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of Chicago Press, 1990).


300
Notes to Pages 236“237


24. Danner, “We Are All Torturers Now.”
25. Sunshine Week, News Release: Survey Finds Public Concerned About
Secrecy (Washington, DC: Sunshine Week Executive Committee, March
11, 2005 [Accessed April 15, 2005]), available from http://www.
sunshineweek.org/index.cfm?id=5556.
26. Dorothy Samuels, “Psst. President Bush Is Hard at Work Expanding Gov-
ernment Secrecy,” New York Times, November 1, 2004, 24.




301
INDEX




Abu Ghraib prison, 51“54 amberlight process, 89“93
American public on abuse, 233, litigation, 88
238 repeated acts of omission, 88
International Red Cross access to, Access to Information Act
68“69 (Zimbabwe), 121
material bases of reports on, 53, Administrative Procedure Act (APA;
77“78 U.S.), 13
Rumsfeld on, 52 Adzharia, Georgia,
Taguba report and, 12, 51“54, nongovernmental
68“69, 154 organizations in, 120
U.S. contractor accountability at, AES Nile Power, 5“6
154“156. See also Afghanistan, prisoner abuse in, 53,
Guantanamo Bay; prisoner
´ 69, 78, 233
abuse African National Congress, 162“163,
Access to Information Act (AIA; 168
Canada), 87“93 Agreement on Basic
categorizing/identifying Telecommunication Services
requesters in, 25, 91“92 (WTO), 180
changing nature of requests in, 88 Agreement on Government
con¬dential information from Procurement (WTO), 180
other country and, 135 Agreement on Technical Barriers to
Conservative Party and, 87, 91 Trade (WTO), 180
Liberal Party and, 87“89, 92, 93 AIDS, 5, 87
routing simple/noncontentious Akosombo Dam (Ghana), 185
requests in, 28 Alfonsin, Raul, 30
signi¬cance effects of al Qaeda
surveillance/review evidence of plotting against U.S.
procedures, 92“93 after 9/11, 38
surveillance/review procedures to information sharing among,
weaken 140“141
administrative policy changes, al-Zarqawi, Abu Musab, 45
89 amberlight process (Canada), 89“93


303
Index


American Bar Association, report on security establishment resilience
unchecked power, 12 in, 35
American Civil Liberties Union Security Of Information
(ACLU) Agreement with United
Joint Terrorism Task Forces and, States, 132, 133“134
143“145 Aylwin, Patricio, 31
prisoner abuse and, 155 Azerbaijan, media/information
American Society of Newspaper access in, 121
Editors (ASNE), 13“14, 51
Amsterdam Treaty (1997), 177 Bangkok, Thailand, school
Anderson, Charles, 23 admissions procedures in, 4
Anti-Terrorism Act (Canada), 136, basic civil rights protection,
137 48“49
Arar, Maher, 136“138 basic human right, access to
Arar Inquiry (Canada), 136“138 information as, 165“166
arcana imperii (secrets of imperial Berkowitz, Bruce, 42
policy), 10 Bernstein, Carl, 231“234
Argentina, 30, 33, 172, 192 Black Wednesday (Great Britain), 7
Arizona, prison information access Blair, Tony, 46, 83“84. See also Blair
in, 166“167 government
Armenia, marred elections in, 120 Blair government
Article 21, of Universal Declaration decision-making before Iraq war,
of Human Rights, 12 101
Article 19 (Great Britain), 109, delay in implementing disclosure
114 law, 7, 104“105
Ashcroft, John, 64, 66, 78 FOIA and, 83“84
Asiaweek, 4 Iraq intelligence handling by,
atomic secrets (U.S.), 34 82“83
Attlee, Clement, 34 media criticism of, 83
Australia pre-election reform promises,
adoption of access-to-information 83
laws in, 93 pre-war evidence on Iraq, 46
attempt to extend FOIA to private privatization and, 151
sector in, 169 right to information under, 7
costs for disclosure law Blanton, Tom, 217
administration in, 113 Bloc countries, ex-Soviet
FOIA fee increase in, 32 disclosure law adoption as
misrepresentation by government prerequisite to join NATO,
in, 96 129“130. See also individual
obstruction/delays in information country
requests in, 96“97 Blumenthal, Sidney, 102
prison contract disclosure in, 153 Bobbit, Phillip, 101“102
prison privatization and, 152“153 Bodin, Jean, 10
privatization and, 151 Bosnia, whistleblowers on U.S.
privatization of utilities in, military contractor in, 156
157“158 Brandeis, Louis, 232
recordkeeping in, 111“112 Brazil, 30“31, 34, 183, 184, 193


