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28. Bonner, p. 41
29. Sherman Adams, Firsthand Report (New York, 1961) p. 123.


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30. For an overall derailed description of CIA manipulation of Philippine political life, and
of Magsaysay in particular, see Smith, chapters 7, 15, 16, 17. Smith was a CIA officer
who, in the early 1950s, worked in the Far East Division, which includes the
Philippines, concerned with political and psychological-warfare matters.
31. Smith, p. 280
32. Buell interview of Lovett (see note 27), cited in Bonnet, p. 42.
33. Reader's Digest, April 1963, article entitled "Democracy Triumphs in the
Philippines".
34. Smith, p. 290
35. House Bill No. 6584, Republic Act No. 1700, approved 20 June 1957.
36. Huks' condition: New York Times, 3 April 1949, p. 20; 30 June 1950, p. 4.
37. Lachica, p. 131
38. Taylor, p. 192


5. KOREA 1945-1953

1. New York Times, 1 October 1950, p. 3.
2. The U.S. Imperialists Started the Korean War is the subtle title of the book
published in Pyongyang, North Korea, 1977, pp. 109-10.
3. Radio address of 13 April 1950, reprinted in The Department of State Bulletin, 24
April 1950, p. 627.
4. For a discussion of the war's immediate origin, see:
a) Katunakar Gupta, "How Did the Korean War Begin?", The China Quarterly
(London) October/December 1972, No. 52, pp. 699-716.
b) "Comment: The Korean War", The China Quarterly, April/June 1973, No. 54,
pp. 354-68. This consists of responses to Gupta's article in issue No. 52 and Gupta's
counter-response.
c) New York Times, 26 June 1950. Page 1 ” South Korea's announcement about
Haeju. Page 3 ” North Korea's announcement about Haeju.
d) Glenn D. Paige, The Korean Decision (June 24-30, 1950) (New York, 1968) passim,
particularly p. 130.
e) I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War (New York, 1952) chapter 7 and
elsewhere.
5. John Gunther, The Riddle of MacArthur (London, 1951), pp. 151-2.
6. New York Times, 25 July 1950, p, 4; 30 July, p. 2.
7. Khrushchev Remembers (London, 1971) chapter 11. Study of transcription vs.
book: John Merrill, Book Reviews, Journal of Korean Studies (University of
Washington, Seattle) Vol. 3, 1981, pp. 181-91.
8. Joseph C. Goulden, Korea; The Untold Story of the War (New York, 1982), p. 64.
9. New York Times, 26 June 1950.
10. Ibid., 1 October 1950, p. 4.
11. Goulden, pp. 87-8; Stone, pp. 75,77.
12. For further discussion of the UN's bias at this time see Jon Halliday, "The United
Nations and Korea", in Frank Baldwin, ed., Without Parallel: The American-Korean
Relationship Since 1945 (New York, 1974), pp. 109-42.
13. Trygve Lie, In the Cause of Peace (New York, 1954) chapters 18 and 19.
14. Shirley Hazzard, Countenance of Truth: The United Nations and the Waldheim Case
(New York, 1990), pp. 13- 22. In his book, p. 389, Lie slates that it was he who
initiated this practice.
15. CIA memorandum, 28 June 1950, Declassified Documents Reference System
(Arlington, Virginia) Retrospective Volume, Document 33C.
16. Stone, pp. 77-8.
17. The full text of the Security Council Resolution of 7 July 1950 can be found in the
New York Times, 8 July 1950, p. 4.


