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metabolic functions 122, 126, 127, 152
intracellular factors 10, 207
metabolic signals
locus coeruleus (Barringtons™ nucleus) 10,
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
245
5, 89
low-density lipoprotein 90, 126 see also LDL
insulin-like growth factor system 89, 144
low-birth-weight babies 90, 143, 146, 150,
leptin 89
239, 241, 258
maternal malnutrition 90, 108, 156
luteinizing hormone 40, 54
pre-eclampsia 90, 99
metabolic syndrome 146
marmoset 92, 94, 104, 106
micronutrient deficiencies 91
maternal behavior 25, 161, 186
mineralocorticoid receptor 115, 146, 212 see
maternal glucocorticoid 8, 90, 108, 121, 125,
also MR
127, 149, 150, 151, 152, 228
mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 54
maternal interaction 121
MR 126, 146, 147, 150, 157, 158, 162, 163, 164
maternal nutrition
multiple levels (interaction)
placental 11 -hydroxysteroid
glucocorticoid interaction 212
dehydrogenase 108, 114, 146
myometrial relaxation 81
maternal nutrition 1, 5, 88, 89, 90, 91, 99
maternal physiology 3, 11, 102, 237
National Institutes of Health 122, 228
maternal pituitary“adrenal axis 107, 185, 191
negative feedback
maternal plasma concentration 78, 84
closed-loop negative-feedback signal 203,
maternal psychosocial stress 8, 91, 186, 187,
204, 206, 226
195
CRH hnRNA and mRNA levels 226“227
maternal separation 121
hypovolemic stress 227
maternal serum CRH 5, 6, 11, 94, 98, 107,
steroid hormones 203
108
neonatal development 240
maternal serum leptin 99
neonatal handling 161
maternal stress 107, 114, 120, 183“189, 194
neonatal morbidity 7, 89, 120, 121
maternal undernutrition 90, 107, 149, 159
276 Index


CRH 20, 21, 22, 212“213
neonatal mortality
neuropeptide Y 40
pre-eclampsia 28
oxytocin 25
preterm birth 74
non-human primate model 101, 104, 145,
nerve growth factor-inducible factor A
183
(NGFI-A) 164
NPY 130, 213
neural systems 214, 216
NPY, CGRP, role of
neurobiological model
adenyl cyclase 44
neuroendocrine functions 190, 203, 221
myometrial contractility 40
neuroendocrine compartment
nitric oxide formation 44
magnocellular motor neurons 209
nutrition
posterior pituitary 209
fetal nutrition 90
oxytocin 209
neuroendocrine function
obstetric risk factors 187, 194
chronic maternal psychologic distress 191
OMPFC 254
environmental stress 190
opioid peptide 38“39, 56
fetal CNS 184, 188, 190, 191
opioids, role of
heart rate (HR) 186, 191
brainstem inputs 37
HPA“placental axis 185, 191
umbilical cord plasma 40
VA stimuli 186, 191
organizational effects
neuroendocrine
estrogen 145
mechanisms 8, 185, 203, 206
OT, role of
neurons 202, 208, 214, 218, 222, 227
decidual mRNA 35
system 23, 32, 195, 258
myometrial responsiveness 34
terminals 211, 218, 222
proof of concept 33
neurohormones
OTR 26, 35
placental expression 16
overnutrition 103, 107
placental secretion 17, 19
oxytocin receptor 76, 82, 84 see also OTR
neuronal degeneration
oxytocin
hippocampal neurones 160
cultured placental cells 25, 26, 36
neuronal function 202, 211, 216
maternal plasma 27
neuropeptide gene expression
neurophyseal hormone 25
arginine vasopressin 22, 23, 202, 203
oxytocinase 26
biosynthesis 202, 211
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 127
202, 206, 209
parabrachial region 10, 245
HPA axis 203
parathyroid hormone 44, 46
paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus
parathyroid hormone-related peptide 44“45
(PVH) 202, 203
see also PTHrP
median eminence (ME) 203
PVH 202, 203, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214,
neuropeptide Y (NPY) 40“42, 130, 213
221, 227
neuropeptides
paraventricular nucleus 8, 10, 92, 115, 157,
central nervous system 41, 202
202, 239 see also PVN
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
parturition 34, 37, 75, 77, 88
22, 23, 203, 228
parturition in mammals
neuromodulators 202
fetal adrenal synthesis 76
neurosteroids, monoamines 16, 18
progesterone concentrations 75, 81
neurotransmitter
277 Index


