and David A. Wallace (Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 2002).
21. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, Final Report
(Washington, DC: Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experi-
22. A scholarly analysis of the released records is contained in Richard
Breitman et al., U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis (Washington, DC: National
Archives and Records Administration, 2004).
23. The review began under an executive order issued by the Clinton admin-
istration but was later bolstered by a statutory direction. See Peter
Kornbluh, The Pinochet File (New York: New Press, 2003), 469‚Ä“481;
Dinges, The Condor Years, 38‚Ä“40.
24. The power of the doctrine of national security in Latin America is dis-
cussed in Lawrence Weschler, A Miracle, a Universe: Settling Accounts
with Torturers (New York: Pantheon Books, 1990).
25. Hayner, ‚ÄúFifteen Truth Commissions.‚ÄĚ In 2005, a working group estab-
lished by the OfÔ¬Āce of the United Nations High Commissioner for
Human Rights continued to work on a ‚Äúnormative instrument‚ÄĚ that would
acknowledge a ‚Äúright to know the truth about the circumstances of an
enforced disappearance and the fate of the disappeared person.‚ÄĚ
26. Teitel, Transitional Justice, 100‚Ä“102.
27. Martha Farmelo, The Freedom of Information Campaign in Argentina
(Washington, DC: freedominfo.org, October, 2003 [Accessed October 31,
2004]), available from http://www.freedominfo.org/case/argentina.htm.
President N¬ī stor Kirchner signed an executive decree containing rules
on access to public information in December 2003.
28. Larry Rohter, ‚ÄúHidden Files Force Brazil To Face Its Past,‚ÄĚ New York
Times, January 31, 2005, 6.
29. On the state of openness in Chile generally, see Felipe Gonzalez, ‚ÄúAccess
to Information and National Security in Chile,‚ÄĚ in National Security and
Open Government, ed. Alasdair Roberts (Syracuse, NY: Campbell Public
Affairs Institute, Syracuse University, 2003).
30. Elizabeth Cavero, ‚ÄúFalta Firmeza En Ley De Acceso a La Informacion,‚ÄĚ ¬ī
La Republica, June 29, 2002.
31. Carlos Osorio and Kathleen Costar, Ecuador Enacts Transparency and
Access to Information Law (Washington, DC: freedominfo.org, May 20,
2004 [Accessed July 3, 2004]), available from http://www.freedominfo.
org/news/ecuador/20040520.htm. The law allows decisions on the classi-
Ô¬Ācation of information to be extended indeÔ¬Ānitely.
32. SITA, ‚ÄúNBU Says Revision to ClassiÔ¬Āed Information Law Is Necessary,‚ÄĚ
SITA Slovak News Agency, July 31, 2002.
33. Judgment of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Latvia in Case
2002‚Ä“20‚Ä“0103, April 23, 2003.
34. Siddarth Varadarajan, ‚ÄúSecret Society,‚ÄĚ The Times of India, March 27,
Notes to Pages 35‚Ä“37
35. Verne Harris, ‚ÄúNIA: A Friendlier Big Brother?‚ÄĚ Natal Witness, March 15,
36. United Kingdom, Your Right To Know: The Government‚Ä™s Proposals for a
Freedom of Information Act, Cm 3818 (London: Stationery OfÔ¬Āce, 1997),
para. 2.3. The excluded organizations include the country‚Ä™s domestic secu-
rity service, MI5; its overseas intelligence service, MI6; its signals intel-
ligence agency, GCHQ; and its special military forces, the SAS and the
37. Freedom of Information Act 2000, sections 23 and 24.
38. Australian Law Reform Commission, Protecting ClassiÔ¬Āed and Security
Sensitive Information, Discussion Paper 67 (Canberra: Australian Law
Reform Commission, 2004), 61‚Ä“63.
39. For example, Belgium and Spain.
40. United States Department of Justice, Freedom of Information Act Guide
(Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, OfÔ¬Āce of Information and
41. Information Security Oversight OfÔ¬Āce, Report to the President 2004
(Washington, DC: Information Security Oversight OfÔ¬Āce, 2005).