224
18. Dwight Eisenhower, The White House Years: Mandate for Change, 1953-1956 (New
York, 1963) p. 340.
19. For a discussion of post-war politics in South Korea see:
a) Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War: Liberation and the Emergence of
Separate Regimes, 1945-1947 (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1981) passim.
b) E. Grant Meade, American Military Government in Korea (King's Crown Press,
Columbia University, New York, 1951) chapters 3-5.
c) George M. McCune, Korea Today (Institute of Pacific Relations, New York, 1950)
passim, pp. 46-50 (KPR). Professor McCune worked with the US Government on
Korean problems during World War IL
d) D, F. Fleming, The Cold War and us Origins, 1917-1960 (Doubleday & Co., New
York, 1961) pp. 589-97.
e) Alfred Crofts, "The Case of Korea: Our Falling Ramparts", The Nation (New York)
25 June 1960, pp. 544-8. Crofts was a member of the US Military Government in
Korea beginning in 1945.
20. Crofts, p. 545.
21. Gunther, p. 165.
22. Crofts, p. 545.
23. Ibid.
24. Ibid., p. 546.
25. Collaborators: Cumings, pp. 152-6; Meade, p. 61; McCune, p. 51; plus elsewhere in
these sources, as well as in Fleming and Crofts. Japanese and collaborators retaining
positions to thwart the KPR: Cumings, pp. 138-9.
26. McCune, pp. 83-4, 129-39, 201 -9.
27. 1946 election: Mark Gayn, Japan Diary (New York 1948) p. 398; 1948 election:
Crofts, p. 546; Halliday, pp. 117-22; 1950 election and US warning: Fleming, p, 594.
For a discussion of Rhee's thwarting of honest elections in 1952 and later, and his
consistently tyrannical rule, see William J. Lederer, A Nation of Sheep (W.W. Norton
& Co., New York, 1961), chapter 4.
28. Gunther, pp. 166-7.
29. Gayn, p. 388.
30. Ibid., p. 352.
31. John Kie-Chiang Oh, Korea: Democracy on Trial (Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
NY, 1968) p. 35.
32. The Nation (New York), 13 August 1949, p. 152.
33. Gunther, p. 171.
34. Oh, p. 206; see also New York Times, 11 April 1951, p. 4 for an account of a
massacre of some 500 to 1,000 people in March in the same place, which appears to
refer to the same incident.
35. Jon Halliday, "The Political Background", in Gavan McCormack and Mark
Selden, eds., Korea, North and South; The Deepening Crisis [New York, 1978) p.
56.
36. New York Times, 11 April 1951, p.4.
37. Rene Cutforth, "On the Korean War", The Listener (BBC publication, London) 11
September 1969, p. 343.
38. Gregory Henderson, Korea: The Politics of the Vortex (Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, Mass., 1968) p, 167.
39. New York Times, 9 February 1951, George Barrett.
40. Goulden, pp. 471-2. This information derives from Goulden's interview of Tofte.
41. New York Times, 27 November 1951, p. 4.
42. Eugene Kinkead, Why They Collaborated (London, 1960) p. 17; published in the US
in 1959 in slightly different form as In Every War But Owe- The Army study was not
contained in any one volume, but was spread out over a number of separate reports.
Kinkead's book, written with the full co-operation of the Army, is composed of a
summary of some of these reports, and interviews with many government and military


225
officials who were directly involved in or knowledgeable about the study or the
subject. For the sake of simplicity, I have referred 10 the book as if it were the actual
study. It is to the Army's credit that much of the results of the study were not kept
secret; the study, nonetheless, contains some anti-communist statements of the most
bizarre sort: lying is often punished in China by death ... communists live like animals
all their lives ... [pp. 190, 193]
43. Keesings Contemporary Archives, 5-12 January 1952, p. 11931, an announcement on
31 December 1951 from General Ridgeway's headquarters.
44. Kinkead, p. 34.
45. Robert J. Lifton, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of
Brainwashing' in China (London, 1961), p. 4
46. John Marks, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control
(New York, paperback edition, 1988), p. 25, based on CIA documents.
47. Sunday Times (London), 6 July 1975, p. 1. Narut at the time was working at a OS
naval hospital in Naples, Italy, and made his remarks at a NATO-sponsored
conference held in Oslo, Norway the week before.
48. Kinkead, p. 31.
49. Ibid., pp. 17, 34.
50. Ibid., pp. 105-6.
51. Ibid., p. 197.
52. For a concise description of the "terror bombing" of 1952-53, see John Gittings,
"Talks, Bombs and Germs: Another Look at the Korean War", Journal of
Contemporary Asia (London) Vol. 5, No. 2, 1975, pp. 212-6.
53. Air Force Communique, 2 February 1951, cited by Stone, p. 259
54. Military Situation in the Far East, Hearings Before the Senate Committees on
Armed Services and Foreign Relations, 25 June 1951, p. 3075.
55. Louis Heren, "The Korean Scene", in Rear-Admiral H.G. Thursfield, ed., Brassey's
Annual: The Armed forces Year-Book 19.51 (London, 1951) p. 110.
56. San Francisco Chronicle, 15 December 1977, p. 11, based on documents released
under the Freedom of Information Act.
57. New York Times, 12 November 1951, p. 3.
58. Ibid., 14 November 1951, p. 1.


6. ALBANIA 1949-1953
1. Douglas Sutherland, The Fourth Man (London, 1980) p. 88.
2. Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (New
York, 1979), p. 54.
3. Nicholas Bethell, The Great Betrayal: The Untold Story of Kim Philby's Biggest
Coup (London, 1984) passim, for the most detailed discussion of the recruitment,
training and fate of the emigres (published in New York, 1984 as Betrayed). See also
Bruce Page, David Leitch, and Philip Knightly, The Philby Conspiracy (New York,
1968) pp. 196-203.
4. Kim Philby, My Silent War (Great Britain, 1968), p. 117.
5. F.. Howard Hunt, Undercover: Memoirs of an American Secret Agent (London, 1975)
p. 93.
6. See note 3 above.
7. Political background of the emigres: New York Times, 20 June 1982, p. 22;
Bethell, passim; Christopher Simpson, Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis
and Its Effects on the Cold War (New York, 1988), p. 123 (Xhafer Deva).
8. Radio station, unrest: New York Times, 31 March 1951, p. 5; 9 April 1951, p. l; 26
September 1951.
9. Philby,p. 118.
10. New York Times, 27 March 1950; 9 April 1951, p. 1.


226
11. Bethell, p. 183.
12. New York Times, 9 April 1951, p. 1.
13. Bethell, p. 200.