304
Index


Bretton Woods institutions factors in¬‚uencing, 72“74: ease
disclosure law adoption and, 110. of broadcasting documents to
See also International mass audience, 73; media
Monetary Fund; World Bank structure transformation,
British Columbia 73“74; willingness of of¬cials
monitoring sensitive information to ignore warnings of leaks,
requests in, 97“98 73
price barrier to publicly available Iraq war plans, 75“77
structured data, 206 terrorist attack warnings, 74“75
routing simple/noncontentious “zone of autonomy” protection by,
requests in, 28 63“69
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 56 classi¬ed information, 65“66
Bulgaria, 29, 130, 182 congressional efforts to oversee
bureaucracy antiterror efforts, 66“67
countering poor analysis by criticism of, 69, 71
transparency, 48 detainees and, 66, 68“69
power in United States, 11“13 dif¬culty of, 79“81
regulation/legitimization of power efforts to narrow FOIA impact,
in U.S., 13 64
Weber on, 11, 215 Iraq War and, 67“68
Bush, G. W., 63, 210. See also Bush Presidential Records Acts and,
administration (G. W.) 64
Bush administration (G. W.) Bush administration (G.H.W.),
classi¬cation decisions during, email destruction and, 215
214 Byrd, Robert, 62
DSM transparency and, 183
Foreign Intelligence Service Act CACI, 154“155, 156
and, 72 California, utility regulation in,
incomplete rollback of disclosure 158“159
laws, 70 California Anti-Terrorism
advocacy groups and, 71 Information Center (CATIC),
Internet poll use, 70“71 146
public opinion and, 70 Camdessus, Michel, 190“191
information sharing and, 143 Campbell, Alastair, 83
misrepresentation of evidence on Canada
Iraq, 45 access to government information
multilateral legal assistance in, 17
treaties and, 138 access-to-information law
openness after terrorists attacks adoption in, 82“83
on U.S., 18“20 Arar Inquiry, 136“138
post-war planning for Iraq, 46“47 browsing EDRM library in, 223
restrictions on disclosure, post costs for disclosure law
9/11, 141“143 administration, 114
transparency maelstroms under, disclosure of information in, 35
72“78 EDRM system adoption in, 219
abuse/torture of detainees, government email in, 213
77“78, 80 increase in email requests in, 217


