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Taiwan at the time. Also see Fleming, p. 578-9. In 1992, the Taiwan government admitted that
its army had killed an estimated 18,000 to 28,000 native-born Taiwanese in the 1947
massacre. (Los Angeles Times, 24 February 1992).
16. Felix Greene, A Curtain of Ignorance (New York, 1964)
17. Tuchman, p. 676; Fleming, pp. 572-4, 577, 584-5; Milovan Djilas, Conversations with Stalin
(London, 1962), p, 164; New York Times, 7 November 1945, p. 12; 14 November, p. 1; 21
November, p.2; 28 November, p. 1; 30 November, p. 3; 2 December, p. 34.
18. New York Times, 12 January 1947, p. 44.
19. William Manchester, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 1880-1964 (London, 1979), p.
535.
20. Foreign Relations of the United Slates, 1949, Vol. VIII, The Far East: China (U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, 1978), passim between pp. 357 and 399; 768, 779-80; publication
of this volume in the State Department's series was held up precisely because it contained the
reports about Chou En-Lai's request (San Francisco Chronicle, 27 September 1978, p. F-l).
21. Sec Indonesia 1957-1958 chapter and The Guardian (London), 24 August 1385.
22. New York Times, 25 April 1966, p. 20.
23. Burma: David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York, 1965, paperback
edition), pp. 138-44; Joseph Burkholder Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior (New York, 1976),
pp. 77-8; New York Times, 28 July 1951; 28 December 1951; 22 February 1952; 8 April 1952;
30 December 1952; opium: Robbins, pp. 84-7.
24. Washington Post, 20 August 1958, Joseph Alsop, a columnist who had been a staff officer
under General Chennault and was well connected with Taiwan. Over the years he performed
a variety of undercover tasks forthe CIA, as did his brother Stewart Alsop. (see Carl
Bernstein, "The CIA and the Media", Rolling Stone magazine, 20 October 1977.)
25. Quemoy and Matsu: Stewart Alsop (formerly with the OSS; also see note 24), The Story
Behind Quemoy: How We Drifted Close to War', Saturday Evening Post, 13 December 1958,
p. 26; Andrew Tulley, CM; The Inside Story (New York, 1962), pp. 162-5; Fleming, pp. 930-
1; Wise and Ross. p. 116; New York Times, 27 April 1966, p. 28.
26. Wise and Ross, p. 114.
27. Air drops: Wise and Ross, pp. 112-5; Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets (New
York, 1979), pp. 43- 4; Newsweek, 26 March 1973.
28. Overflights: Marchetti and Marks, pp. 150, 287; Washington Post, 27 May 1966; New
York Times, 28 March 1969, p. 40.
29. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1943, China (U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, 1957), p. 630.
30. Tibet: David Wise, The Politics of Lying (New York, 1973, paperback edition), pp. 239-54;
Robbins, pp. 94-101; Marchetti and Marks, pp. 128-31 and p. 97 of the 1983 edition.
31. People's China, English-language magazine, Foreign Languages Press, Peking, 17 September
1952, p. 28.



219
32. Callum A. MacDonald, Korea: The War Before Vietnam (New York, 1986), pp. 161-2, cites
several sources for this well known occurrence.
33. Germ Warfare: People's China, 1952, passim, beginning 16 March.
34. New York Times, 9 August 1970, IV, p. 3.
35. Washington Post, 17 December 1979, p. A18, "whooping cough cases recorded in Florida
jumped from 339 and one death in 1954 to 1,080 and 12 deaths in 1955." The CIA received
the bacteria from the Army's biological research center at Fort Detrick, Md.
36. San Francisco Chronicle, 4 December 1979, p. 12. For a detailed account of US Government
experiments with biological agents within the United States, see: Leonard A. Cole, Clouds of
Secrecy: The Army's Germ Warfare Tests over Populated Areas (Maryland, 1990), passim.
37. Department of State Bulletin, 2 May 1966.


