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57.
5. Alan Merriam, Congo: Background to Conflict (Northwestern U. Press, Evanston, 1961) pp.
352-4.
6. David Gibbs, The Political Economy of Third World Intervention: Mines, Money, and U.S.
Policy in the Congo Crisis (University of Chicago Press, 1991), p. 100, provides the details of
these ties; p. 90 re US embassy requesting Belgian intervention.
7. Ibid., pp. 92-3.
8. New York Times, 4 September 1960, IV, p. 3; Gibbs, p. 100.
9. Kwitny, pp. 62-3, 65; Stephen R. Weissman, American foreign Policy in the Congo, 1960-
1964 (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1974), pp. SS-95 (Weissman is a former staff member
of the Subcommittee on Africa of the House Foreign Affairs Committee); Andrew Tully, CIA:
The Inside Story (Fawcett, New York, 1962, paper back), pp. 179-80 (CIA men).
10. Assassination Report, p. 16.
11. Victor Marchetti (former executive assistant to the Deputy Director of the CIA) and John D.
Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (Laurel/Dell, 1983), p. 28; this edition contains
more of the previously deleted and classified passages.
12. Stephen R. Weissman, "CIA Covert Action in Zaire and Angola: Patterns and Consequences'",
Political Science Quarterly (PSQ), Summer 1979, p. 267 (see information about Weissman
above).
13. Coup: Kwitny, p. 66; quotes re Lumumba: Assassination Report, pp. 16, 17, 18, 63 respectively.
The last three are quotes or paraphrases of the words of American officials.
14. Ibid., p. 19-30. Gottlieb is referred to as Joseph Scheider in the Assassination Report.
15. Ibid., p. 13.
16. New York Times, 22 February 1976, p. 55.
17. Assassination Report, p. 30.


247
18. Ibid., pp. 18-19.
19. Gibbs, pp. 96-7.
20. Ibid., p. 48.
21. Tully, p. 178; for further discussion of US-Mobutu relationship, see Gibbs, p. 96; Kwitny, pp.
63, 66-7; Weissman (American Foreign Policy), pp. 94-9, 108-9; Weissman (PSQ), p. 268.
22. John Stockwell, In Search of Enemies (New York, 1978) p. 105; see also 137, 236-7.
23. Cables: 18 January 1961, from US Ambassador in Leopoldville to American Consulate in
Elizabethville, and 20 January 1961, from Elizabethville to Washington, Declassified
Documents Reference System (Arlington, Va.), Retrospective Collection volume, documents
375B, E. Both cables were sent after Lumumba's death, indicating that these State Department
officials were not privy to the CIA's actions.
24. Gibbs, chapter 4; Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965) p. 576.
25. Col. L. Fletcher Prouty, US Ait Force, Ret., The Secret Team: The CIA and its Allies in
Control of the World (Ballantine Books, New York, 1974, paperback) pp. 26, 129-30, 438.
26. Costa Rica in 1955 (cf. this chapter); and Burma in 1970, if not also earlier, when the US
military aided the Burmese air force to mount strikes against Burmese rebels, while the CIA
was assisting the rebels from its opera tion in Laos. (San Francisco Chronicle, 16 October
1970, p. 22.) Additionally, in Angola during the 1960s and 70s, and in Cuba, 1957-58, the
Agency gave funds to insurgents attempting to overthrow governments which were being
provided with arms by the United States to suppress the insurgents, (cf. these chapters)

