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12. Ibid., 1981 volume, document no. 471B, 17 June 1957.
13. 1957 plot: Eveland, pp, 253-4; New York Times, 14 August 1957, pp. 1, 6; 15
August, pp. 1,4.
14. New York Times, 17 August 1957, p. 3,
15. Ibid., p. 14,
16. Eisenhower, p. 196.
17. CIA internal report, author's name deleted, 18 June 1962, the result of conversations
with "Western diplomats" concerning the Kennedy-Macmillan meeting, in
Declassified Documents Reference System, 1975 volume, document no. 240A.



13.THE MIDDLE EAST 1957-1958

1. Wilbur Crane Eveland, Ropes of Sand: America's Failure in the Middle Fast (W. W,
Norton & Co., New York, 1980) p. 240. What Eveland calls "Russia's threat" may
not have been all that it appeared to be. Kennett Love (see note re him in chapter)
reported later that the CIA had manufactured several reports of Russian military
activity which were without any basis in fact, to induce France and Great Britain to
call a cease fire ” Suez: The Twice-Fought War (Great Britain, 1969), p. 615.
2. Events in Jordan: New York Times, 5 April 1957, p. 1: 25 April, pp, 13; 26 April, p.
1; the words of the "inter vention" quotation are those of the Times, 26 April.
3. Richard Barnet, Intervention and Revolution, (London, 1972) p. 149.
4. Washington Post, 18 February 1977.
5. Kennett Love, op. cit., p. 655.
6. Dwight D. Eisenhower, The While House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (New
York, 1965) p. 201.
7. Declassified Documents Reference System, (Arlington, Va.) 1981 volume, document
471B, 17 June 1957.
8. Eisenhower, p. 198.
9. Emmet John Hughes, The Ordeal of Power (London, 1963) pp. 253-4; the remark
was made to Hughes "a few months after Herter took office" on 22 February 1957.
10. Barry Blechman and Stephen Kaplan, Force Without War: U.S. Armed Forces as a
Political Instrument (The Brookings Institution, Washington, 1978) p. 84; although


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the study was undertaken at the Pentagon's request and with its full co-operation,
the book stipulates that the views expressed are the authors' alone.
11. Events concerning Syria: New York Times, 6 September 1957, pp. 1, 2; 8 September,
p. 3: 10 September, pp. 1, 8, 9; 11 September, p. 10; 12 September, p. I; 13
September, pp. 1, 3; Barnet, pp. 149-51: Eisenhower, pp. 196-203; Patrick Seale,
The Struggle for Syria: A Study of Post-War Arab Politics, 1945-1958 [London, 1965)
p. 303,
12. The norm has been for the CIA to be accused of involvement in a coup which the
Agency or its scribes deny. In this case, it appears that the young CIA had a need to
blow its own horn and it encouraged the word to be passed that it had been the
motivating force behind the Egyptian army coup. But this assertion, found often in the
literature, has never been accompanied by any clear description of how this took
place, not even an explanation of why the CIA preferred Farouk out and the army in.
Miles Copeland, one of the Agency's earliest officers and a great admirer of Kermit
Roosevelt, goes to some length in his 1969 book, The Game of Nations, to propagate
the story, but his account is pure crypto-mumbo-jumbo. In the same book, Copeland
asserts that the CIA, with himself personally involved, directed a coup in Syria in
1949, This tale, too, is written in a manner that does not inspire credibility. It is
perhaps relevant that CIA colleague Wilbur Crane Eveland (p. 148) has written that
"I'd already had evidence that Copeland tended to exaggerate."
13. Saud, Illah, and plot against Nasser: Eveland, pp. 243-4.
14. Ibid., pp. 246-8.
15. Plots:
a) New York Times, 8, 13-15 August 1957; 21 October 1957; 24, 28, December 1957;
14 February 1958; 6-8, 14, 29 March 195S; 8 October 1958.
b) Eveland, p. 273.
c) Eisenhower, pp. 263-4.
d) The Times (London), numerous references from July 1957 to October 1958 ” see
the newspaper's index under "Egypt" and "Syria": "espionage" and "political
situation".
16. Eveland, p. 292n.
17. Soviet proposals: New York Times, 6 September 1957, p. 2; 11 September, p. 10.
18. Eisenhower, p. 269.
19. David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York, 1965,
paperback edition) p. 337.
20. 1957 election and aftermath: Eveland, pp. 248-53, 256; Eisenhower, p. 265; Barnet,
pp. 143-8.
21. Eisenhower quotations: Eisenhower, pp. 266-7.
22. Dulles news conference, 20 May 1958: Department of State Bulletin, 9 June 1958, p.
945.
23. Barnet, pp. 147-8.
24. Eisenhower, p. 268.
25. Eveland, p. 276.
26. Robert Murphy, Diplomat Among Warriors (US, 1965), p, 450.
27. Eisenhower, p. 273.
28. Murphy, p. 445, 455.
29. Eisenhower, p. 275.
30. Eveland, pp. 294-5; Eisenhower refers to similar situations, p. 277.
31. Eveland, pp. 295-6.
32. Wise and Ross, pp. 337-8; news item from the Si. Louis Post Dispatch, 23
July 1958, cited on p. 338.
33. Blechman and Kaplan, p. 253.
34. Claudia Wright, New Statesman magazine (London), 15 July 1983, p. 20. She doesn't
say how the Soviets found out about the plan.



