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6. Sihanouk, pp. 102-3; New York Times, 26 June 1958, p. 1; 25 April 1966, p. 20.s
7. Shawcross, p. 54.
8. Ibid.
9. Ibid., p. 122.
10. Washington Post, 2 January 1966, p. E4,
11. US involvement with the Khmer Serei and Khmer Krom: Charles Simpson, III, Inside the
Green Berets ” The First 30 Years ” A History of the US Army Special Forces (London,
1983) pp. 114-5; Shawcross, passim; Sihanouk, passim.
12. Plot of 1958-59: Sihanouk, pp. 102-109; Washington Post, 7 September 1965, p. 1; Shawcross,
pp. 54-5; The Observer (London) 22 February 1959, p. 8.



242
13. Sihanouk, p. 125.
14. Ibid., pp. 124-5.
15. William Colby, Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA (New York, 1978), pp. 149-50.
16. Sihanouk, pp. 113-115, 118-121.
17. Effects of US aid to Cambodia; Sihanouk, passim, particularly pp. 93-6, 133-8; Shawcross, pp.
58-60; Washington Post, 2 January 1966, p. E4.
18. Sihanouk, pp. 139-40.
19. See, e.g., Washington Post, 4 August 1966 & 15 October 1966.
20. Francois Ponchaud, Cambodia Year Zero, translated from the French (London, 1978) p. 186.
21. San Francisco Chronicle, 23 July 1973.
22. Ibid., 16 July 1973; Shawcross, pp. 287-90.
23. Shawcross, pp. 148-9.
24. Ibid., pp. 114-15, based on interviews with Snepp by Shawcross.
25. Ibid., p. 114.
26. Seymour M. Hersh, Kissinger: The Price of Power (London, 1983) p. 176. Hersh, in chapter
15, provides further details of the machinations between the US and Lon Nol and others
indicating American foreknowledge and encouragement of the coup.
27. Shawcross, p. 122.
28. Ibid., pp. 118-19.
29. Ibid., p. 120.
30. Roger Morris, Uncertain Greatness: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy (Great
Britain, 1977) p. 173.
31. Shawcross, p. 119; Snepp's remarks based on interview with him by Shawcross.
32. New York Times, 21 March 1970, p. 1.
33. Morris, p. 174.
34. Newsweek, 22 November 1971, p. 37.
35. Shawcross, p. 400.
36. Testimony before US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Hearings on Supplemental
Assistance to Cambodia, 24 February 1975, p. 64.
37. American support of the Khmer Rouge:
a) Jack Calhoun, "U.S. Supports Khmer Rouge", Covert Action Information Bulletin, No. 34,
Summer 1990, pp. 37- 40.
b) David Munro, "Cambodia: A Secret War Continues", Covert Action Information Bulletin, No.
40, Spring 1992, pp. 52-57.
c) Newsweek, 10 October 1983, p. 41.
d) Los Angeles Times, 5 December 1980 (Ray Cline); 27 February 1991 (Bush administration
admission of "tactical military cooperation" between US-backed forces and the Khmer Rouge.)



21. LAOS 1957-1973

1. Vientiane (Laos) correspondent, "The Labyrinthine War", Far Eastern Economic Review (Hong
Kong conserva tive weekly), 16 April 1070, p. 73.
2. Testimony before the US Senate Armed Services Committee, Hearings on Fiscal Year 1972
Authorizations, 22 July 1971, p. 4289.
3. Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and Monetary Affairs,
Committee on Government Operations, Hearings on US Aid Operations in Laos, May-June
1959; see also New York Times, 20 January 1961, p. 2, and Washington Post, 10 April 1966
for statements of Laotian Prime Minister Souvanna Phouma re US opposition to a coalition or
neutralist government.
4. New York Times, 25 April 1957.
5. Ibid., 18 May 1958, IV, p. 7.
6. Ibid., 23 July 1958, p. 2; 25 July, p. 4.



