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Washington, 1978) pp. 290-91, a study undertaken at the request of the Pentagon and with its
full) cooperation, although the book stipulates that the views expressed are the authors1 alone.
2. Bernard Diederich, Trujillo: The Death of the Goat (London, 1978) p. 43.
3. Ibid., pp. 48-9; New York Times, 23 June 1975, p. 17 (this article is more understandable when one
knows that Lear Reed was addressed as "Colonel", his World War II rank ” Diederich, p. -49).
4. Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving foreign Leaders, The Select
Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (US
Senate), 20 November 1975, p. 192; here after referred to as Assassination Report.
5. Ibid.
6. Drederich, p. 44.
7. Assassination Report, 191-215, passim; Diederich, passim, particularly pp. 40-56.

8. Assassination Report, p. 210.
9. Arthur M. Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965) p. 769.
10. Diederich, pp. 170-249, summary on page 265.
11. Schlesinger, p. 661.
12. Events of 1961 following the assassination: Slater, pp. 294-7; Diederich, pp. 220-51.
13. Slater, p. 298; New York Times, 20 January 1962, p. 4.
14. John Bartlow Martin, Overtaken by Events: The Dominican Crisis From the Fail
of Trujillo to the Civil War (New York, 1966) p. 100.
15. Ibid,, p. 122.
16. New York Times, 9 June 1962, p. 10.
17. US involvement in elections: Martin, pp. 227-9, 347-8.
18. Martin, pp. 455-6; Richard Barnet, Intervention and Revolution (London, 1972) p.
168.
19. Miami News quote: Cited in Newsweek, 7 October 1963, p. 64. Hendrix: Carl
Bernstein, "The CIA and the Media", Rolling Stone, 20 October 1977, p. 59; Thomas
Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (Pocket Books,
New York, 1979) p. 461.
20. Martin, p. 451.
21. lbid.,pp.477-8.
22. Sam Halper, "The Dominican Upheaval", The New Leader {New York), 10 May
1965, p. 4.
23. Martin, pp. 481-90; New York Times, 17 July 1963, p. 10.
24. CONATRAL: Survey of the Alliance for Progress: Labor Policies and Programs,
Staff Report of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on
American Republics Affairs, 15 July 1968, p. 18; Jan Kippers Black, The Dominican
Republic: Politics and Development in an Unsovereign State (Boston, 1986), pp. 35,
96, 117;Barnet, pp. 170-71.
25. Martin, p. 570.
26. Newsweek, 7 October 1963, pp. 64-5.
27. New York Times, 14 December 1963, p. 12.
28. Washington Post, 27 June 1965, p. E2.
29. Wall Street Journal, 25 June 1965, p. 8.



252
30. Slater, p. 308; Tad Szulc, Dominican Diary (New York, 1965) p. 32; Szulc was the
New York Times correspondent in the Dominican Republic during this period.
31. Slater, p. 307.
32. Martin, pp. 656-7; New York Times, 1 May 1965; Slater, p. 309; Wall Street Journal,
25 June 1965, p. 8.
33. Martin, p. 658.
34. Washington Post, 27 June 1965, p. E5; Slater, pp. 322-3; New York Times, 20 May
1965.
35. New York Times, 20 May 1965; Slater, p. 325.
36. New York Times Magazine, 14 July 1982, p. 20.
37. Ibid.
38. New York Times, 25 February 1967.
39. Communists amongst the rebels: Washington Post, 27 June 1965, p. E4; CIA
cable: Declassified Documents Reference System (Arlington, Virginia) 1977 Volume,
Document 14G.
40. Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York, 1975) p. 421.
41. Barnet, pp. 175-6.
42. Ibid.; Szulc, pp. 71-3; Washington Post, 27 June 1965, p. E4,
43. Slater, p. 321; New York Times, 22 Match 1967.
44. David Wise, The Politics of Lying (New York, 1973, paperback edition) p. 32.
45. Barnet, pp. 178-9.
46. See, e.g., Wall Street Journal, 7 September 1971, "In Dominican Republic, Political
Murders Rise, and So Does Poverty"; also, various Amnesty international Reports on
Torture and Annual Reports during the 1970s.