2. ITALY 1947-1948

1. Addressing the Cathedral Club of Brooklyn, 15 January 1948; cited in David Caute, The Great
Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower (Simon and Schuster, New
York, 1979), p. 15.
2. Robert T. Holt and Robert W. van de Velde, Strategic Psychological Operations and American
Foreign Policy (University of Chicago Press, 1960) p. 169.
3. Dissolving the cabinet: New York Times, 21 January 1947, p. 5; 26 January, p. 31; 3 February,
p. 1; 5 May, p. 13; 13 May; 14 May; 29 May, p.3; 2 June, p. 24.
4. New York Times, 5 May 1947, p. 1; 11 May, IV, p. 5; 14 May, pp. 14 and 24; 17 May, p. 8; 18
May, IV, p. 4; 20 May, p. 2; Howard K. Smith, The State of Europe (London, 1950), p. 151
(includes Ramadier quote; similar quote in New York Times, 20 May).
5. Time, 22 March 1948, p. 35.
6. William Colby, Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA (New York, 1978), p. 109.
7. Except where otherwise indicated, the items in the succeeding list ate derived from the
following:
a) New York Times, 16 March to 18 April 1948, passim;
b) Howard K. Smith, pp. 198-219;
c) William E. Daugherty and Morris Janowitz, A Psychological Warfare Casebook (Johns Hopkins
Press, Baltimore, 1958), pp. 319-26;
d) Holt and van dc Velde, pp. 159-205;
e) E. Edda Martinez and Edward A, Suchman, "Letters from America and the 1948 Elections in
Italy", The Public Opinion Quarterly (Princeton University), Spring 1950, pp. 111-25.
8. Cited in Smith, p. 202, no date of issue given.
9. Tom Braden, "I'm Glad the CIA is 'Immoral'", Saturday Evening Post, 20 May 1967; Braden
had been a high- ranking CIA officer.
10. Miles Copeland, Without Cloak and Dagger (New York, 1974), pp. 235-6; also published
as The Real Spy World.
11. CIA memorandum to the Forty Committee (National Security Council), presented to the
Select Committee on Intelligence, US House of Representatives (The Pike Committee) during
closed hearings held in 1975. The bulk of the committee's report which contained this
memorandum was leaked to the press in February 1976 and first appeared in book form as
CIA ” The Pike Report (Nottingham, England, 1977). The memorandum appears on pp. 204-
5 of this book. (See also: Notes: Iraq.)
12. Stephen Goode, The CIA (Franklin Watts, Inc., New York, 1982), p. 45; William R. Corson,
The Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the American Intelligence Empire {The Dial Press,
New York, 1977) pp. 298-9. Corson had an extensive career in military intelligence and was
Staff Secretary of the President's Special Group Joint DOD-CIA Committee on
Counterinsurgency R & D.
13. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United Stales: Harry S, Truman, 1947 (U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, 1963) pp. 178-9.
14. New York Times, 8 April 1948.


220
15. Ibid., 12 April 1948.
16. Smith, p. 200.
17. Ibid., p. 202.
18. New York Times, 15 April 1948.

