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d) Democratic German Report, 15 and 24 October 1952; 21 November 1952.
9. New York Times, 14 October 1952, p. 13.


9. IRAN 1953

A general account and overview of the events in this chapter can be obtained from the
following:
a) Kermit Roosevelt, Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran (New York,
1979) passim.
b) Bahman Nirumand, Iran: The New Imperialism in Action (New York, 1969),
chapters 2 to 4, particularly the Iranian case for nationalization, British and
American reaction, and post-coup developments.
c) Stephen Ambrose, Ike's Spies {Doubleday & Co., New York, 1981) chapters 14 and
15.



228
d) Barry Rubin, Paved With Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran (New
York, 1980) chapter 3.
e) David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, The Invisible Government {New York, 1965,
paperback edition), pp. 116-21.
f) Andrew Tully, CIA: The Inside Story {New York, 1962), pp. 76-84.
g) Fred J. Cook in The Nation (New York) 24 June 1961, pp. 547-51, particularly
Conditions in Iran after the coup.

1. Roosevelt, p. 8.
2. Ibid., pp. 18-19.
3. Anthony Eden, The Memoirs of the Right Honourable Sir Anthony Eden: Full Circle
(London, 1960) p. 194.
4. Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New
York, 1969) pp. 679-85; Eden, pp. 201-2: Nirumand, pp. 73-4.
5. Roosevelt, p. 107.
6. Ibid., pp. II, 2, 3, 91-2,126, 134,164, 119.
7. Acheson, p. 504.
8. Relations between Mossadegh, Tudeh, and the Soviet Union:
a) Manfred Halpern, "Middle East and North Africa", in C.E, Black and T.P.
Thornton, eds., Communism and Revolution (U.S., 1964) pp. 316-19
b) Donald N. Wilber, Iran-. Past and Present (Princeton University Press, Third Edition,
1955), p. 115. Wilber is an historian who, by his own admission, was also a CIA
operative. He claims, in 3 later book, to have been the principal planner for the
operation to overthrow Mossadegh (known as Operation AJAX), although he offers
no evidence to support this assertion. He also states that Roosevelt's book is full of
factual errors. See Adventures in the Middle East {1986), pp. 187-8.
c) Nirumand, op. cit.
d) Rubin, op. cit.
9. The Declassified Documents Reference System (Arlington, Va.) 1979 volume,
document 79E.
10. Ibid.
11. Roosevelt interview by Robert Scheer in the Los Angeles Times, 29 March 1979, p. 1.
12. New York Times, 10 July 1953, p. 4.
13. Roosevelt, p. 168.
14. Fitzroy Maclean, Eastern Approaches (London, 1949) pp. 266, 274; Maclean was a
British officer in World War II who kidnapped Zahedi (or Zahidi) to keep him from
further aiding the Nazis.
15. The details of the last days of the Mossadegh regime can be found in Roosevelt,
chapters 11 and 12; Wilber pp.124-7 (purposely makes no mention of the CIA ” see
Note 8); Ambrose, chapter 15, as well as in other books mentioned in this section.
16. Demonstration: Wilber, p. 125; Roosevelt, p. 179; New York Times, 19 August 1953.
17. Brian Lapping, End of Empire (Great Britain/US 1985) p. 220, based on the Granada
Television series of the same name broadcast in Britain in 1985,
18. Halpern, p. 318; Wilber, p. 125.
19. Henderson meeting with Mossadegh: Ambrose, pp. 208-9, interview with Henderson
by the author; Roosevelt, pp. 183-5.
20. New York Times, 19 August 1953.
21. Roosevelt, p. 191-2.
22. New York Times, 20 August 1953, p. 1: The Times {London), 20 August 1953.
23. David Leigh, The Wilson Plot: How the Spycatchers and Their American Allies
Tried to Overthrow the British Government (New York, 1988) pp. 14-15.
24. Hearings in 1954 before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on "The Mutual
Security ACT of 1954", pp. 503, 569-70. Stewart was the Director of the Office or
Military Assistance, Department of Defense.



