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Killing Hope
U.S. Military and CIA
Interventions Since World
War II “ Part I
William Blum
Zed Books London

Killing Hope was first published outside of North America by Zed Books Ltd, 7
Cynthia Street, London NI 9JF, UK in 2003.
Second impression, 2004
Printed by Gopsons Papers Limited, Noida, India
w w w.zedbooks .demon .co .uk
Published in South Africa by Spearhead, a division of New Africa Books, PO Box
23408, Claremont 7735
This is a wholly revised, extended and updated edition of a book originally published
under the title The CIA: A Forgotten History (Zed Books, 1986)
Copyright © William Blum 2003
The right of William Blum to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted
by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Cover design by Andrew Corbett
ISBN 1 84277 368 2 hb ISBN 1 84277 369 0 pb
Spearhead ISBN 0 86486 560 0 pb


Introduction 6
1. China 1945 to 1960s: Was Mao Tse-tung just paranoid? 20
2. Italy 1947-1948: Free elections, Hollywood style 27
3. Greece 1947 to early 1950s: From cradle of democracy to client state 33
4. The Philippines 1940s and 1950s: America's oldest colony 38
5. Korea 1945-1953: Was it all that it appeared to be? 44
6. Albania 1949-1953: The proper English spy 54
7. Eastern Europe 1948-1956: Operation Splinter Factor 56
8. Germany 1950s: Everything from juvenile delinquency to terrorism 60
9. Iran 1953: Making it safe for the King of Kings 63
10. Guatemala 1953-1954: While the world watched 71
11. Costa Rica mid-1950s: Trying to topple an ally, part I 82
12. Syria 1956-1957: Purchasing a new government 84
13. The Middle East 1957-1958:
The Eisenhower Doctrine claims another backyard for America 88
14. Indonesia 1957-1958: War and pornography 98
15. Western Europe 1950s and 1960s: Fronts within fronts within fronts 103
16. British Guiana 1953-1964: The CIA's international labor mafia 107
17. Soviet Union late 1940s to 1960s: From spy planes to book publishing 113
18. Italy 1950s to 1970s:
Supporting the Cardinal's orphans and techno-fascism 119
19. Vietnam 1950-1973: The Hearts and Minds Circus 122
20. Cambodia 1955-1973:
Prince Sihanouk walks the high-wire of neutralism 133
21. Laos 1957-1973: L'Armee Clandestine 139
22. Haiti 1959-1963: The Marines land, again 145
23. Guatemala 1960: One good coup deserves another 146
24. France/Algeria 1960s: L'etat, c'est la CIA 148

25. Ecuador 1960-1963: A textbook of dirty tricks 153
26. The Congo 1960-1964: The assassination of Patrice Lumumba 156
27. Brazil 1961-1964:
Introducing the marvelous new world of death squads 163
28. Peru 1960-1965: Fort Bragg moves to the jungle 172
29. Dominican Republic 1960-1966:
Saving democracy from communism by getting rid of democracy 175
30. Cuba 1959 to 1980s: The unforgivable revolution 185
31. Indonesia 1965:
Liquidating President Sukarno ... and 500,000 others
East Timor 1975: And 200,000 more 194
32. Ghana 1966: Kwame Nkrumah steps out of line 199
33. Uruguay 1964-1970: Torture”as American as apple pie 201
34. Chile 1964-1973:
A hammer and sickle stamped on your child's forehead 207