3. GREECE 1947 to early 1950s

1. Jorge Semprun, What a Beautiful Sunday! (English translation, London, 1983), pp. 26-7;
Semprun wrote the screenplays for "Z' and 'La Guerre est finie'.
2. For a summary of some of the literature about ELAS and EAM, see Todd Gidin,
"Counter-Insurgency: Myth and Reality in Greece" in David Horowitz, ed.,
Containment and Revolution (Boston, 1967) pp, 142-7, See also D.F. Fleming, The
Cold War and ill Origins, 1917-1960 (New York, 1961) pp. 183-5; Howard K. Smith,
The Stale of Europe (London, 19.50) pp. 225-30; William Hardy McNeil!, The
Greek Dilemma: War and Aftermath (US, 1947) passim.
3. For accounts of the thoroughly unprincipled British policy in Greece and its dealings
with collaborators during 1944-46, see Fleming, pp. 174-87; Smith, pp. 227-31,
234; Lawrence S. Winner, American Intervention in Greece, 1943-1949 (Columbia
University Press, NY, 1982) passim.
4. Churchill quote: Kati Marton, The Polk Conspiracy: Murder and Cover-Up in
the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk (New York, 1990), p. 23.
EAM sign: Hearst Metrotone News, N.Y., film shot 3 November 1944, copy in
author's possession.
5. Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 16 October 1946, column 887
(reference is made here to Bevin's statement of 10 August). See also Christopher
Simpson, Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and its Effects on the Cold
War (New York, 1988), p. 81.
6. Gitlin, p. 157; Winner, p. 25.
7. Winston Churchill, The Second World War, Vol. VI, Triumph and Tragedy (London,
1954), pp. 198, 255. For further evidence of Soviet non-intervention, see Winner, pp.
26-7.
8. Fleming, p. 182; see also Smith, p. 228.
9. See sources listed in notes 2 and 3 above; see also James Becket, Barbarism in
Greece (New York, 1970) p. 6; Richard Barnet, Intervention and Revolution
(London, 1970) pp. 99-101; Edgar O'Ballance, The Greek Civil War, 1944-1949
(London, 1966) pp. 155, 167.
10. Smith, p. 232. To capture the full flavor of how dreadful the Greek government of
that time was, see Marton, op. cit., passim. This book recounts the story of how the
Greek authorities, with US approval, fabricated a case to prove that CBS news
correspondent George Polk had been murdered by communists, and not by the
government, because he was about to reveal serious corruption by the prime minister,
11. Stephen G. Xydis, Greece and the Great Powers, 1944-1947 (Institute for Balkan
Studies, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1963) p. 479, information from the archives of the
Greek Embassy in Washington.
12. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1947, Vol. V (U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, 1971) p. 222.
13. New York Times Magazine, 12 October 1947, p. 10.
14. Foreign Relations, op. cit., pp. 222-3.
15. Cited in Fleming, p. 444.
16. Barnet, p. 109.
17. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1947 (U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, 1963) p. 177.
18. Milovan Djilas, Conversations with Stalin (London, 1962) p. 164. Djilas was
imprisoned in 1962 for divulging state secrets in this book.
19. For details of the American military effort:


221
a) O'Ballance, passim
b) Wittner, p. 242
c) CIA Report to the President, March 1948, appendices D and F, Declassified
Documents Reference System (Arlington, Va.) 1977, document 168A
d) Department of the Army internal memorandum, 15 June 1954, DDRS 1980,
document 253C
e) Simpson, pp. 81-2 (Secret Army Reserve)
20. O'Ballance, p. 156.
21. Ibid., p. 173
22. Christopher M. Woodhouse, The Struggle for Greece, 1941-1949 (London, 1976) pp.
260-1.
23. New York Times, 28 August 1947, p. 1; 5 September 1947, p. 1.
24. Foreign Relations, op. cit., p. 327.

25. John 0. latrides, "American Attitudes Toward the Political System of Postwar
Greece" in Theodore A Couloumbis and John 0. latrides, eds., Greek-American
Relations: A Critical Review (New York, 1980) pp. 64- 65; Lawrence Stern, The
Wrong Horse: The Politics of Intervention and the Failure of American Diplomacy
(N.Y. Times Books, 1977) pp. 16-17.
26. Philip Deane, I Should Have Died (Atheneum, New York, 1977) pp, 102, 103;
Andreas Papandreou, Democracy at Gunpoint (Doubleday, New York, 1970) pp. 84-
5.
27. Papandreou, p. 80.
28. New York Times, 13 July 1947, p. 11.
29. Ibid., 11 September 1947, p. 19; 17 October 1947, p. 11.
30. Papandreou, p. 5.
31. Sent by Horace Smith of AMAG; U.S. National Archives, Record Group 59, cited in
Michael M. Amen, American Foreign Policy in Greece 1944/1949: Economic,
Military and Institutional Aspects (Peter Lang Ltd., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1978),
pp. 114-5.

4. THE PHILIPPINES 1940s and 1950s

1. Charles S. Olcott, The Life of William McKinley (Boston, 1916) vol. 2, pp. 110-11;
from a talk given to a visiting group from the Methodist Episcopal Church.
2. US actions against Huks during Second World War:
a) D.M. Condit, Bert H, Cooper, Jr., et al., Challenge and Response in Internal Conflict,
Volume 1, The Experience in Asia (Center for Research in Social Systems, The
American University, Washington, D.C., 1968), p. 481, research performed for the
Department of the Army.
b) Luis Taruc, Born of the People (New York, 1953, although completed in June 1949)
pp. 147-62, 186-211, the autobiography of the Huks' commander-in-chief who
surrendered to the government in 1954.
c) William J. Pomeroy, An American Made Tragedy (New York, 1974) pp. 74-7;
Pomeroy is an American who served in the Philippines during the war where he
encountered the Huks. After the war, he returned to fight with them he until he was
captured in 1952,
d) George E. Taylor, The Philippines and the United States: Problems of Partnership
(New York, 1964) p. 122 (see note 1.! below).
e) Eduardo Lachica, Huk: Philippine Agrarian Society in Revolt (Manila, 1971) pp, 112-
3, 116-7.
f) Philippines: A Country Study (Foreign Area Studies, The American University,
Washington, D.C., 1983-84) p. 43, prepared for the Department of the Army.
3. Taruc, chapter 22; Pomeroy, pp, 77-8; Taylor, pp. 116-20.