30. CUBA 1959 to 1980s

1 Khrushchev Remembers (London, 1971) pp. 494, 496.
2. Time, 2 November 1962.
3. Cited by William Appleman Williams, "American Intervention in Russia: 1917-20",
in David Horowitz, ed., Containment and Revolution (Boston, 1967). Written in a
letter to President Wilson by Secretary of State Robert Lansing, uncle of John Foster
and Allen Dulles.
4. Facts on File, Cuba, the U.S. and Russia, 1960-63 (New York, 1964) pp. 56-8.
5. International Herald Tribune (Paris), 2 October 1985, p. 1.
6. New York Times, 23 October 1959, p. 1.
7. Facts on File, op. at., pp. 7-8; New York Times, 19, 20 February 1960; 22 March
1960.
8. New York Times, 5, 6 March 1960.
9. David Wise, "Colby of CIA ” CIA of Colby", New York Times Magazine, 1 July
1973, p. 9.
10. A report about the post-invasion inquiry ordered by Kennedy disclosed that "It was
never intended, the planners testified, that the invasion itself would topple Castro.
The hope was that an initial success would spur an uprising by thousands of anti-
Castro Cubans. Ships in the invasion fleet carried 15,000 weapons to be distributed
to the expected volunteers." U.S. News & World Report, 13 August 1979, p. 82. Some
CIA officials, including Allen Dulles, later denied that an uprising was expected, but
this may be no more than an attempt to mask their ideological embarrassment that
people living under a "communist tyranny" did not respond at all to the call of "The
Free World".
11. Attacks on Cuba:



253
a) Taylor Branch and George Crile III, "The Kennedy Vendetta", Harper's magazine
(New York), August 1975, pp. 49-63
b) Facts on File, op, at., passim
c) New York Times, 26 August 1962, p. 1; 21 March 1963, p. 3; Washington Post, 1
June 1966; 30 September 1966; plus many other articles in both newspapers during
the 1960s
d) Warren Hinckle and William W. Turner, The Fish is Red: The Story of the Secret
War Against Castro (Harper & Row, New York, 1981) passim.
12. Branch and Crile, op. cit., pp. 49-63. The article states that there were in excess of 300
Americans involved in the operation, but in "CBS Reports: The CIA's Secret Army",
broadcast 10 June 1977, written by Bill Moyers and the same George Crile III,
former CIA official Ray Cline states that there were between 600 and 700 American
staff officers.
13. New York Times, 26 August 1962, p. 1.
14. John Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin America (New York, 1965, revised edition) p.
278.
15. Branch and Crile, op. cit,, p, 52.
16. The Times (London), 8, 10 January 1964; 12 May, p. 10; 21 July, p. 10; 28, 29
October; The Guardian (London), 28, 29 October 1964.
17. Washington Post, 14 February 1975, p. C31; Anderson's story stated that there were
only 24 buses involved and that they were dried and used in England.
18. Branch and Crile, op. cit., p. 52.
19. New York Times, 28 April 1966, p. 1.
20. Branch and Crile, op. cit., p. 52
21. Washington Post, 21 March 1977, p. A18.
22. Hinckle and Turner, p. 293, based on their interview with the participant in
Ridgecrest, California, 27 September 1975.
23. San Francisco Chronicle, 10 January 1977,
24. Bill Schaap, "The 1981 Cuba Dengue Epidemic", Covert Action Information
Bulletin (Washington), No. 17, Summer 1982, pp. 28-31
25. San Francisco Chronicle, 29 October 1980, p. 15.
26. Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington), 13
January 1967, p. 176.
27. Coven Action Information Bulletin (Washington), No. 22, Fall 1984, p. 35; the trial
of Eduardo Victor Arocena Perez, Federal District Court for the Southern District of
New York, transcript of 10 September 1984, pp. 2187-89.
28. See, e.g., San Francisco Chronicle, 27 July 1981.
29. Washington Post, 16 September 1977, p. A2.
30. Ibid., 25 October 1969, column by Jack Anderson.
31. Reports of the assassination attempts have been disclosed in many places; see
Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, The Select
Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities
(US Senate), 20 November 1975, pp. 71-180, for a detailed, although not complete,
account. Stadium bombing attempt: New York Times, 22 November 1964, p. 26.
32. New York Times, 12 December 1964, p. 1,
33. Ibid., 3 March 1980, p. 1.
34. Terrorist attacks within the United States:
a) Jeff Stein, "Inside Omega 7", The Village Voice (New York), 10 March 1980
b) New York Times, 13 September 1980, p. 24; 3 March, 1980, p. 1.
c) John Dinges and Saul Landau, Assassination on Embassy Row (London, 1981), pp.
251-52, note (also includes attacks on Cuban targets in other countries)
d) Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington), No, 6, October 1979, pp. 8-9.
35. The plane bombing:
a) Washington Post, 1 November 1986, pp. A1, A18.
b) Jonathan Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots (New York, 1987), p. 379


