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28. The Times (London) 7 December 1964, p. S.
29. Events cf December 1964: The Times (London), 4 to 15 December 1964.
30. The Nation, June 4, 1990, pp. 763-4
31. New York Times, 30 October 1994, p. 4.
32. Ibid., pp. 1 and 4.
34. Ibid., p. 4.


17. SOVIET UNION late 1940s to 1960s
1. Spy Planes:
a) James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace (Penguin Books, Great Britain, 1983) pp, 136-9, 180-5.
b) Col. L. Fletcher Prouty, USAF, ret., The Secret Team: The CIA and its Allies in Control of
the World (New York, 1974) pp. 167-72, 187-9, 369-79, 419-29.
c) Sanche de Gramont, The Secret War (New York, 1963) chapter 9.
d) Harry Rositzke, The CIA's Secret Operations (New York, 1977) p. 23,
e) New York Times, 6 May 1960, p. 7, a list of air incidents to that dare.
2. Yeltsin: Los Angeles Times, 13 June 1992; Volkogonov: ibid, 12 November 1992. To add to
the confusion, the New York Times of 12 November reported that Volkogonov said that all
730 airmen, after being interned in Russian prison camps, had been "sent back home". All
attempts by the author to locate Volkogonov's exact testimony have been unsuccessful, It
appears that his testimony was never published.
3. New York Times, 12 May 1960.
4. Emmet John Hughes, Ordeal of Power (London, 1963) p. 301.
5. Prouty, pp, 399, 421-4, 427.
6. Francis Gary Powers, Operation Overflight (New York, 1970), pp.. 81-5, 113 and
elsewhere.
7. Prouty, p. 189.
8. New York Times, 8 May 1960, p. 29.
9. Ibid., 10 May 1960. The article referred to the continental United Stares. Whether
any Soviet flights had been made over Alaska, which became a state in 1959, was
not mentioned.
10. Caught in The Act: Facts About U.S. Espionage and Subversion Against the
U.S.S.R. (Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, second revised edition,
1963), p. 95.
11. Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (New
York, 1979) pp. 155, 157
12. Emigres, infiltration into the Soviet Union:
a) De Gramont, pp. 185-9, 480-6.
b) Konstantin Cherezov, NTS, A Spy Ring Unmasked {Moscow, 1965) passim; the
author worked closely with NTS in Western Europe for several years before reluming
to the Soviet Union.
c) Rositzke, pp. 18-50.
d) Caught in the Act, passim.
e) Wilbur Crane Eveland, Ropes of Sand: America's Failure in the Middle East (N.Y.
1980) p. 263
f) Kim Philby, My Silent War (MacGibbon and Kee, London 1968) pp. 199-202.
g) Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York,
1975) pp. 204-6.
h) Louis Hagen, The Secret War for Europe (London, 1968) pp. 163-4.



238
i) New York Times, 30 August 1955, p. 1, training of Eastern Europeans at Fort Bragg,
N.C. in guerrilla warfare. j) Nation's Business (published by the United Slates
Chamber of Commerce), April 1952, pp. 25-7, 68-9, discusses many of the sabotage
and other tactics employed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
13. Cherezov, passim; de Gramont, pp. 480-6; Marchetti and Marks, p. 165.
14. Foreign and Military Intelligence, Book 1, Final Report of The Select Committee
to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (U.S.
Senate), April 1976, p. 193.
15. Book Week {Washington Post), 5 February 1967.
16. Foreign and Military Intelligence, op. cit., p. 194.
17. For further discussion of CIA/USIA books and the source of these and other titles,
see the references in notes 14 and 15; also Washington Post 28 September 1966;
New York Times, 22 March 1967 and 22 December 1977; Peter Coleman, The
Liberal Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for the
Mind of Postwar Europe (New York, 1989), Appendix D and elsewhere; Alexander
Kendrick, Prime Time: The Life of Edward R. Murrow (London, 1970), p. 478;
Marchetti and Marks, pp. 180-1; E. Howard Hunt, Undercover: Memoirs of an
American Secret Agent (London, 1975) pp. 70, 132.
18. Marchetti and Marks, pp. 174-8; de Gramont, pp. 486. 488-92.
19. Washington Post, 17 and 20 May 1982; 4 November 1982. For fuller discussions of
the use of Nazis and their collaborators by the US Government in the anti-
communist crusade, see: Christopher Simpson, Blowback: America's Recruitment
of Nazis and Its Effects on the Cold War (New York, 1988), passim, and John
Loftus,
The Belarus Secret (New York, 1982), passim.
20. See references for note 12.
21. Heatings before The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with
Respect to Intelligence Activities (U.S. Senate), Volume 4, 1975; Washington Post,
16 January 1975, p. 18; Rositzke p 62
22. Washington Post, 25 April 1979.
23. Rositzke, pp. 21,33, 37.
24. San Francisco Chronicle, 9 October 1978.
25. Rositzke, p. 15.