Notes PART I 217


35. Greece 1964-1974:
"Fuck your Parliament and your Constitution,"said the
President of the United States 215
36. Bolivia 1964-1975:
Tracking down Che Guevara in the land of coup d'etat 221
37. Guatemala 1962 to 1980s: A less publicized "final solution" 229
38. Costa Rica 1970-1971: Trying to topple an ally, part II 239
39. Iraq 1972-1975:
Covert action should not be confused with missionary work 242
40. Australia 1973-1975: Another free election bites the dust 244
41. Angola 1975 to 1980s: The Great Powers Poker Game 249
42. Zaire 1975-1978: Mobutu and the CIA, a marriage made in heaven 257
43. Jamaica 1976-1980: Kissinger's ultimatum 263
44. Seychelles 1979-1981: Yet another area of great strategic importance 267
45. Grenada 1979-1984:
Lying”one of the few growth industries in Washington 269
46. Morocco 1983: A video nasty 278
47. Suriname 1982-1984: Once again, the Cuban bogeyman 279
48. Libya 1981-1989: Ronald Reagan meets his match 280
49. Nicaragua 1978-1990: Destabilization in slow motion 290
50. Panama 1969-1991: Double-crossing our drug supplier 305
51. Bulgaria 1990/Albania 1991:
Teaching Communists what democracy is all about 314
52. Iraq 1990-1991: Desert holocaust 320
53. Afghanistan 1979-1992: America's Jihad 338
54. El Salvador 1980-1994: Human rights, Washington style 352
55. Haiti 1986-1994: Who will rid me of this turbulent priest? 370
56. The American Empire: 1992 to present 383

Appendix I: This is How the Money Goes Round
Appendix II: Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-1945
Appendix III: U.S. Government Assassination Plots
About the Author

314 320 338 352 370 383 393 452 454 463 465 470

Author's Note

The last major revision of this book appeared in 1995. Since that time various minor
changes have been made with each new printing. The present edition contains some
revisions to the Introductions which appeared in the first two editions and these two
earlier Introductions have been combined into one. The major change to be found in the
present volume is the addition at the end of a new chapter, "The American Empire:
1992 to present", which offers a survey of US interventions during the 1990s and up to
the present, and attempts to describe the evolution of US foreign policy from
intervention ism to the openly proclaimed goal of world domination.
”May 2003

A Brief History of the Cold War and Anti-communism
Our fear that communism might someday take over
most of the world blinds us to the fact that anti-
communism already has.

”Michael Parenti1

It was in the early days of the fighting in Vietnam that a Vietcong officer said to
his American prisoner: "You were our heroes after the War. We read American books
and saw American films, and a common phrase in those days was "to be as rich and as
wise as an American". What happened?"2
An American might have been asked something similar by a Guatemalan, an
Indonesian or a Cuban during the ten years previous, or by a Uruguayan, a Chilean or a
Greek in the decade subsequent. The remarkable international goodwill and credibility
enjoyed by the United States at the close of the Second World War was dissipated
country-by-country, intervention-by-intervention. The opportunity to build the war-
ravaged world anew, to lay the foundations for peace, prosperity and justice, collapsed
under the awful weight of anti-communism.
The weight had been accumulating for some time; indeed, since Day One of the
Russian Revolution. By the summer of 1918 some 13,000 American troops could be
found in the newly-born Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Two years and thousands
of casualties later, the American troops left, having failed in their mission to "strangle at
its birth" the Bolshevik state, as Winston Churchill put it.3
The young Churchill was Great Britain's Minister for War and Air during this
period. Increasingly, it was he who directed the invasion of the Soviet Union by the
Allies (Great Britain, the US, France, Japan and several other nations) on the side of the
counter-revolutionary "White Army". Years later, Churchill the historian was to record
his views of this singular affair for posterity:
Were they [the Allies] at war with Soviet Russia? Certainly not; but they shot
Soviet Russians at sight. They stood as invaders on Russian soil. They armed the
enemies of the Soviet Government. They blockaded its ports, and sunk its
battleships. They earnestly desired and schemed its downfall. But war”shocking!
Interference”shame! It was, they repeated, a matter of indifference to them how
Russians settled their own internal affairs. They were impartial”Bang!4

What was there about this Bolshevik Revolution that so alarmed the most
powerful nations in the world? What drove them to invade a land whose soldiers had
recently fought alongside them for over three years and suffered more casualties than
any other country on either side of the World War?
The Bolsheviks had had the audacity to make a separate peace with Germany in
order to take leave of a war they regarded as imperialist and not in any way their war,
and to try and rebuild a terribly weary and devastated Russia. But the Bolsheviks had
displayed the far greater audacity of overthrowing a capitalist- feudal system and
proclaiming the first socialist state in the history of the world. This was uppityness writ
incredibly large. This was the crime the Allies had to punish, the virus which had to be
eradicated lest it spread to their own people.

