
dynamics of transcriptional activation
CRH, role of
ADX animals 225, 226
human parturition 37
plasma corticosterone 224, 225
myometrial contractility 37
pre-proenkephalin 225
neuroendocrine factors 35
dynorphin 38, 56, 209
ovine pregnancy 36
272 Index


fetal and infant development 8, 183, 186
early life programming 142
fetal glucocorticoid
ECS 33, 43, 45
exposure 120, 122, 127, 149, 160
efferent organization
fetal growth and premature growth (placental
catecholaminergic 214“215
CRH)
CRH neuronal-control process 214
antepartum risk 189
immunocytochemical 213
intrauterine pregnancies 186, 189
mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases
maternal plasma 189, 237
214
radioimmuno assay 189
pulse-chase design 213
fetal growth restriction 29, 104, 152, 189
hypothalamic and amygdalar projections
fetal heart rate (FHR) 186, 191
215
fetal HPA activation
somatic motor systems 214, 215
prostaglandin 5, 21, 75, 81, 84, 118
neural-control processes 214
fetal HPA axis
corticosterone-dependent-control
cyclic adenosine monophosphate 117
processes 214
dehydroepiandrostendione (DHEA) 116
elective Cesarean 27 see also ECS
paraventricular nuclei 115, 157, 202, 239
electroencephalography (EEG) 252
fetal lung maturation 121, 122, 123
elevated cortisol 254
fetal ovine adipose tissue maturation 129
11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA
fetal physiology 237
type 1 97, 154
fetal pituitary“adrenal axis 238
type 2 8, 90, 91, 97, 108, 114, 241
fetal plasma cortisol 118, 146
endocrine hormones 192
fetal programming 118, 119, 120, 127, 149
endocrine physiology
fetal undernutrition 108, 144
neuroendocrine mechanisms of
fetal“placental blood flow
homeostasis 203
peptide signaling 46
enkephalin 33, 38, 209, 225
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 19, 164
epidemiology
follicle-stimulating hormone see FSH

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