243
7. Ibid., 20 January 1961, p. 2; Washington Post, 10 April 1966.
8. New York Times, 15 January 1959, p. 15.
9. Fred Branfman, Voices from the Plain of jars: Life Under an Air War (Harper & Row, New
York, 1972) p. 12; New York Times, 18 May 1958, IV, p. 7.
10. New York Times, 25 April 1966, p. 20.
11. Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965), p. 325.
12. 1958: Ibid., pp. 325-6 (this has to do with the events of 1958 referred to earlier - see
notes 6 and 7 above); Ibid., p. 326; Branfman, p. 12; 1960: Chester Bowles,
Promises to Keep: My Years in Public Life, 1941-1969 (New York 1971) p. 334;
Bowles was a prominent American diplomat.
13. Roger Hilsman, To Move a Nation (New York, 1967) pp, 111-2.
14. New York Times, 25 January 195S, p. 6; 25 February, p. 6.
15. Ibid., 9 August 1960.
16. Norman Cousins, "Report from Laos", Saturday Review, 18 February 1961, p. 12.
17. Secret Army;
a) New YorkTimes, 26 October 1969, p. 1.
b) Fred Branfman, "The President's Secret Army", in Robert Borosage and John
Marks, eds., The CIA Pile (NewYork, 1976) pp. 46-78.
c) Christopher Robbing, Air America (New York, 1979) chapters 5 and 8.
d) Col. L. Fletcher Prouty, US Air Force, Ret., The Secret Team: The CIA and its Allies
in Control of the World (New York, 1974) pp. 190-93, 438.
e) Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York,
1975) pp. 54, 132.
f) San Francisco Chronicle, 25 July 1973 (reporting deaths).
18. New York Times, 18 May 1958, IV, p. 7.
19. Robbins, op. tit.
20. Branfman (CM File), p. 65.
21. Robbins, op. cit.
22. For a comprehensive account of DA involvement in drug trafficking from Latin
America to Southeast Asia to Afghanistan, from the 1950s to the 1980s, see:
a) Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (Harper 8c Row, New
York, 1972) passim; revised and updated edition. The Politics of Heroin: CIA
Complicity in the Global Drug Trade (Lawrence Hill Books, New York, 1991)
passim.
b) Henrik Kruger, The Great Heroin Coup: Drugs, Intelligence, and International
Fascism (Boston, 1980, originally published in Danish in 1976), passim Christopher
Robbins, Air America (New York, 1979), pp. 128, 225-243
c) Leslie Cockburn, Out of Control (New York, 1987), passim
d) Peter Dale Scott, Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in
Central America (University ofCAPress,1991),passim.
f) Drugs, Late Enforcement and Foreign Policy, a Report of the Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and
International Operations, 1989
23.Testimony of Daniel Oleksiw, USIA, before US Senate Committee on Foreign
Relations, Hearings on US Security Agreements and Commitments Abroad: Kingdom
of Laos, October 1969, pp. 586-7. The USIA produced a number of other
unattributed publications in Asia during the 1950s and 1960s. A 1954 document lists:
Four Seas (monthly magazine, southeast Asia), Free World (monthly magazine, nine
Far Eastern countries), American Reporter (bi-weekly newspaper, India), Panorama
(bi-weekly newspaper, Pakistan), and News Review (weekly magazine, Beirut).
[White House Memo based on information prepared by USIA, 15 February 1954,
Declassified Documents Reference System, 1987, document no. 548.]
24. New York Times, US April 1966, p. 20.
25. Ibid., 20 January 1961, p. 2.
26. Marchetti and Marks, p. 132; Branfman (Voices), p. 16.


244
27. Robbins, p. 116.
28. William Lederer & Eugene Burdick, A Nation of Sheep (London, 1961) pp. 12-13;
see also Bernard Fall, Anatomy of a Crisis: The Laotian Crisis of 1960-1961 (New
York, 1969), chapter 7.
29. Lederer and Burdick, pp. 15-22.
30. Bernard Fail, Street Without Joy: Insurgency in Indochina, 1946-63 (London, 1963,
Third revised edition) p, 329; New York Times 3 January 1961, p. 10.
31. Fall (Street), p. 332.
32. Schlesinger, p. 329.
33. Ibid., p. 517; see also Andrew Tully, The Super Spies (London, 1970) p. 165.
34. Robbins, p. 115.
35. Prouty, p. 314.
36. New York Times, 3 May 1964, p. 1; 7 May, p. 7; 14 May, p. 11.
37. Congressional Record, 18 July 1973, pp. 24520-22.
38. Branfman (Voices), p. 5; Branfman was in Laos 1967-71, first as an educational
adviser to International Voluntary Services ("a Bible Belt version of the Peace
Corps" - Robbins), then as a writer and researcher.
39. Refugee and Civilian War Casualty Problems in Indochina, Staff Report prepared for
the US Senate Subcommittee on Refugees, Committee on the Judiciary, 28
September 1970, pp. 19 and v.
40. Ibid., p. 32.
41. The Guardian (London) 14 October 1971, p. 4.
42. Robbins, p. 132.
43. Branfman (Voices), p. 15.
44. New York Times, 23 February 1973, p. I.
45. Ibid., 8 April 1954.