27. Assassination Report, p. 18. Lawrence Devlin is referred to as Victor Hedgman in the Report.
28. Kwitny, p. 67.
29. Newsweek 22 November 1971, p. 37.
30. State Department memo, 17 November 1961, from L.D. Battle, Executive Secretary, to
McGeorge Bundy, Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs; Declassified
Documents Reference System (Arlington, Va.), Retrospective Collection volume, document
383C.
31. Marchetti and Marks, p. 28.
32. Kwitny, pp. 67-8; Weissman (American Foreign Policy) pp. 105, 205; Weissman (PSQ) p. 270;
the CIA memoran dum was entitled: "Congo: United States Assistance to Adoula Againsr
Gizenga", no date, but apparently written in November 1961, found in the National Security
Files, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, cited by Weissman (PSQ).
33. "CBS Reports", 26 April 1962, "The Hot and Cold Wars of Allen Dulles", pp. 19-20 of
transcript, cited by 5tephen R. Weissman in "The CIA and U.S. Policy in Zaire and Angola" in
Ellen Ray, et al., eds., Dirty Work 2: The CIA in Africa (New Jersey, 1979), p. 200; this is
another version of Weissman's article in PSQ referred to above.
34. William Atwood, The Reds and the Blacks (London, 1967), p. 194; Atwood was US Ambassador
to Kenya, 1964- 65; Weissman (PSQ], pp. 271-2; Weissman (American Foreign Policy), pp.
226-30.
35. Atwood, p. 192.
36. CIA mercenaries: David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Espionage Establishment (New York,
1967) p. 167; Stockwell, pp. 187-8; Marchetti and Marks, p. 104; Roger Morris (former staff
member of the National Security Council) and Richard Mauzy, "Zaire (the Congo): An
Exercise in Nation Building" in Robert Borosage and John Marks, eds., The CIA File (New
York, 1976) pp. 35-7.
37. New York Times, 26 April 1966, p. 1.
38. Ibid., 17 June 1964. pp. 1, 12; 18 June, p. 1.
39. M. Crawford Young, "Rebellion and the Congo", in Robert Rotberg, ed.. Rebellion in Black
Africa (Oxford University Press, 1971), p. 230.
40. Young, p. 227, and passim; Atwood, p, 192 [witch doctors); Thomas Powers, The Man Who
Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (New York, 1979) p. 153 (Mulele).
41. Young, p. 209.
42. New York Times, 15 November 1964, p. 27.
43. Ibid, 1 November 1964, p. 12: 3 November, p. 14; Atwood, chapter 16.


248
44. Richard Barnet, Intervention and Revolution (London, 1970) p. 250.
45. Atwood, p. 218.
46. The Times (London) 25 November 1964.
47. Marchetti and Marks, p. 111.
48. Atwood, p. 194.
49. Dwight Eisenhower, The White House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (New York, 1965] p.
270.



27. BRAZIL 1961 to 1964

1. Phyllis R. Parker, Brazil and the Quiet Intervention, 1964 (University of Texas Press, Austin,
1979] p. 64. This book draws heavily upon declassified documents found at the John F. Kennedy
and Lyndon B. Johnson presiden tial libraries. The author augmented this information with
interviews of key figures in the events discussed here.
2. Ibid., p. 67.
3. Ibid., p. 65.
4. Ibid,, p. 20, Washington, April 1962
5. Ibid., pp. 30-31, 34.
6. Ibid., p. 31, meeting in Brazil 17 December 1962.
7. Ibid., pp. 45, 21, Walters' report to the Pentagon, 6 August 1963.
8. Ibid., pp. 41-2.
9. Ibid., p. 44 and passim
10. John Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin America (New York, 1965, revised edition) p. 83.
11. Ibid., p. 82.
12. New York Times, 12 July 1961, p. 13.
13. Peter Bell, "Brazilian-American Relations" in Riordan Roett, ed., Brazil in the Sixties (Vanderbilt
University- Press, Nashville, 1972) p. 81; Bell interview of Cabot, Washington, DC, 15 January
1970.
14. Gerassi, p. 84.
15. New York Times, 16 March 1962, p. 7.
16. Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American
Coup in Guatemala (Doubleday & Co., New York, 1982) pp, 103-4, 108.
17. New York Times, 16 March 1962, p. 7.
18. Gerassi, pp. 84-8.
19. Thomas E. Skidmore, Politics in Brazil, 1930-1964: An Experiment in Democracy (Oxford
University Press, New York, 1967) p. 130; Gerassi, pp. 80-81.
20. Jan Knippers Black, United States Penetration of Brazil (University of Pennsylvania Press,
Philadelphia, 1977), p.40; the words quoted are Black's, based on her interview with L[. Col.
Edward L. King, a member of the Joint Brazil-US Defense Commission in the second half of the
1960s; also see Bell, p. 83 re US doubts about Goulart from the beginning of his presidency.
21. Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965) pp. 780-2; New York Times, 5 December
1961, p. 11.
22. New York Times, 5 April 1962, p. 3.
23. Time, 3 November 1961, p. 29.
24. Gerassi, pp. 83, 88.
25. Parker, p. 29, interview with Gordon, 19 January 1976.
26. Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CM Diary (New York, 1975),p. 321.
27. Parker, p. 27.
28. A. J. Langguth, Hidden Terrors (New York, 1978) p. 92; Langguth was formerly with the New
York Times and in 1965 served as Saigon Bureau Chief for the newspaper.
29. Parker, p. 26, memo from President Kennedy to AID administrator Fowler Hamilton, 5 February
1962.