229
25. Kennett Love, The American Role in the Pahlevi Restoration on 19 August 1953
(Pahlevi was the Shah's name), unpublished manuscript residing amongst the Allen
Duller papers, Princeton University; excerpted in Jonathan Kwitny, Endless Enemies:
The Making of an Unfriendly World (New York, 1984) pp. 164-177.
26. New York Times, 18 January 1953, IV, p. 8.
27. Arthur L. Richards, Director, Office of Greek, Turkish and Iranian Affairs, testimony
17 July 1953, before House Committee on Foreign Affairs in executive session,
released in 1981, p. 148.
28. New York Times, 21 July 1953.
29. Ibid., 23 August 1953, IV, p. 1.
30. Scheer interview.
31. The Guardian (London) 2 January 1984, British Government papers of 1953,
released 1 January 1984.
32. Testimony at "Hearings on the Situation in the Middle East", Senate Committee
on Foreign Relations, 24 February 1956, p. 23.
33. Nirumand, pp. 100-108 explains the contract in derail.
34. Roosevelt's post-CIA career: Scheer interview; Wise and Ross, pp. 116-7; Kwitny, p.
183.
35. Robert Engler, The Politics of Oil: A Study of Private Power and Democratic
Directions (N.Y., 1961) p. 310.
36. San Francisco Chronicle, 26 December 1979.
37. Roosevelt, p. 145.
38. New York Times, 6 August 1954.
39. Allen Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence (New York, 1965) p.216.
40. Fortune {New York) June 1975, p. 90.
41. Love, op. cit., cited in Kwitny, p. 175.
42. Roosevelt, p. 9.
43. Jesse J. Leaf, Chief CIA analyst on Iran for five years before resigning in 1973,
interviewed by Seymour Hersh in the New York Times, 7January 1979.
44. Martin Ennals, Secretary-General of Amnesty International, cited in an article by
Reza Baraheni in Matchbox (Amnesty publication in New York) Fall, 1976.
45. Tully, p. 76.
46. See, e.g. Michael Klare, War Without End (New York, 1972) pp. 375, 379, 382,
based on official US Government tables covering the 1950s and 1960s.
47. Cook, p. 550.
48. San Francisco Chronicle, 3 March 1980, p. 15.



10.GUATEMALA 1953-1954

The details of the events described in this chapter were derived principally from the
following sources:
a) Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the
American Coup in Guatemala (Doubleday Si Co., New York, 1982) passim, based
partly on documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act from the State
Department, the Defense Department, the CIA, the National Archives, the Navy
Department, and the FBI, as well as documents at the Eisenhower Library and
amongst the John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles papers at Princeton University, and
interviews with individuals who played a role in the events. This is the primary source
where another source is not indicated.
b) Blanche Wiesen Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower (Doubleday & Co., New York,
1981) pp. 222-92, based partly on documents at the Eisenhower Library and the




230
Guatemala archives at the Library of Congress. The latter is composed of papers
confiscated by the US after the coup.
c) Richard H. Immerman, The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention
(University of Texas Press, Austin, 1982) pp. 118-22, ch. 6 and 7, based partly on
papers at the Truman and Eisenhower Libraries and interviews.
d) David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York, 1965,
paperback edition) chapter 11.
e) Thomas and Marjorie Melville, The Politics of Land Ownership (New York, 1971),
ch. 4 to 6; published in Great Britain the same year in slightly different form as
Guatemala - Another Vietnam?
1. Schlesinger and Kinzer, pp. 143-4.
2. New York Times, 16 June 1954.
3. Ibid., 20 May 1954, p. 18.
4. Time magazine, 11 January 1954.
5. Congressional Record, 8 February 1954, p. 1475.
6. Time,19July 1954,p.34.
7. Cook, p. 274; Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 148.
8. Cook, p. 234.
9. Ibid., pp. 240-41.
10. Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 12.
11. Cook, pp. 242-3, quoting former Guatemalan Foreign Minister Raul Oesegueda.
12. Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 61.
13. Washington Post, 15 November 1953, p. 3B.
14. Schlesinger and Kinzer, pp. 58-9.
15. CIA National Intelligence Estimate, 11 March 1952, pp. 1-3, Declassified
Documents Reference System (Woodbridge, Connecticut) 1982 Volume, Document
no. 6.
16. Immerman, pp. 118-22.
17. Thomas P. McCann, An American Company: The Tragedy of United Fruit (New
York, 1976) p. 49. McCann had been an official with United Fruit. Almost all
sources differ as to the amount offered by the Guatemalan Government, ranging
from McCann's figure to almost $1,200,000.
18. Schlesinger and Kinzer, pp. 106-7 and passim; McCann, chapter 4.
19. Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 52.
20. Ibid., pp. 102-3.
21. Derived primarily from Schlesinger and Kinzer, to a lesser extent from the other
sources listed at the beginning of this section, as well as those specified below.
22. Dwight Eisenhower, The White House Years: Mandate for Change, 1953-1956 (New
York, 1963) p. 424.
23. Cook, pp. 270-71.
24. Ibid., pp. 249-52.
25. Time, 8 February 1954, p. 36.
16. New York Times, 30 January 1954, pp. 1,6.
27. McCann, p. 60.
28. David Atlee Phillips, The Night Watch: Twenty-five Years of Peculiar Service
(Atheneum, New York, 1977) pp. 34-5.
29. Life magazine, 5 July 1954, p. 8.
30. Newsweek, 5 July 1954, p. 46.
31. State Department memo, 23 June 1954, cited in Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 189.
32. James Hagerty, White House Press Secretary, Diaries 1954 (Eisenhower
Library), 24 June 1954, cited in Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 181.
33. Brian Urquhart, Hammarskjold (Knopf, New York, 1972), pp. 91-4.
34. New York Times, 24 June 1954; Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 175.