254
c) William Schaap, "New Spate of Terrorism: Key Leaders Unleashed", Covert
Action Information Bulletin (Washington), No. 11, December 1980, pp-4-8.
d) Dinges and Landau, pp. 245-6.
e) Speech by Fidel Castro, 15 October 1976, reprinted in Toward Improved U.S,-Cuba
Relations, House Committee on International Relations, Appendix A, 23 May 1977.
The CIA documents: Amongst those declassified by the Agency, sent to the National
Archives in 1993, and made available to the public. Reported in The Nation (New
York), 29 November 1993, p. 657.
36. Dangerous Dialogue: Attacks on Freedom of Expression in Miami's Cuban Exile
Community, p. 26, published by Americas Watch/The Fund for Free Expression, New
York and Washington, August 1992.
37. Ibid., passim. Also see: "Terrorism in Miami: Suppressing Free Speech", CounterSpy
magazine (Washington), Vol. 8, No. 3, March-May 1984, pp. 26-30; The Village
Voice, op. cit.; Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington}, No. 6, October
1979, pp. 8-9.
38. New York Times, 4 January 1975, p. 8.
39. San Francisco Chronicle, 12 January 1982, p. 14; Parade magazine (Washington
Post), 15 March 1981, p. S.
40. The Village Voice, op. cit.
41. Jerome Levinson and Juan de Onis, The Alliance That Lost Its Way: A Critical
Report on the Alliance for Progress (A Twentieth Century Fund Study, Chicago,
1970) p. 56.
42. Ibid,, p. 309; the list of Alliance goals can be found on pp. 352-5.
43. Ibid., pp. 226-7.
44. New York Times, 26 December 1977, p. 37. See also: Philip Agee, Inside the
Company: CIA Diary (New York, 1975) p. 380 (Editors Press Service).
45. Tad Szulc, Fidel, A Critical Portrait (New York, 1986), pp. 480-1.
46. Richard Nixon, Six Crises (New York, 1962, paperback edition) pp. 416-17.
47. Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York,
1975), p. 289.
48. Marc Edelman, "The Other Super Power: The Soviet Union and Latin America
1917-1987", NACLA'S Report on the Americas (North American Congress on Latin
America, New York), January-February 1987, p. 16; Szulc, see index.
49. Szulc, pp. 427-8.
50. Miami Herald, 29 April 1996, p.l