18. ITALY 1950s to 1970s

1. Unattributed, dated 19 June 1953; copy reproduced in Declassified Documents
Reference System (Arlington Va.), 1977, document 137A.
2. Philip Agee and Louis Wolf, eds., Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe (New
Jersey, 1978) pp. 168-9, English translation of interview with Victor Marchetti in
Panorama (Milan, Italy), 2 May 1974, entitled "Le mani sull' Italia".
3. CIA memorandum to The Forty Committee (National Security Council), presented to
the Select Committee on Intelligence, US House of Representatives (The Pike
Committee) during closed hearings held in 1975. The bulk of the committee's report
which contained this memorandum was leaked to the press in February 1976 and
first appeared in book form as CIA ” The Pike Report (Nottingham, England, 1977).
The memorandum appears on pp. 204-5 of this book. (See the Notes section for Iraq
1972-75 for further information about this report.)
4. Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New
York, 1975) p. 172; William Colby, Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA (New York
1978) p. 119.
5. CIA ”The Pike Report, p. 193.
6. New York Times, 7 January 1976, p, 1


239
7. Bob Woodward, VEIL: The Secret Wars of the CIA, 1981-1987 (New York, 1987),
p. 398.
8. New York Times, 7 January 1976, p. 4.
9. Ibid., p. 1.
10. CIA quote: New York Times, 26 December 1977, p. 37. Daily American: ibid; Carl
Bernstein, "The CIA and the Media", Rolling Stone, 20 October 1977, p. 59; Thomas
Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (New York,
1979, paperback edition} p. 414. One of the owners of the newspaper was Robert
Cunningham, a CIA employee from 1956 to 1964. {Washington Fast, 19 September
1985, p. Al8)
11. Fred Landis, "Robert Moss, Arnaud de Borchgrave, and Right-Wing Disinformation",
Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington), August-September 1980, p. 43.
12. Colby, p. 124. Colby does not mention which year he's referring to, bur in 1955, in a
shop stewards' election at Fiat, the Communist union's share of the vote fell to 39%
from 63% the year before. (New York Times, 30 March 1955, p. 9) The Times
article stated that the dominance of the Communist union had greatly impaired Fiat's
value for Western defense and its eligibility for offshore procurement orders from the
United States.
13. Agee and Wolf, p. 169.
14. Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis and Soviet
Intelligence (New York, 1991), passim
15. Agee and Wolf, p. 171.
16. Colby, chapter 4.
17. The Sunday Times [London) 21 March 1976, p. 34.



