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cardiovascular risk 143
follistatin-related gene (FLRG) 52
epithelial amnion cells 41
FSH
epithelial cells 20, 23, 52
gonadotropin-releasing hormone 52, 54
epithelial“mesenchymal interactions 44
hCG 52, 53
estradiol formation 81
inhibin-related peptide 50, 51
estrogen 30, 35“36, 37, 75, 76, 96, 107, 145
functional compartmentalization
exterosensory and interosensory information
corticosterone 209, 211, 213
221
CRH gene transcription 210, 213, 214, 216
extra-hypothalamic brain regions 246
CRH neuronal function 211
interact with CRH neurons 209
fail-safe system 4, 84
membrane excitability 210, 211, 228
fear-related behaviors 243
neuron™s specific complement 211
feedback principles
CRH neurons 209
open and closed-loop feedback 205, 206,
stimulus-release coupling mechanisms 211
226
translation of CRH mRNA 211, 228
positive and negative feedback 92, 115,
functional magnetic resonance imaging
117, 125, 157, 184, 203, 239
(fMRI) 252
feed-forward mechanisms 37, 93, 118
future directions (conclusions)
feed-forward processes 255
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 195
fertilized human ovum 88
273 Index


tissue maturation 146
embryonic 194“195
extrahypothalamic 184
human fetus 194
frontal cortex 184
predictors 194
hippocampus 125, 161, 184, 243
psychoneuroendocrine 195
neuropeptides 33, 227, 228 see also
transgenerational effect 194
NPY
vasopressin response 228
gene transcription factor 165
maternal“placental“fetal axis 1, 202
gestational age (GA) 187, 188, 190
neuronal function 202, 216
gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 90, 102
neuropeptide biosynthesis 202
glucocorticoid (natal) treatment 130, 145,
secretion 97
193
glucose
glucocorticoid exposure 151“152
intolerance 124, 126, 127, 129, 153, 154,
glucocorticoid facilitation
167
corticotropin-releasing hormone 235
transporter 127, 152
glucocorticoid induction
glucose“insulin homoeostasis see also
CRH 243
metabolic function of glucocorticoid
glucocorticoid metabolites 124
adiponectin 156
glucocorticoid programming
adipose tissue programming 154
birthweight 144
CRH programming 162
calreticulin 152
forced-swim test 160
cardiac metabolic regulators 152
glucocorticoid-dependent hepatic
congenital adrenal hyperplasia 145
enzymes 154
low-birth-weight baby syndrome 144, 146
gluconeogenesis 152“153
metabolic regulators 144
hippocampal neurones 160“164
mineralocorticoid receptor 146
hyperglycaemia 152
neuropsychiatric disorders 156
hyperinsulinaemia 152
neurotransmitters 156
ketanserin 164
osteoporosis 146
neonatal handling paradigm 161
programming the heart 151
pancreas programming 154
programming of the brain 156
PEPCK 152“153
tissue maturation 146
periportal zone 165“166
brain 156
schizophrenia 160
organizational effects 145
thiazolidinedione 155
steroids 145
GnRH 52“56
humans 166
gonadotropin-releasing hormone 52, 54,
glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
99 see also GnRH
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
G-protein-coupled receptor 26, 45
212
GR gene 164
control elements 212
GR gene expression
glucocorticoid sensitive genes 132“133
hippocampal neurones 164
glucocorticoid-dependent hepatic enzymes
granulocyte and monocyte colony
154
stimulating factor 52
glucocorticoid-regulatory element (GRE)
growth hormone insulin-like growth factor
212, 226
(GH-IGF)
glucocorticoids
principal fetal growth factor 101
birth weight 145
principal embryonic growth factor 101
low-birth-weight baby syndrome 146
274 Index


hyperglyc(a)emia 100, 127, 128, 152, 221, 158
HDL 90, 126
hyperinsulin(a)emia 131, 152
health and disease
hyperleptin(a)emia 99, 131
functional roles 1
hyperparathyroidism 46
peptide and steroid 3
hypocortisolemia 255
HELLP syndrome 42
hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing
hemodynamic stressors
hormone 183“184
CRH and AVP genes 226
hypothalamic eminence 21
hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes 127
hypothalamic neurons 54
hepatic glucose output 127
hypothalamic PVN 116, 162
hepatic-insulin resistance 127“128, 155
hypothalamic“pituitary“adrenal (HPA)
high density lipoprotein see also HDL
axis 6“7, 23, 29, 75, 92, 96“98, 108, 114,
glucocorticoids 90, 92, 96, 108
115, 121
poor fetal nutrition 90
hypothalamic“pituitary“gonadal axis
high-pressure liquid chromatography
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
(HPLC) 41
52, 53, 99
hindbrain 208, 209, 215
hypothalamus 243
hippocampus 243
hypovolemia
HPA axis
initiation 222
arginine vasopressin (AVP) 115
corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)
IGF
115
type-1 101, 102, 107
cyclic adenosine monophosphate 117
type-2 101, 102, 107
dehydroepiandrostendione 116
inhibin-related peptide
HPA secretory
heteromeric complex 51
dynamics 222
transforming growth factor- 50
initiation 222
insulin receptor substrate 127
negative feedback 222
insulin secretion 127, 131
response (stress) 222
insulin-like growth factor
which genes 222, 226
metabolic control 89
HPA“placental axis 185, 190
pregnancy outcome 90
hCG 32, 52, 53, 55
preterm birth 4
human chorionic gonadotropin 52 see also
type 2 diabetes 126
hCG
intracellular mechanisms
human fetal CNS development 190
initiation 222
human infant development (endocrine
intra-hepatic levels 128
hormones)
intrauterine environment 7, 80, 114, 118,
fetal CNS 191
143, 184“185, 190
HPA axis 192“194
intrauterine growth restriction see also IUGR
maternal and placental hormones 192
neonatal morbidity, mortality 89
human myometrial activation 5, 81
umbilical cord plasma 45
human myometrium 21, 36, 43, 81
IUGR 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 90, 91, 101, 102, 103, 104,
human parturition
107, 118
Heisenberg™s Uncertainty Principle 74
intrauterine homeostasis 92
human umbilical vein endothelial cells
(HUVEC) 47
lactogen 50, 102
hyperactive amygdala 250
LDL 90
hypercortisolemia 29, 133, 255
275 Index


maternal“placental“fetal axis 1, 202
leptin
maternal“placental“fetal“neuroendocrine
central nervous system 98
mechanisms 8, 185
obese mouse model 98
maternal“placental“fetal physiology 3
resistance 99, 131
melancholic depressive 255
Level 1 neurons
membrane excitability 210, 211, 228
catecholaminergic inputs 214, 215
heteronuclear (hn) 211, 218
somatic motor system 214, 215
membrane excitability
Level 2 neurons
adaptive response 211, 228
amygdalar projections 215
immediate response 211, 228
hypothalamic projections 215
Menkes disease 91
lifestyle risk factors
messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)
adult weight 106, 142
amygdala 203, 207, 215
alcohol 142, 186
human placenta 203, 211
lack of exercise 142
metabolic function of glucocorticoid
smoking 142, 186
gluconeogenesis 152
social class 142
glucose metabolism 152
lipid metabolism 90, 131
hypoglycemia 152“153
local cellular environment
uncoupling proteins 152
extracellular factors 10, 207

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