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30. Ibid., pp. 87-97.
31. Agee, p. 362.
32. Langguth, pp. 77, 89-90, 92, 108.
33. Parker, p, 40.
34. For the most important incident/example of this see the story of the Navy mutiny in Skidmore,
pp. 296-7.
35. Philip Siekman, "When Executives Turned Revolutionaries", Fortune magazine (New York),
September 1964, p. 214.
36. Parker, p. 63, interview of Walters.
37. Langguth, pp. 61-2, 98; Washington Post, 5 February 1968, p. 1.
38. Skidmore, p. 330; also see James Kohl and John Litt, Urban Guerrilla "Warfare m Latin America
(The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1974) p. 39 for further discussion of the strong pro-US,
antileftist bias of the college's curriculum.
39. Parker, p. 98, cable to Stare Department, 4 March 1964, In this and the following quotations from
cables, missing articles and prepositions have been inserted for the sake of readability. For further
discussion of the closeness of US and Brazilian military officers and the presumed influencing of
the latter along pro-US, anti-communist lines see: a) Langguth, pp. 94-6. 162-70; b) Black,
chapters 9 and 10; c) Michael Klare, War Without End (New York, 1972) chapter 10; d) Alfred
Stepan, The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil (Princeton University Press, New
Jersey, 1971,a RAND Corp. Study) pp. 123-33.
40. Parker, p. 65.
41. Ibid., p. 68.
42. Ibid., pp. 68-9.
43. Ibid., p. 74.
44. Ibid., p. 75, teletype, Washington to US Embassy, Brazil, 31 March 1964.
45. Ibid., p. 68.
46. Ibid., pp. 74, 77.
47. Ibid., pp. 72, 75-6; also see the statement of former Brazilian Army Col. Pedro Paulo de Baruna;
exiled by the junta, about the effect of the naval force upon the thinking of Castelo Bianco:
Warner Poelchau, ed., While Paper, Whitewash [New York, 1981) p. 51.
48. Survey of the Alliance for Progress: Labor Polities and Programs, Staff Report of the US Senate
Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on American Republics Affairs, 15 July 1968, p. 53;
the background of AIFLD can be found in earlier pages of this report; also see Black, chapter 6.
49. US Senate Report cited in the previous note, p. 14, quoting from a radio program in which
Doherty took part.
50. Eugene Methvin, "Labor's New Weapon for Democracy", Reader's Digest, October, 1966, p. 28.
51. Poelchau, pp. 47-51.
52. Langguth, pp. 110, 113; Washington Post, 2 April 1964, p. 23.
53. Langguth, pp. 112-13.
54. Ibid., p. 113; Washington Post, 3 April 1964, p. 17.
55. Gordon's cables: Parker, pp. 81-3.
56. Ibid., p. 83.
57. Hearing on the Nomination of Lincoln Gordon to be Assistant Secretary of State for
Interamerican Affairs, US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 7 February 1966, pp. 44-5.
58. The Department of State Bulletin, 20 April 1964, news conference of 3 April 1964.
59. Langguth, p. 116, from Langguth's interview of Gordon.
60. Senate Hearing, op. cit.
61. Foreign Assistance Act of 1965, Hearings before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, 25
February 1965, p. 346.
62. Langguth, p. 113, citing the Brazil Herald, 6 March 1964, p.4.
63. New York Times, 11 July 1965, p. 13.
64. Ibid., 25 November 1966, p. 4.
65. Marc Edelman, "The Other Super Power; The Soviet Union and Latin America 1917- 1987",
NACLA's Report on the Americas (North American Congress on Latin America, New York),