placental endocrinology
parturition primates
hormonal production 19
endocrinology 77
placental neuroendocrine markers 240
parvicellular division 9, 245
placental villi
parvicellular pre-autonomic neurons
calcitonin-gene-related peptide 42
208
CRH 20
paternal genome 77
inhibin-related peptide 50
paternal“maternal conflict 77
neuropeptide Y 40
PE 28, 29, 42, 43, 45, 53
opioid peptides 38
peptide biosynthesis 202, 211
POMC 24, 38, 49, 191
peptide signaling
positron emission tomography (PET) 255
CGRP, effect of 49“50
postnatal adiposity 130
CRH, NPY, effects of 47“49
postnatal development 37, 39, 156, 188, 192,
CRH, role of 35“37
194, 249
myometrial contractility 33
postnatal metabolic function 126, 127
NPY, CGRP, role of 40“44
postpartum period 49, 186
opioids, role of 37“40
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 255,
OT, role of 33“51
257
PTHrP, effects of 50
PPAR 152, 157
PTHrp, role of 44“46
pre-adipocyte differentiation 129
peptide synthetic mechanisms 222
pre-eclampsia 5, 11, 19, 42, 49, 80, 90, 99, 146
peptide tyrosine 40
see also PE
peripheral cortisol metabolism 129
prefrontal cortex 161, 252, 254, 255, 258
peripheral nervous system 40
pregnancy, birth outcomes (maternal stress)
peripheral neuroendocrine markers 240
population-based epidemiological studies
peripheral programming
187
cardiac metabolic regulators 152
prenatal stress 186
cardiovascular control 150
psychosocial process 186, 187
renin“angiotensin system 151
stress physiology 187
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
pregnancy, infant developmental outcomes
144 see also PPAR
lower Brazelton 188
phenotype hypothesis 127
psychological state and gestational age 188
phosphatidyl inositol 3 127
pregnancy outcome 5, 6, 89, 90, 107
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
premature birth 6, 46, 78, 189, 194
(PEPCK) 152
premature labor 89, 121, 190
physical disorders 235
prenatal glucocorticoid exposure
physiological states
adipose tissue, programming 154
basal conditions 218
antenatal administration 121
stress 20, 35, 183, 185, 218, 221
betamethasone 119, 121, 122, 123, 127
physiology of placental 11 -HSD-2
CBG 122
birth weight 148
Cushing™s syndrome 129
carbenoxolone 149
experimental studies 148
placenta
HPA axis 159, 162
ACTH 24, 36
hyperinsulinemia 131
calcium transport 44, 46
hyperleptinemia 131
CRH 6, 8, 10, 21, 24, 27, 29, 30, 36, 37, 47,
hyperglycemia 127, 128
81, 90, 185, 189, 238
insulin resistance 127, 129“130
hCG secretion 53
278 Index


protein kinase A (PKA) 54, 213
prenatal glucocorticoid exposure (contd)
PTHrP 43, 45, 47, 50
low-density lipid cholesterol 126
PTHrP, effect of
pancreatic -cells 130
potent vasodilator 50
peripheral programming 150
puberty 98, 167
postnatal metabolic function 126
pulmonary development 121
premature pulmonary development 121
push“pull principle
prenatal undernutrition 125, 127
HPA neuroendocrinology 206
preterm birth
neuroendocrine mechanisms 206
cerebral palsy 74, 85
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCH) 206
CRH 5, 80, 96, 107, 189, 194“195
PVH

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