The invasion did not achieve its immediate purpose, but its consequences were
nonetheless profound and persist to the present day. Professor D.F. Fleming, the
Vanderbilt University historian of the Cold War, has noted:

For the American people the cosmic tragedy of the interventions in Russia does
not exist, or it was an unimportant incident long forgotten. But for the Soviet
peoples and their leaders the period was a time of endless killing, of looting and
rapine, of plague and famine, of measureless suffering for scores of millions”
an experience burned into the very soul of a nation, not to be forgotten for many
generations, if ever. Also for many years the harsh Soviet regimentations could
all be justified by fear that the capitalist powers would be back to finish the job.
It is not strange that in his address in New York, September 17, 1959, Premier
Khrushchev should remind us of the interventions, "the time you sent your
troops to quell the revolution", as he put it.5

In what could be taken as a portent of superpower insensitivity, a 1920 Pentagon
report on the intervention reads: "This expedition affords one of the finest examples in
history of honorable, unselfish dealings ... under very difficult circumstances to be
helpful to a people struggling to achieve a new liberty."6
History does not tell us what a Soviet Union, allowed to develop in a "normal"
way of its own choosing, would look like today. We do know, however, the nature of a
Soviet Union attacked in its cradle, raised alone in an extremely hostile world, and,
when it managed to survive to adulthood, overrun by the Nazi war machine with the
blessings of the Western powers. The resulting insecurities and fears have inevitably led
to deformities of character not unlike that found in an individual raised in a similar life-
threatening manner.
We in the West are never allowed to forget the political shortcomings (real and
bogus) of the Soviet Union; at the same time we are never reminded of the history
which lies behind it. The anti-communist propaganda campaign began even earlier than
the military intervention. Before the year 1918 was over, expressions in the vein of
"Red Peril", "the Bolshevik assault on civilization", and "menace to world by Reds is
seen" had become commonplace in the pages of the New York Times.
During February and March 1919, a US Senate Judiciary Subcommittee held
heatings before which many "Bolshevik horror stories" were presented. The character of
some of the testimony can be gauged by the headline in the usually sedate Times of 12
February 1919:


Historian Frederick Lewis Schuman has written: "The net result of these hearings
... was to picture Soviet Russia as a kind of bedlam inhabited by abject slaves
completely at the mercy of an organization of homicidal maniacs whose purpose was to
destroy all traces of civilization and carry the nation back to barbarism."7
Literally no story about the Bolsheviks was too contrived, too bizarre, too
grotesque, or too perverted to be printed and widely believed”from women being
nationalized to babies being eaten (as the early pagans believed the Christians guilty of
devouring their children; the same was believed of the jews in the Middle Ages). The
story about women with all the lurid connotations of state property, compulsory

marriage, "free love", etc. "was broadcasted over the country through a thousand
channels," wrote Schuman, "and perhaps did more than anything else to stamp the
Russian Communists in the minds of most American citizens as criminal perverts".8
This tale continued to receive great currency even after the State Department was
obliged to announce that it was a fraud. (That the Soviets eat their babies was still being
taught by the John Birch Society to its large audience at least as late as 1978.)9
By the end of 1919, when the defeat of the Allies and the White Army appeared
likely, the New York Times treated its readers to headlines and stories such as the

30 Dec. 1919: "Reds Seek War With America"
9 Jan. 1920: "'Official quartets' describe the Bolshevist menace in the Middle East as ominous"
11 Jan. 1920: "Allied officials and diplomats [envisage] a possible invasion of Europe"
13 Jan. 1920: "Allied diplomatic circles" fear an invasion of Persia
16 Jan. 1920: A page-one headline, eight columns wide:
"Britain Facing War With Reds, Calls Council In Paris."
"Well-informed diplomats" expect both a military invasion of Europe and a Soviet

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