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35. Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, The
Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence
Activities (US Senate), 20 November 1975, p. 181, footnote. In the report, Kassem is
referred to as "an Iraqi colonel". See also: Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the
Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (New York, 1979) pp. 161, 163 for a
discussion of how President Eisenhower would have to have given the approval for
the action against Kassem.
36. See, e.g., Eisenhower, pp. 274-5.
37. Ibid., pp. 290-1.



14.INDONESIA 1957-1958

1. Joseph Burkholder Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior (G.P. Putnam's Sons, New
York, 1976) p, 205.
2. New York Times, 18 May 1956.
3. Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Foreign and Military Intelligence, Book 4,
Final Report of The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with
Respect to Intelligence Activities (U.S. Senate), April 1976, p. 133.
4. New York Times, 12, 30 April 1955; 3, 4 August 1955; 3 September 1955; 22
November 1967, p. 23.
5. John Discoe Smith, I Was a CIA Agent in India (India, 1967) passim; New York
Times, 25 October 1967, p. 17;22 November, p. 23; 5 December, p. 12; Harry
Rositzke, The KGB: The Eyes of Russia (New York, 1981), p. 164.
6. Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders. The
Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence
Activities (U.S. Senate), 20 November 1975, p, 4, note.
7. David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York, 1965,
paperback edition) pp, 149-50.
8. Julie Southwood and Patrick Flanagan, Indonesia: Law, Propaganda and Terror
(London, 1983) pp. 26-7.
9. Wise and Ross, p. 148.
10. J.B. Smith, pp. 210-11.
11. Ibid., pp, 228-9.
12. Ibid., p. 240.
13. Ibid, pp, 229,246.
14. Ibid., p. 243.
15. Sex-blackmail operations: ibid., pp. 238-40, 248. Smith errs somewhat in his comment
about Round Table. The article's only (apparent) reference to the Soviet woman is in
the comment on p. 133: "Other and more scandalous reasons have been put forward for
the President's leaning towards the Communist Party."
16. New York Times, 26 January 1976.
17. Truman Smith, "The Infamous Record of Soviet Espionage", Reader's Digest, August 1960.
18. J.B.Snnth, pp. 220-1.
19. Referred to in a memorandum from Allen Dulles to the White House, 7 April 1961; the
memo briefly summarizes the main points of the US intervention: Declassified Documents
Reference System {Arlington, Va.) released 18 December 1974.
20. The military operation and the Pope affair:
a) Wise and Ross, pp. 145-56.
b) Christopher Robbins, Air America (US, 1979), pp. S8-94.
c) Col. L. Fletcher Prouty, US Air Force, Ret., The Secret Team: The CIA and its Allies in
Control of the World (New York, 1974) pp. 155, 308, 363-6.
d) New York Times, 23 March 1958, p. 2; 19 April; 28 May, p. 9.


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e) Sukarno, An Autobiography, as told to Cindy Adams (Hong Kong, 1966) pp. 267-71; first
printed in the US in 1965; although a poor piece of writing, the book is worth reading for
Sukarno's views on why it is foolish to call him a Communist; how he, as a Third-Worlder
who didn't toe the line, was repeatedly snubbed and humiliated by the Eisenhower
administration, apart from the intervention; and how American sex magazines contrived to
make him look ridiculous.
f) J. B. Smith, pp. 246-7. There appears to be some confusion about the bombing of the church.
Smith states that it was Pope who did it on 18 May before being shot down. Either he or
other chroniclers have mixed up the events of April and May.
20. Wise and Ross, p. 145..