231
35. Guillermo Toriello, La Batalla de Guatemala (Mexico City, 1955) p. 189; the
Guatemalan Foreign Minister related what he was told by Col. Diaz; cited in
Schlesinger and Kinzer, p. 207.
36. Cook, p. 285; Wise and Ross, p. 192-3.
37. Paul Kennedy, The Middle Beat (Teachers College Press, Columbia University,
New York, 1971) p. 142; Schlesinger and Kinzer, pp. 219-20.
38. Time, 12 July 1954, p. 31.
39. Wise and Ross, pp. 194-5; John Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin America (New
York, 1965, revised edition) p.183.
40. Melville, p. 93.
41. Schlesinger and Kinzer, pp. 218-9.
42. Ibid., pp. 60, 221-2; Cook, p. 231; Gerassi, p. 183.
43. Wise and Ross, p. 187.
44. Schlesinger and Kinzer, 222-3.
45. Hilda Gadea, Ernesto: A Memoir of Che Guevara (London, 1973, translated from the
Spanish) p. 54.
46. New York Times, 1 July 1954.
47. CIA memo, 16 August 1954, Declassified Documents Reference System
(Woodbridge, Connecticut) 1983 Volume, Document No. 32.
48. Statement before the Subcommittee on Latin America, House Select Committee on
Communist Aggression, 8 October 1954, as reprinted in Department of State
Bulletin, 8 November 1954, p. 690. 49. Eisenhower, pp. 421-7. 50. New York Times,
28 October 1955.


11.COSTA RICA Mid-1950s

1. Los Angeles Times, 10 March 1975.
2. Miami Herald, 10 March 1975.
3. Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 11 March 1975. Notes one to three all refer to
the same television interview of Figueres in Mexico City, 9 March 1975. Figueres
may have admitted to his CIA connections at this time because shortly before,
Philip Agee's book had come out identifying Figueres as "a long-time Agency
collabora tor". (Inside the Company: CIA Diary, New York, 1975, p. 244; published
in Great Britain in 1974.)
4. David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York, 1965,
paperback edition) p. 127.
5. Ibid., pp. 127-8.
6. Charles D. Ameringer, Democracy in Costa Rica (Praeger, New York and Hoover
Institution Press, Stanford University, California, 1982) pp. 83-5.

7. John Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin America (New York, 1965, revised edition) p.
208.
8. Miami Herald, 13 February 1971.
9. Wise and Ross, p. 128.
10. Charles D. Ameringer, Dorr Pepe. A Political Biography of Jose Figueres of Costa Rica
(University of New Mexico Press, 1978) pp. 124-5.
11. Washington Post, 9 January 1953; Wise and Ross, p.127.



12. SYRIA 1956-1957
1. Department of State Bulletin (Washington), 18 June 1956, pp. 999-1000.



232
2. U.S. Mutual Security Act of 1955, Sections 142(a)(4) and 413.
3. Declassified Documents Reference System: volume: document no. 2326, 10 May
1955; no. 2663, 21 September 1955; no. 2973, 9 January 1956; no. 2974,
16 January 1956. volume: document no. 2953, 14 December 1955; no. 2954, 26
January 1956; no. 2955, 27 January 1956. With the exception of no. 2663, all the
documents bear the heading of the Operations Coordinating Board, a subcommittee of
the NSC which coordinated covert activities.
4. Ibid., 1993 volume, no. 2953, 14 December 1955, p. 4.
5. Wilbur Crane Eveland, Ropes of Sand: America's Failure in the Middle East (W. W.
Norton & Co., New York, 1980) p. 122.
6. Patrick Seale, The Struggle for Syria: A Study of Post-War Arab Politics, 1945-1958
(London, 1965) pp. 283-306: Eveland, pp. 135, 169-73.
7. Eveland, p. 182.
8. 1956 plot and background: Eveland, chapters 11-20; New York Times, 10 April 1956;
17 October 1956.
9. Dwight D. Eisenhower, The White House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (New
York, 1965) p. 196.
10. Declassified Documents Reference System, 1981 volume, document no. 26E, 22
March 1957.
11. Ibid., 1985 volume, document no, 283, March 1957.

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