42. The Central Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance OfÔ¬Āce,
National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and National Security Agency.
A Ô¬Āfth organization ‚Ä“ the Defense Intelligence Agency ‚Ä“ attempted unsuc-
cessfully to obtain a similar exemption in 2000. It made the same proposal
again in 2005.
43. See, for example, Teitel, Transitional Justice.
44. Jon Elster, Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective
(New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 117.
45. See generally: Alasdair Roberts, ‚ÄúThe Informational Commons at Risk,‚ÄĚ in
The Market or the Public Domain, ed. Daniel Drache (London: Routledge,
46. Daniel Moynihan, Secrecy: The American Experience (New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 1998), 214.
47. Journalist Seymour Hersh claimed in 2004 that the federal govern-
ment operated a highly secretive ‚Äúspecial access program‚ÄĚ to seize
suspected terrorists; this was disputed by government ofÔ¬Ācials, but
there was little doubt that in at least one case American agents had
covertly seized terror suspects in Sweden: Seymour Hersh, Chain of
Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib (New York: HarperCollins,
48. John Podesta, ‚ÄúNeed To Know: Governing in Secret,‚ÄĚ in The War on Our
Freedoms, ed. Richard C. Leone and Greg Anrig, Jr. (New York: Public
Affairs, 2003), 223.
49. Although FERC took steps to restrict access soon after September 11,
2001, its new policy on access was not formalized until February 2003:
Final Rule on Critical Energy Infrastructure Information, Federal Register
68(41): 9857‚Ä“9873 (February 21, 2003).
50. The rules were authorized by the Homeland Security Act of 2002, section
214(a)(1)(A). An analysis of the CIA‚Ä™s weaknesses is provided by Rena
Notes to Pages 37‚Ä“40
Steinzor, ‚ÄúDemocracies Die Behind Closed Doors: The Homeland Security
Act and Corporate Accountability,‚ÄĚ Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy
12, no. 2 (2003): 641‚Ä“670.
51. Brent Walth, ‚ÄúSecurity at PDX Spotty over Time,‚ÄĚ Sunday Oregonian,
September 23, 2001, A1; Patrick O‚Ä™Donnell, Elizabeth Marchak, and Dave
Davis, ‚ÄúAirport Security Lapsed in 1990s, FAA Records Show,‚ÄĚ Cleveland
Plain Dealer, September 23, 2001, B1.
52. Blake Morrison, ‚ÄúWeapons Slip Past Airport Security,‚ÄĚ USA Today, March
25, 2002, 1A.
53. Mitchel Sollenberger, Sensitive Security Information and Transportation
Security: Issues and Congressional Options, RL32425 (Washington, DC:
Congressional Research Service, 2004).
54. Coastal Delivery Corp. v. United States Customs Service, 272 F. Supp. 2d
55. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, News Release: NRC ModiÔ¬Āes Availability
of Security Information for All Nuclear Plants (Washington, DC: Nuclear
Regulatory Commission, 2004).
56. Henry Kissinger, quoted in Robert Kagan, Of Paradise and Power: America
and Europe in the New World Order (New York: Knopf, 2003).
57. John Lewis Gaddis and Paul Kennedy, ‚ÄúKill the Empire! (or Not),‚ÄĚ New
York Times, July 25, 2004, 23.
58. Matthew Brzezinski, Fortress America (New York: Bantam Books, 2004),
59. Glen McGregor, ‚ÄúWho‚Ä™s Winning the Larger War?‚ÄĚ The Ottawa Citizen,
August 11, 2002, C6.
60. John C. Baker et al., Mapping the Risks: Assessing the Homeland Security
Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information (Santa Monica,
CA: RAND, 2004), 4.
61. Joseph Jacobson, Safeguarding National Security through Public Release
of Environmental Information, Master of Laws Thesis (Washington, DC:
George Washington University Law School, 2002), 81‚Ä“87.
62. Baker et al., Mapping the Risks, xxvi and 122‚Ä“123.
63. Living Rivers v. United States Bureau of Reclamation 272 F. Supp. 2d 1313
64. Living Rivers Currents, ‚ÄúDam Risks: Interior Denies Public Right to Know,‚ÄĚ
May 10, 2002.