7. EASTERN EUROPE 1945-1956

1. New York Times, 29 September 1954.
2. The story of Operation Splinter Factor comes from the book of the same name by
Stewart Steven published in London in 1974. Steven, a veteran British journalist and
Editor of The Mail on Sunday (London), provides much greater detail than the short
summary appearing here. He presents a strong case, and one has to read the entire
book to appreciate this. Nonetheless, his central thesis remains undocumented.
Steven states that this thesis ” Alien Dulles instigating Jozef Swiatlo to use Noel
Field in the manner described ” comes from personal interviews with former
members of the CIA, the SIS (the British Secret Intelligence Service) and other people
involved in the conspiracy who insisted on remaining anonymous. Flora Lewis, the
Washington Post correspondent who wrote Red Pawn: The Story of Noel Field
{New York, 1965; published in London the same year as The Man Who Disappeared:
The Strange History of Noel Field), stated in that book that she ran into an "official
barrier of silence" when she requested information from American, Swiss, French,
British and German intelligence centers on even "plain questions of dates and places".
And she was not inquiring about Operation Splinter Factor per se, which she knew
nothing about, only about Noel Field a decade after he had been released. Similarly,
the US government, without explanation, flatly refused her access to Jozef Swiatlo.
Richard Harris Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence
Agency {University of California Press, paperback edition, 1972), p. 238 note, writes
that "It was later suggested that Field's arrest was actually part of a British plot to
split the East European Communists, as outlined in John Le Carre's The Spy Who
Came in From the Cold." Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard
Helms and the CIA (Pocket Books, New York, 1979, paperback) pp. 405-6, suggests
that Stewart Steven's "central premise apparently came from someone in the British
SIS who did not like Dulles."
3. New York Times, 25 October 1954, p. 1.
4. Ibid., 19 February 1955, p. 1.
5. Ibid., 17 November 1954, p. 1.
6. Blanche W. Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower (New York, 1981) p. 129.
7. Ibid.
8. Cord Meyer, Pacing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA (New York, 1980)
p, 120; Steven, pp. 208-9; Lewis, p. 238 (torture).
9. New York Times, 23 July 1948, p. 5; Robert Bishop and E. S. Crayfield, Russia
Astride the Balkans {New York, 1948), pp. 264-71.
10. New York Times, 9 April 1951 (column by C. Sulzberger).
1 1 . Cook, pp. 130-1; George Clay, "Balloons for a Captive Audience", The Reporter
(New York) 18 November 1954; Robert T. Holt and Robert W. van de Velde,
Strategic Psychological Operations and American Foreign Policy (University of
Chicago Press, 1960) ch. VII.
12. New York Times, 24 January 1952, p, 4.
13. Ibid., 30 August 1955, p. 1.
14. Ibid., 30 November 1976.
15. Stephen Ambrose, ike's Spies (Doubleday & Co., New York, 1981) pp. 235, 238.




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8. GERMANY 1950s

1. Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New
York, 1969) p. 260.
2. Ibid.
3. Failure of deindustrialization; for further discussion, see Richard J. Barnet, Allies:
America. Europe and Japansince the War (London, 1984) pp. 33-9.
4. Dwight Eisenhower, The While House Years: Mandate for Change, 1953-1956 (New
York, 1963) pp. 79-80.
5. New York Times, 6 November 1952, p. 3
6. Democratic German Report, 13 February 1953; see description of this publication
below.
7. Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, {New York,
1975) p. 147.8. Sabotage and subversion campaign:
a) Democratic German Report, various issues from 1952 to 1957 {consult its annual
indexes under 'Sabotage', 'Espionage', etc.). This was a small English-language news
magazine published fortnightly in East Berlin by Britisher John Peet, former chief
correspondent for Reuters News Agency in West Berlin.
b) Nation's Business (published by the United States Chamber of Commerce) April
1952, pp. 25-7, 68-9, discusses many of the tactics employed.
c) Sanche de Gramont, The Secret War (New York, 1963) pp. 479-80.
d) The New Yorker, 8 September 1951, article on the Investigating Committee of
Freedom-minded Jurists of the Soviet Zone.
e) The Nation, (New York) 24 June 1961, pp. 551-2.
f) Andrew Tully, CIA: The Inside Story (Fawcert, New York, 1962) pp. 133-4, CIA
activity in June 1953 East German uprising.
g) Saturday Evening Post, 6 November 1954, p. 64, refers to CIA-promoted train
derailments in East Germany, and blowing up a railway bridge and promoting
factory work slowdowns in unspecified East European countries. This was part of a
series on the CIA prepared in collaboration with the Agency. [See Jonathan Kwitny,
Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World (New York, 1984) p. 165.]
9. Secret army, hit-list, etc.:
a) Newsweek, 20 October 1952, p. 42.
b) New York Times, 9 October 1952, p. 8; 10 October, p. 3 {under the remarkable
headline: "German Saboteurs Betray U.S. Trust"); 12 October, p. 14.
c) Der Spiegel {West German weekly news magazine), 15 October 1952, pp. 6-8.

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