222
4. New York Times, 19 December 1952, p. 13
5. Philippines: A Country Study, p. 44
6. New York Times, 5 January 1946, p. 26
7. Hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs in executive session, 7 June
1946, released in 1977, p. 31. Arnold was the Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff,
Operations Division, War Department General Staff.
8. American servicemen's protests: New York Times, 8 January 1946, p. 3; 11 January,
p. 4; for more information see Mary-Alice Waters, G.I.'s and the Fight Against War
(New York, 1967), pamphlet published by Young Socialist magazine.
9. New York Times, 20 May 1946, p. 8; 2 June, p. 26; 4 June, p. 22 (letter from
Tomas Confessor, prominent Filipino political figure, detailing the illegality of not
seating the men); 18 September, p. 4; 19 September, p. 18; Pomeroy, p. 20; Taruc, pp.
214-27; Lachica, pp. 120-1.
10. New York Times, 12 March 1947, p. 15; the words are those of the Times; Lachica, p.
121.
11. Pomeroy, p. 28, explains how this came about.
12. Taruc, chapters 23 and 24; Pomeroy, p. 78; the Philippine Army reported that 600
deaths had occurred from their incursions into Huk areas in the month following the
electron (New York Times, 20 May 1946, p. 8) but no breakdown between military
and non-military casualties was given in the press account; see also Lachica, p. 121.
13. Taylor, pp. 114, 115. The book was published by Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. for the
Council on Foreign Relations, the ultra high-level think-tank whose officers and
directors at the time included Allen Dulles, David Rockefeller, and John J. McCloy.
Praeger, it was later disclosed, published a number of books in the 1960s under CIA
sponsorship- This book, though generally reasonable on most matters, descends to
the puerile and semi-hysterical when discussing the Huks or 'communism'.
14. Department of State, Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United
States of America, 1776-1949 (Washington, 1974) pp. 84-9; Pomeroy, pp. 21-3;
Taylor, p. 129.
15. New York Times, 1 July 1946, $50 million furnished; 11 February 1950, p. 6, $163.5
million furnished under the 1947 agreement.
16. Edward G. Lansdale, In the Midst of Wars (New York, 1972) passim; Stephen
Shalom, "Counter-insurgency in the Philippines" in Daniel Schirmer and Stephen
Shalom, eds., The Philippine Reader (Boston, 1987) pp. 112-3.
17. William Worden, 'Robin Hood of the Islands', Saturday Evening Post, 12 January
1952, p. 76.
18. Lansdale, pp. 24-30,47.
19. Joseph Burkholder Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior [New York, 1976) p. 95 (see
note 30 for Smith's back-ground).
20. Lansdale, pp. 72-3.
21. Ibid., pp. 47-59.
22. Ibid., pp. 70-1, 81-3, 92-3; Smith, p. 106; Taruc, pp. 68-9; for further description of
this propaganda campaign, see Shalom, pp. 115-6.
23. Col. L. Fletcher Prouty, US Air Force, Ret., The Secret Team: The CIA and its
Allies in Control of the World (Ballantine Books, New York, 1974, paperback) pp.
38-9.
24. Ibid., pp. 102-3.
25. Smith, p, 95, quoting CIA officer Paul Lineberger.
26. New York Times, 16 October 1953, p. 26
27. Interviews by author Thomas Buell of Ralph Lovett, CIA Chief of Station in the
Philippines in the early 1950s.and of Lansdale; cited in Raymond Bonnet, Waltzing
With a Dicatator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy (New York,
1987) pp. 39-40. See also New York Times, 31 March 1997, p.l

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