19. VIETNAM 1950-1973

1. Le Monde, 13 April 1950, cited in R.E.M. Irving, The First Indochinese War
(London, 1975) p. 101.
2. Cited in Hans Askenasy, Are We All Nazis? (Lyle Stuart, Secaucus, NJ, 1978} p. 64.
3. New York Times, 21 March 1954, p. 3; 11 April 1954, IV, p. 5. According to
Bernard Fall, The Two Vietnams (Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, New York, 1967,
second revised edition) p. 472, only S954 million of the $ 1.4 billion had been spent at
the time of the ceasefire in 1954.
4. The Pentagon Papers (N.Y. Times edition, Bantam Books, 1971), p, xi.
5. Ibid., pp. 4, 5, 8, 26.
6. Washington Post, 14 September 1969, p. A25. Lansing was the uncle of John
Foster and Allen Dulles. He appointed them both to the American delegation at the
Versailles Peace Conference in 1918-19, where it was that Ho Chi Minh presented his
appeal.
7. Ho Chi Minh and Vietminh working with OSS, admirers of the US: Archimedes L.A.
Patti, Why Vietnam? Prelude to America's Albatross (University of California Press,
Berkeley, 1980), passim. Parti is the former OSS officer consulted by Ho; Chester
Cooper, The Lost Crusade: The Full Story of U.S. Involvement in Vietnam from
Roosevelt to Nixon (Great Britain, 1971) pp. 22, 25-7, 40. Cooper was a veteran
American diplomat in the Far East who served as the Assistant for Asian Affairs in
the Johnson White House. He was also a CIA officer, covertly, for all or part of his
career. French collaboration with the Japanese: Fall, pp. 42-9. Ho Chi Minh not a
genuine nationalist: Department of State Bulletin (Washington), 13 February 1950, p.
244, Dean Acheson; 10 April 1950, Ambassador Loy Henderson; 22 May 1950, Dean
Acheson. Ho Chi Minh's desk: Blanche W. Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower (New




240
York, 1981). p. 184. Declaration of Independence: Full text can be found in Ho Chi
Minh, Selected Works, Volume III (Hanoi, 1961), pp. 17-21.
8. Fall, pp. 122, 124.
9. The Pentagon Papers, p. 5; Fall, p. 473.
10. Fall, p. 473.
11. Christopher Robbins, Air America (G. P. Putnam, New York, 1979) pp. 59-60.
12. New York Times, 11 April 1954, IV, p. 5.
13. The Pentagon Papers, p. 11.
14. Ibid., p. 36.
15. Ibid., pp. 5, 11; Dwight Eisenhower, The White House Years: Mandate for Change,
1953-1956 (New York, 1963) pp. 340-41; Cooper, chapter IV; Sherman Adams,
Firsthand Report (New York, 1961) p. 122; Adams was Eisenhower's White House
chief of staff.
16. Adams, p. 124.
17. The Pentagon Papers, p, 46.
18. The Times (London) 2 June 1954, quoting from an article by Willoughby.
19. Cooper, p. 72.
20. Bernard Fall, Hell in a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu (Great Britain,
1967) p. 307; Parade magazine (Washington Post) 24 April 1966; Roscoe Drummond
and Gaston Coblentz, Duel at the Brink (New York, 1960) pp. 121-2.
21. Joseph Burkholder Smith, Portrait of a Cold Warrior (New York, 1976) pp. 172-4.
22. Ibid., pp. 173-4.
23. Eisenhower: Time magazine, 12 July 1954.
24. US policy toward the Geneva Conference; Cooper, chapter IV; Cooper was a member
of the American delegation at the conference.
25. Fall (Two Vietnams), pp. 153-4.
26. All other actions: The Pentagon Papers, Document No. 15; "Lansdale Team's Report
on Covert Saigon Mission in '54 and '55", pp. 53-66.
27. C. L. Sulzberger, New York Times, 22 January 1955, p. 10.
28. New York Times, 17 July 1955.
29. US Department of Defense, United Slates - Vietnam Relations, 1945-67 (the government edition
of the Pentagon Papers) book 2, IV, A.5, cab 4, p. 66, cited in Noam Chomsky and
Edward Herman, The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism (Boston, 1979) p.
370.
30. J. B. Smith, p, 199.
31. Eisenhower, p. 372.
32. The Pentagon Papers, p. 22.
33. Ibid., p. 25
34. Life magazine, 13 May 1957.
35. The Pentagon Papers, p. 23.
36. Emmer John Hughes, The Ordeal of Power (London, 1963) p. 208; Hughes was a speech
writer for President Eisenhower.
37. Michael Klare, War Without End (Random House/Vantage Books, New York, 1972) pp. 261-3;
David Wise and Thomas B. Boss, The Espionage Establishment [Random House, New York,
1967) p. 152.
38. Time, 30 June 1975, p. 32 of European edition.
39. David Wise, "Colby of CIA ” CIA of Colby", New York Times Magazine, 1 July 1973, p. 9.
40. Donald Duncan, The New Legions (London, 1967) pp. 156-9.
41. Newsweek, 22 March 1976, pp. 28, 31.
42. Washington Post, 20 March 1982, p. A19.
43. In numerous places; see, e.g., I. F. Stone's Weekly, (Washington), 4 March 1968; 'The
'Phantom Battle' that Led to War", U.S. News and World Report, 23 July 1984, pp. 56-67;
Joseph C. Goulden, Truth is the First Casualty: The Gulf of Tonkin Affair ” Illusion and
Reality (Rand McNally & Co., U.S., 1969), passim.
44. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington) No. 10, August-September 19S0, p. 43.