305
Index


Canada (cont.) Cheney, Dick, 74
internally developed database in, antipathy toward open
221“222 government, 19
international intelligence energy policy and, 62
networks and, 135“138 on erosion of power of executive,
monitoring sensitive information 63
requests in, 97“98 on lawsuit abuse, 234
price barrier to publicly available as Rumsfeld deputy, 55
structured data, 206 Chile, 31, 34, 52
privatization and, 153 China, 7“9, 110, 121“122
privatization of air traf¬c control ChoicePoint, 208“209
in, 159“160 Chulov, Martin, 96
privatization of utilities in, 157 Citizens™ Ombudsmen Association
record-keeping in, 214 (Zenkoku Shimin Ombudsmen;
Security Of Information Japan),
Agreements with United Civil Service Reform Act (1978), 59
States, 133“134 Clark, Joe, 87
trivialization of information Clarke, Richard, 74, 76
requests in, 118. See also Classi¬ed Information Protection
Access to Information Act Act (Bulgaria), 130
Carpinello, George, 211 Classi¬ed National Security
Carter Center (Atlanta, GA), 109 Information (U.S.), 35
Castells, Manuel, 147 Clausen, A. W., 186
Center for American Progress, 63 Clean Air Act (EPA), 207
Center for Constitutional Rights, 78 Clinton, Bill, 127, 150. See also
Center for Investigative Journalism Clinton administration
(Philippines), 120 Clinton administration
Center for Public Integrity (U.S.), classi¬cation decisions during,
72, 78, 202“203, 205 214
Center for the Study of Responsive disclosure and, 15, 32, 64, 65
Law (U.S.), 14, 98 DSM transparency and, 183
Central/Eastern Europe, security email destruction and, 215
establishment resilience in, 34 multilateral legal assistance
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) treaties and, 138
classi¬ed report on Iraq threat, toxic chemical regulation, 203,
45 206
data aggregation industry and, CNSS et al v. Department of Justice,
209 71
limited analytic capacity of, 46 Code of Conduct (EU), 174“176
reappraisal of Hussein link to Cold War era
al-Zarqawi, 45 assumption about principal threat
secret programs after terrorist to national security, 38
attacks on U.S., 37 resistance to openness during,
secret support to former Nazi 32“33
of¬cials, 32 collective groupthink, 45“46
Central Records System (U.S.), Colorado, surveillance restrictions
224“225 in, 143“144


306
Index


Columbia Accident Investigation Council on Foreign Relations (U.S.),
Board, 216 47
commercial data brokers, see criminal penalty, for leaking
digitization, of government classi¬ed information, 127“130
documents, data aggregators Crosbie, John, 87
Commonwealth, model disclosure Cross, Harold, 13“14
law for, 109 Crozier, Michel, 56
Commonwealth Human Rights Customs Service (U.S.), restriction
Initiative (India), 109, 114 of information by, 38
Communist Bloc countries, access Czechoslovakia
to secret police ¬les in former, Czechoslovakia, fall of communism
29 in, 28
Comptroller General, 59 Czech Republic, 29, 130
computer-assisted reporting (CAR),
201“202 Daily Yomiuri (Japan), 5
con¬dence, in government, 58 Daniels, Mitchell, 62
Congress of South African Trade Danner, Mark, 234“235, 236
Unions, 162, 164 data aggregators, see digitization, of
Congress (U.S.) government documents, data
fragmentation of power in, 58 aggregators
IMF transparency and, 190“191 Dayton Daily News, 205
increased role in political system, Dean, John, 69, 127
56 defamation (desacato) laws, 120
joint inquiry into 9/11 report, 42, Delhi, India, public hearing on
140, 143, 216 government corruption in, 3
overseeing of antiterror efforts, democracy
66“67 governance structure weakening
restrictions on executive branch, in, 102
58“59 public sector restructuring in,
Consejo de Seguridad Nacional 160, 168“170
(Ecuador), 34 Trilateral Commission study on,
Convention on Mutual Assistance in 56“57, 58. See also individual
Criminal Matters (EU), 138 country
Coolidge Committee on Classi¬ed Denmark, 129, 151, 174, 176, 177
Information, 128 Department of Defense (U.S.)
Coordination of Access to classi¬cation of already public
Information Request System information, 65
(CAIRS), 91“92 oversight at, 156. See also
Corporate Warriors (Singer), 155“156 Rumsfeld, Donald
Corrections Corporation of America, Department of Energy (U.S.), 213
156“157 Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Corrections Corporation of (Canada), 222
Australia (CCA), 166“167 Department of Foreign Affairs and
Corruptions Perceptions Index, International Trade (Canada),
110 90
Council of Europe, 109“110 Department of Homeland Security
Council of European Union, 174 (U.S.), 37, 41

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