22.HAITI 1959-1963

1. Robert I. Rotberg with Christopher K. Clague, Haiti: The Politics of Squalor [A
Twentieth Century Fund Study, Boston, 1971), p. 244.
2. New York Times, 15 and 16 August 1959: Robert Debs Heinl, Jr. and Nancy
Gordon Heinl, The Story of the Haitian People, 1492-1971 (Boston, 1978), p. 600.
3. Hispanic American Report (Stanford University, California) October 1959, p. 434.
4. New York Times, 17 and 18 August 1959.
5. Heinl, p. 600; New York Times, 15 August 1959.
6. Heinl, p. 600; Rotberg, p. 219.
7. New York Times, 16 August 1959.
8. Heinl, p. 600.
9. New York Times, 16 August 1959.
10. Rotberg, p. 219.
11. Heinl, p. 618.
12. Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, The
Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence
Activities (US Senate), 20 November 1975, p. 4, footnote 1. The Report doesn't
specify when this took place, but the New York Times, 14 November 1993, p. 12,
placed it in 1961.
13. Fritz Longchamp and Worth Cooley-Prost, "Hope for Haiti", Covert Action
Information Bulletin (Washington), No. 36, Spring 1991, p. 56. Longchamp is
Executive Director of the Washington Office on Haiti, an analysis and public
education center; Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965) pp. 782-3;
Heinl, p. 617.


245
23. GUATEMALA 1960

The principal sources of this chapter are:
a) Richard Gott, Rural Guerrillas in Latin America (Great Britain, 1973, revised edition)
pp, 68-77; first published in 1970 as Guerrilla Movements in Latin America.
c) David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York, 1965,
paperback edition) pp. 22-4, 33.
d) Col. L.Fletcher Prouty, US Air Force, Ret,, The Secret Team: The CIA and its Allies
in Control of the World (New York, 1974) pp. 45-6.
d) John Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin America (New York, 1965, revised edition) pp.
184-5; Gerassi was a correspondent in Latin America for the New York Times and an
editor of Time magazine.
1. Gott, p. 70.
2. New York Times, 18 November 1960.
3. Ibid., 15, 19 November 1960.
4. Gott, p. 71; Wise and Ross, p. 33; Prouty. p. 46.
5. Gerassi, p. 185.
6. New York Times, 19 November 1960.
7. Thomas and Marjorie Melville, Guatemala: The Politics of Land Ownership (US,
1971) p. 142; Gott, p. 76.
8. Gott, p. 77.



24. FRANCE/ALGERIA 1960s


1. Andrew Tully, CM: The Inside Story (New York, 1962), p. 44.
2. Allen Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence (New York, 1965), p. 175.
3. New York Times, 4 May 1961, p. 10.
4. Cited in Tully, p. 45, article by Crosby Noyes, no date of Washington Star given.
5. Cited in Sanche de Gramont, The Secret War (New York. 1963) pp. 29-30
6. New York Times, 24 April 1961.
7. Washington Post, 5 May 1961, p. A16.
8. Time, 12 May 1961, p. 19.
9. New York Times, 29 April 1961, pp. 1, 3
10. Ibid., 1 May 1961, p. 28.
11. Cited in de Gramont, pp. 30-31.
12. Newsweek, 15 May 1961, pp. 50-51.
13. L'Express/Claude Krief: As reported in Alexander Werth, "The CIA in Algeria", The
Nation (New York), 20 May 1961, pp. 433-5
14. Time, 12 May 1961, p. 19
15. New York Times, 29 April 1961, p. 3.
16. Ibid., 2 May 1961, p. 18.
17. Ibid., 24 June 1975, p. 11.
18. Christian Plume & Pierre Demaret, Target: De Gaulle {translation from the French,
London, 1974) passim.
19. Chicago Tribune, 15 June 1975, p. 1.
20. David Wise, The Politics of Lying (New York, 1973, paperback edition) p. 431.




246
21. Military Assistance Training, Hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs,
subcommittee on National Security Policy and Scientific Developments, October and
December 1970, p. 120.
22. Chicago Tribune, 20 June 1975, p. 6.


25. ECUADOR 1960 to 1963

1. Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York, 1975) pp. 106-316, passim. Agee's
book made him Public Enemy No. One of the CIA. In a review of the book, however, former
Agency official Miles Copeland ” while not concealing his distaste for Agee's "betrayal" ”
stated that "The book is interesting as an authentic account of how an ordinary American or
British 'case officer' operates ... As a spy handler in Quito, Montevideo and Mexico City, he has
first-hand information ... All of it, just as his publisher claims, is presented 'with deadly
accuracy'." (The Spectator, London, 11 January 1975, p. 40.)
2. New York Times, 14 July 1963, p. 20.For an interesting and concise discussion of the
political leanings of Velasco and Arosemana, see John Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin
America (New York, 1965, revised edition) pp. 141-8.


26. THE CONGO 1960-1964

1. Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, The Select
Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (US
Senate], 20 November 1975, pp. 14, 15, 16 respectively; hereafter referred to as Assassination
Report.
2. Washington Post, 28 August 1960, p. A4.
3. Assassination Report, p. 58.
4. Jonathan Kwitny, Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World (New York, 1984) p.

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