65. NOW with Bill Moyers, ‚ÄúTranscript: Right To Know under Assault,‚ÄĚ (2003);
Joseph Davis, ‚ÄúTerrorism Fears Thwart Journalists‚Ä™ Reporting,‚ÄĚ Nieman
Reports, Summer, 2004, 18‚Ä“19, 19.
66. Sean Reilly, ‚ÄúNew Policy Keeps Records from the Public,‚ÄĚ Mobile Register,
October 28, 2003.
67. FERC reversed itself slightly in September 2004: Kristen McNamara,
‚ÄúFERC, Seeking to Thwart Terror, Extends Reach to Media,‚ÄĚ Dow Jones
Newswires, September 17, 2004.
68. FERC, Notice Soliciting Public Comments Re Critical Energy Infrastruc-
ture Information under RM02-4 Et Al., Docket No. RM02-4-002, et al.
(Washington, DC: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 2004).
Notes to Pages 41‚Ä“45
69. Steinzor, ‚ÄúDemocracies Die Behind Closed Doors,,‚ÄĚ 664. See also Kristen
Uhl, ‚ÄúThe Freedom of Information Act Post-9/11,‚ÄĚ American University
Law Review 53, no. 1 (2003): 261‚Ä“311, 295‚Ä“297. The rules also provide
businesses with civil immunity for problems revealed to government
70. Atlanta Journal-Constitution, ‚ÄúElements of Concern,‚ÄĚ August 26, 2004,
71. Bennett Ramberg, ‚ÄúSafety or Secrecy?‚ÄĚ New York Times, May 20, 2003,
72. Jonathan Riskind, ‚ÄúReaction Harsh to Government‚Ä™s Nuclear Secrecy,‚ÄĚ
Columbus Dispatch, August 6, 2004, 1A.
73. Keay Davidson, ‚ÄúSecurity Faulted at Nuclear Reactors,‚ÄĚ San Francisco
Chronicle, September 15, 2004, A10.
74. National Academy of Sciences, Safety and Security of Commercial Spent
Nuclear Fuel Storage (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences,
Board on Radioactive Waste Management, 2005).
75. National Commission On Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Final
Report (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2004), 355‚Ä“356.
76. Ibid., 264‚Ä“265 and 277.
77. Ibid., 416‚Ä“417.
78. Bruce Berkowitz, ‚ÄúSecrecy and National Security,‚ÄĚ Hoover Digest 2004,
no. 3 (2004).
79. Roberta Wohlstetter, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision (Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press, 1962).
80. National Commission On Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Final
81. Kamil Skawinski, ‚ÄúIT and SETI: The Role of Computer Technology in
the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence,‚ÄĚ California Computer News
82. Hersh, Chain of Command, 104‚Ä“107.
83. Transcript, The O‚Ä™Reilly Factor, February 15, 2002.
84. Kristen Breitweiser, Statement before the Joint Committees on Intelligence
(Washington, DC: September 11 Advocates, 2002).
85. Joint Inquiry, Report of the Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activ-
ities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, S. Rept.
107‚Ä“351 and H. Rept. 107‚Ä“792 (Washington, DC: Government Printing
OfÔ¬Āce, 2003), 124.
86. In an ABC News/Washington Post poll conducted in April 2003, 70 percent
of respondents thought ‚Äúthe war in Iraq was worth Ô¬Āghting, all in all.‚ÄĚ
87. Steven Kull, Clay Ramsay, and Evan Lewis, ‚ÄúMisperceptions, the Media,
and the Iraq War,‚ÄĚ Political Science Quarterly 118, no. 4 (2004): 569‚Ä“598;
Linda Feldmann, ‚ÄúThe Impact of Bush Linking 9/11 and Iraq,‚ÄĚ Christian
Science Monitor, March 14, 2003.
88. CBS News Poll, March 6, 2003.
89. Senate Intelligence Committee, Report on the U.S. Intelligence Commu-
nity‚Ä™s Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq (Washington, DC: United
States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, 2004), 347‚Ä“349.