15. WESTERN EUROPE 1950s and 1960s
1. Richard Fletcher, "How CIA Money Took the Teeth Out of British Socialism", in Philip Agee
and Louis Wolf, eds., Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe (New Jersey, 1978) p. 200.
2. The CCF, its activities and its publications:
a) For a detailed, and sympathetic, history of the CCF, see Peter Coleman, The Liberal
Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural freedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Postwar
Europe (New York, 1989), passim; CCF magazines ” chapters 5 and 11; CCF books ”
Appendix D, plus elsewhere;
b) Russell Warren Howe, "Asset Unwitting: Covering the World for the CIA", MORE (New
York), May 1978. pp. 20-27, a magazine associated with the Columbia University School of
Journalism; c) New York Times, 26 December 1977, p. 37; 27 April 1966, p. 28; 8, 9 May
1967, and other issues in 1967;
d) Commentary magazine (New York), September 1967;
e) Fletcher, pp. 188-200. Amongst other non-European CCF magazines were: Thought, and
Quest in India, Aportes, Cadernos Brasileiros, and Informes de China in Latin America,
Black Orpheus, and Transition in Africa, Horison, Social Science Review, Jiyu and
Solidarity in Asia, and Hiwar in Beirut.
3. Ray Cline, Secrets, Spies and Soldiers (US, 1976), p. 129.
4. New York Times, 26 December 1977, p. 37.
5. Washington Post, 15 May 1967, p. 1.
6. Forum World Features: Howe, op. cit. Howe is the Forum writer quoted. CIA budget: House
Committee report, cited in Howe, p. 27. For a detailed study of CIA use of American news
organizations, see Carl Bernstein, "The CIA and the Media", Rolling Stone, 20 October
1977, and New York Times, 26 December 1977, pp. 1 and 37.
7. The Nation (New York), 19 June 1982, p. 738. The article reports that some CIA officers
have maintained that Springer was rather liberal in the early 1950s and he was financed to
counter neo-Nazi and rightist elements in Germany. This should be taken with a grain of
salt, for the overriding policy of the American occupation administration during this period,
regardless of the sentiments of any individual American official, was to suppress the
influence of persons and groups to the left of center ” Communists, radicals, and social
democrats alike; at the same time, the US authorities were employing "former" Nazis in
every area of administration and intelligence (see chapter on Germany).
8. Tom Braden, "I'm Glad the CIA is Immoral'," Saturday Evening Post, 20 May 1967
9. Ibid.
10. Labour Party/CND: Fletcher, pp. 196-7; The Times (London), 5 October 1961.
11. Braden, p. 14.
12. Political parties/CIA:
a) New York Times, 7 and 9 January 1976.
b) Jack Anderson in the San Francisco Chronicle, 11 and 12 November 1981.
c) Coleman, pp. 183-5.



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d) Chapman Pincher, Inside Story: A Documentary of the Pursuit of Power (London, 1979) p.
28.
13. Operation Gladio:
a) The Observer (London), 7 June 1992.
b) The Guardian (New York), 5 December 1990, p. 5, article from Milan citing the Italian news
magazine Panorama, Agence France Presse, and other European sources.
c) Washington Post, 14 November 1990, p. A19.
d) Die Welt (Germany), 14 November 1990, p. 7.
e) Los Angeles Times, 15 November 1990, p. A6.


16. BRITISH GUIANA 1953-1964
1. Events of 1953: The Guardian (London), 28 December 1984, for a detailed description of the
raw cynicism behind the British action, based on government documents released in 1984;
see also The Times (London) 7 and 10 October 1953; Cheddi Jagan, The West on Trial
(London, 1966) chapters 7 and 8; "The Ordeal of British Guiana", Monthly Review, (New
York} July-August 1964, pp. 16-19.
2. Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 22 October 1953, column 2170, speech by
Oliver Lyttleton.
3. Ticket incident: Hew York Times, 16 October 1953, Jagan, p. 149. Pan Am: Morton Halperin,
et al.. The Lawless State (Penguin Books. New York, 1976), p. 47; Christopher Robbins, Air
America (New York, 1979), p. 58; CounterSpy magazine (Washington) December 1983-
February 1984, p. 21; Trippe was a member of two long-time CIA fronts: The American
Institute for Free Labor Development, and The Asia Foundation (formerly called National
Committee for a Free Asia)
4. ORIT: Jagan, pp. 296-7; Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York, 1975) see
index; Survey of the Alliance for Progress: Labor Policies and Programs, Staff Report of
the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on American Republics
Affairs, 15 July 1968, pp. 8-9; Serafino Romualdi, Presidents and Peons: Recollections of a
Labor Ambassador in Latin America (New York, 1967), p. 346.
5. Events of 1957-59: The Sunday Times (London) 16 and 23 April 1967.
6. New York Times, 22 February 1967, pp. 1,17.
7. The Sunday Times, op. cit.
8. Jagan, p. 304.
9. Richard Barnet, Intervention and Revolution (London, 1972) p. 244.
10. Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965) pp. 774-9.
11. San Francisco Chronicle, 21 March 1964, p. 27; New York Times, 31 October 1964, p. 7;
The Times (London), 29june l963,p.8.
12. Jagan, p. 255.
13.1962 strike: New York Times, 22 February 1967, p. 17; 30 October 1994, p. 4
(media):Bamet, p. 245; Agee, pp. 293-4;Jagan, pp. 252-69; The Times (London) 13 March
1962, p-10.
14. 1963 strike, general description: Jagan, chapters 13 and 14.
15. Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 4 May 1966, columns 1765-7; see also 29
April 1966, columns 1133-4.
16. New York Times, 22 February 1967, p. 17.
17. Thomas J. Spinner Jr., A Political and Social History of Guyana, 1945-1983 (London, 1984)
pp. 115-6; Agee, p. 406; New York Times, 4 January 1964, p. 10.
18. The Sunday Times, op. cit.
19. Ibid.
20. New York Times, 11 August 1963, p. 28.
21. Ibid., 11 September 1963, p. 1.
22. The Sunday Times (London) 25 May 1975, p. 4.
23. San Francisco Chronicle, 21 March 1964, p. 27.


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24. Jagan, pp. 372-5.
25. New York Times, 31 October 1964, p. 7.
26. The Times (London) 29 June 1963, p. 8: the words arc those of The Times.
27. Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 27 April 1964, column 109.

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