250
January/February 1987, pp. 32-4; day of mourning: p. 29, citing the CIA's Foreign Broadcast
Information Service (FBIS-LAM), 15 November 1982.

66- Reader's Digest, November 1964, pp. 135-58.
67. Agee, p. 364.
68. Parker, pp. 85-6.
69. Agee, pp. 364-5.
70. New York Times, 6 April 1964, p. 1.
71. Reader's Digest, October, 1966, op. cit.
72. Parker, p. 59.
73. The repressive ness of the Branco government and the Washington connection:
a) Penny Lernoux, Cry of the People: The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America ” The
Catholic Church in Conflict with US. Policy (Penguin Books, London, 1982) pp. 166-75, 313-32,
and elsewhere.
b) Langguth, chapters 4, 5 and 7 and elsewhere.
c) Torture and Oppression in Brazil, Hearing before the Subcommittee on International
Organizations and Movements of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 11 December, 1974;
contains testimony by and about torture victims and reprints of articles from the US press.
d) Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman, The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism
(Boston, 1979) see index.
74. Agency for International Development (AID), Program and Project Data Presentation to the
Congress for Fiscal Year 1971, p. 26.
75. Langguth, p. 94; Poelchau, p. 65, interview of Langguth.
76. Amnesty International, Report on Allegations of Torture in Brazil (London, 1974) p. 40.
77. Jornal do Brazil, 25 May 1972, cited in Amnesty International, op. cit., p. 49.
78. Lawrence Weschler, A Miracle, A Universe: Settling Accounts with Torturers (Penguin Books,
New York, 1991), p. 122.
79. Special Study Mission to Latin America on Military Assistance Training, House Committee on
Foreign Affairs Report, 1970.
80. New York Times, 27 April 1966, p. 28.



28. PERU 1960 to 1965

1. New York Times, 22 December 1960, p. 3.
2. Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York, 1975) pp. 145-6.
3. Wall Street Journal, 5 January 1961, p. 1.
4. New York Times, 28 December 1960, p. 5.
5. Ibid., 6 and 7 January 1961; Agee, p. 146; Agee does not mention Ramos by name but it appears
rather clear that he is referring to the same man.
6. John Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin America (New York, 1965, revised edition) pp. 20, 129;
originally published as The Great Fear (New York, 1963).
7. For the background, ideology, and fate of the various revolutionary movements in Peru during this
period, see Richard Gott, Rural Guerrillas in Latin America (Great Britain, 1973, revised edition)
pp. 363-463; James Petras and Maurice Zeitlin, eds., Latin America: Reform or Revolution?
(Fawcett, New York, 1968) pp. 343-.50; NewYork Times, 30 August 1966, p. 1.
8. Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York, 1975) p. 137.
9. Hearings before the Committee on Armed Services and the Subcommittee on Department of
Defense of the Committee on Appropriations (US Senate), 23 February 1966, p. 38.
10. Michael Klare, War Without End (Random House/Vantage Books, New York, 1972) pp. 297-8.
11. New York Times, 12 September 1965, p. 32.
12. Agee, p. 440; see also pp. 267-9, 427.




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13. Gott, op. cit; Petras, p. 349; Norman Gall, "The Legacy of Che Guevara", Commentary magazine
(New York) December 1967, p. 39.
14. Petras, p. 349.



29. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1961 to 1966

1. Jerome Slater, "The Dominican Republic, 1961-66" in Barry Blechman and Stephen Kaplan, Force
Without War: U.S. Armed Forces as a Political Instrument (The Brookings Institution.

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