Notes to Pages 45‚Ä“47
90. Douglas Jehl, ‚ÄúA New CIA Report Casts Doubt on a Key Terrorist‚Ä™s Tie to
Iraq,‚ÄĚ New York Times, October 6, 2004, 13.
91. Douglas Jehl, ‚ÄúU.S. Report Finds Iraqis Eliminated Illicit Arms in 90‚Ä™s,‚ÄĚ
New York Times, October 7, 2004, 1. A preliminary report of the Group
released a year earlier suggested a similar conclusion; in January 2004,
the Group‚Ä™s Ô¬Ārst head, David Kay, said that he did not believe such
weapons existed at the time of the war: Andrew Buncombe, ‚ÄúSaddam‚Ä™s
WMD Never Existed, Says Chief American Arms Inspector,‚ÄĚ The Inde-
pendent, January 24, 2004.
92. Dan Balz and Robin Wright, ‚ÄúKerry Urges Bush to Admit Mistakes,‚ÄĚ
Washington Post, October 6, 2004, A12.
93. Douglas Jehl, ‚ÄúUS Intelligence Shows Pessimism on Iraq‚Ä™s Future,‚ÄĚ New
York Times, September 16, 2004, 1.
94. John Prados, Hoodwinked (New York: The New Press, 2004), 33 and 113.
95. Joseph Cirincione, Jessica Mathews, and George Perkovich, WMD in
Iraq: Evidence and Implications (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment
for International Peace, 2004), 16‚Ä“17.
96. Irving Lester Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions
and Fiascoes, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton MifÔ¬‚in, 1983).
97. Senate Intelligence Committee, Report on the U.S. Intelligence Commu-
nity‚Ä™s Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq, 18‚Ä“22.
98. Gregory Moorehead, Richard Ference, and Chris Neck, ‚ÄúGroup Deci-
sion Fiascoes Continue: Space Shuttle Challenger and a Revised Group-
think Framework,‚ÄĚ Human Relations 44, no. 6 (1991): 539‚Ä“550, 541 and
99. Commission on Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding
Weapons of Mass Destruction, Report to the President (Washington, DC:
100. Douglas Jehl, ‚ÄúCIA Review Criticizes Prewar Iraq Analysis,‚ÄĚ New York
Times, September 22, 2004, 21.
101. The committee has been criticized for its overemphasis on this view,
which has the effect of reducing the culpability of more senior ofÔ¬Ācials
for the decision to invade Iraq. Commentators have noted that in some
cases the internal debate over evidence was vigorous: David Barstow,
William Broad, and Jeff Gerth, ‚ÄúHow White House Embraced Suspect
Arms Intelligence,‚ÄĚ New York Times, October 3, 2004, 1.
102. Foreign Affairs Committee, The Decision To Go to War in Iraq. Ninth
Report of Session 2002‚Ä“2003, HC 8134 (London: House of Commons
Foreign Affairs Committee, 2003).
103. Paul Waugh, ‚ÄúIraq Crisis: Number 10 Admits It Used Thesis by Student,‚ÄĚ
The Independent, February 8, 2003, 4.
104. Tony Blair, The Opportunity Society; Speech to the Labour Party Annual
Conference (London: Labour Party, 2004).
105. Jehl, ‚ÄúUS Intelligence Shows Pessimism on Iraq‚Ä™s Future.‚ÄĚ
106. OfÔ¬Āce of the Secretary of Defense, Transcript of Secretary Rumsfeld Media
Availability with Afghan President Karzai (Washington, DC: OfÔ¬Āce of the
Secretary of Defense, 2003).
Notes to Pages 47‚Ä“52
107. Council on Foreign Relations, Iraq: The Day After (New York: Council on
Foreign Relations, 2003).
108. Peter Slevin, ‚ÄúU.S. Military Lays Out Postwar Iraq Plan,‚ÄĚ Washington
Post, February 12, 2003, A21.
109. James Fallows, ‚ÄúBlind into Baghdad,‚ÄĚ The Atlantic Monthly, January-
February, 2004, 53‚Ä“74.