241
45. Washington Post, 24 March 1967.
46. Chicago Daily News, 20 October 1965; Washington Post, 21 October 1965.
47. Copy of Oglesby's speech in author's possession.
48. Washington Post, 12 February 1967.
49. Ibid., 18 December 1966.
50. Alexander M- Haig, Jr. Caveat: Realism, Reagan, and Foreign Policy [New York, 1984), p.
202.
51. New York Times, 28 July 1975, p. 19.
52. New York Herald Tribune, 25 April 1965, p. 18.
53. U.S. Assistance Program in Vietnam, Hearings before a Subcommittee of the House
Committee on Government Operations, 19 July 1971, p. 189.
54. Ibid., p. 183.
55. Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York, 1975) pp.
236-7.
56. William Colby, Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA (New York, 1978) pp. 272, 275-6.
57. Marchetti and Marks, p. 237.
58. Wise, p. 33.
59. New York Times, 3 August 1971, p. 10.
60. Congressional Record, House, 12 May 1966, pp. 9977-78, reprint of an article by Morley Safer
of CBS News.
61. Washington Post, 25 November 1966.
62. U.S. Aid to North Vietnam, Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs,
House Committee on International Relations, 19 July 1977, Appendix 2.
63. Atlanta journal, 25 September 1965.
63. San Francisco Chronicle, 9 January 1971; also see Telford Taylor, Nuremberg and
Vietnam: An American Tragedy (New York, 1970).


20. CAMBODIA 1955-1973

1. Prince Norodom Sihanouk, as related to Wilfred Burchett, My War With The CIA (London,
1974, revised edition) pp. 75-6. The SEATO treaty of 1954 actually had a protocol attached
which unilaterally placed Cambodia, Laos and South Vietnam under its umbrella. Sihanouk later
asserted that he had rejected Cambodia's inclusion. although at the time he was reportedly
amenable to his country being a member of some sort of Western security system for south-east
Asia. In any event, for various reasons, he soon moved away from this position and toward the
policy of neutralism he maintained thereafter. For a fuller discussion of these matters, see
Michael Leifer. Cambodia: The Search for Security (London, 1967) particularly chapter 3.
2. Events of 19.56: Sihanouk, pp. 82-6; New York Times, 17 March 1956, p. 2; 24 March, p. 3; 20
April, p. 5; 21 April, p. 3.
3. Sihanouk, p. 94
4. Neak Cheat Niyum ("The Nationalist", PhnomPenh) 29 September 1963, cited in Leifer, p. 144.
5. Pentagon Papers, Vol 10, p. 1100, cited by William Shawcross, Side-Show: Kissinger, Nixon
and the Destruction of Cambodia [New York, 1979, paperback edition) p. 53.

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