31. INDONESIA 1965

1. Time, 17 December 1965.
2. New York Times Magazine, 8 May 1966, p. 89.
3. This is the widely-accepted range; see, e.g., various Amnesty International reports on
Indonesia published in the 1970s.
4. Rex Mortimer, Indonesian Communism Under Sukarno: Ideology and Politics, 1959-
1965 (Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, 1974) pp. 413-17; Indonesia”
1965: The Coup that Backfired (CIA Research Study, Washington, December 1968)
p. 21, hereafter referred to as CIA Study.
5. Mark Selden, ed., Remaking Asia: Essays on the American Uses of Power (New
York, 1974) pp. 47-8.
6. Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman, The Washington Connection and Third World
Fascism (Boston, 1979) p. 207.
7. New York Times, 12 March 1966, p. 6.
8. Life, 11 July 1966.




255
9. CIA lists: Kathy Kadane, San Francisco Examiner, 20 May 1990. See also Covert
Action Information Bulletin, No. 35, Fall 1990, p, 59, for excerpts from the interviews
with the American diplomats conducted by Kadane.
10. Nugrobo Notosusanto and Ismail Saleh, The Coup Attempt of the 'September 30
Movement' in Indonesia (Jakarta, 1968), cited by Mortimer, p. 419, who notes that
"both authors were closely connected with the Indonesian army".
11. CIA Study, p. 199.
12. Notosusanto and Saleh, p. 9, cited by Mortimer, p. 419.
13. CIA Study, from the Foreword.
14. Ibid., pp. 3-4; Mortimer, p. 414.
15. Discussion of Sjam's role:
a) CIA Study, pp. 23, 28, 100, 112, 117, and elsewhere
b) Mortimer, pp. 418-40, passim
c) W.F Wertheim, "Suharto and the Untung Coup ”The Missing Link", journal of
Contemporary Asia (London) Winter 1970, pp. 53-4
d) Selden, p. 48
e) Julie Southwood and Patrick Flanagan, Indonesia: Law, Propaganda and Terror
(London, 1983), p. 9
16. CIA Memorandum, 18 June 1962, Declassified Documents Reference System
(Arlington, Virginia) 1975 volume, Document 240 A.
17. Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965) p. 533.
18. Roger Hilsman, To Move a Nation (New York, 1967) p. 377.
19. Military Assistance Training in East and Southeast Asia, a Staff Report for the
Subcommittee on National Security Policy and Scientific Developments of the House
Committee on Foreign Affairs, 16 February 1971, p. 18.
20. Ibid., 2 April 1971, p. 13.
21. New York Times, 27 April 1966, p. 28.
22. Hearings on Foreign Assistance, 1966, before the Senate Committee on Foreign
Relations, 11 May 1966, p. 693.
23. Green has been quoted on this theme in a number of books and periodicals with
slight variations here and there, due, apparently, to the fact that he touched upon the
same point in several different speeches in Australia. Some sources give only "what
we did we had to do"; others provide a fuller quotation. What I have presented here is
a combination taken from: a) Denis Freney, The CIA's Australian Connection
(Australia, 1977), p. 17, citing a talk Green delivered before the Australian
Institute for International Affairs in 1973; and b) Peter Britton, "Indonesia's Neo-
colonial Armed Forces", Bulletin Of Concerned Asian Scholars, July-September
1975.
24. New York Times, 19 June 1966, p. 12E.
25. Journal of Contemporary Asia (London), Vol. 9, No. 2,1979, p. 252.
26. Chomsky and Herman, pp. 208-17.
27. The Guardian (London), 12 December 1983.
28. Los Angeles Times, 15 June 1991. p. 10.
29. Ibid., 13 October 1989, p. A6
30. New York Times 13 December 1975, p. 26, editorial.
31. San Francisco Chronicle, 9 November 1979, p. 61.
32. For a fuller discussion of these matters, see: Chomsky and Herman, pp. 129-204;
Denis Freney, "US-Australian Role in East Timor Genocide", CounterSpy magazine
(Washington), Vol. 4, No, 2, Spring 1980, pp. 10-21.

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