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32. GHANA 1966

1. Kwame Nkrumah, Dark Days in Ghana (London, 1968) p. 96.



256
2. E.H. Cookridge, The Africa Dossier', The Daily Telegraph Magazine (London), 21
January 1972, part 2 of a 3-part series on the CIA.
3. John Stockwell, In Search of Enemies (New York, ) 978) p. 201, note.
4. Ibid.; New York Times, 9 May 1978, article by Seymour Hersh.
5. Stockwell, p. 201, note. Another account is that 25 Russians who made up Nkrumah's
palace guard were all shot and killed when they tried to surrender: Seymour Friedin and
George Bailey, The Experts (New York, 1968) p, 210.
6. New York Times, op. cit.
7. Ibid.
8. Ibid.
9. Washington Post, 17 March 1966.
10. Nkrumah, pp. 97-102 (state-owned industries, price of cocoa).
11. John Barron, KGB: The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents (Bantam Books, New
York, 1981; paperback edition of Reader's Digest Press, 1974), p. 342.


33. URUGUAY 1964 to 1970

1. Manuel Hevia Cosculluela, Pasaporte 11333: Ocho A±os con la CIA (Havana, 1978),
p, 286.
2. AJ. Langguth, Hidden Terrors (New York, 1978) pp. 48-9, 51 and passim.
Langguth was formerly with the New York Times and in 1965 served as Saigon
Bureau Chief for the newspaper.
3. New York Times, 1 August 1970.
4. Langguth, pp. 285-7; New York Times, 15 August 1970.
5. Alain Labrousse, The Tupamaros: Urban Guerrillas in Uruguay |Penguin Books,
London, 1973, translation from French 1970 edition) p. 103.
6. Langguth, p. 289.
7. Langguth, pp. 232-3, 253-4; Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York,
1975), see index (Otero's relationship to the CIA).
8. Major Carlos Wilson, The Tupamaros: The Unmentionables (Boston, 1974) pp. 106-
7; Langguth, p. 236. Agee, p. 478, confirms Cantrell's identity.
9. Langguth, p. 252.
10. Interview of Langguth in the film "On Company Business (Directed by Allan
Francovich), cited in Warner Poelchau, ed., White Paper, Whitewash (New York,
1981) p. 66.
11. Extracts from the report of the Senate Commission of Inquiry into Torture, a
document accompanying the film script in State of Siege (Ballantine Books, New
York, 1973) pp. 194-6; also see "Death of a Policeman; Unanswered Questions
About a Tragedy", Commonweal (Catholic biweekly magazine, New York), 18
September 1970, p. 457; Langguth, p. 249.
12. Death Squad, TSD: Langguth, pp. 245-6, 253.
13. Michael Klare and Nancy Stein, "Police Terrorism in Latin America", NACLA's
Latin America and Empire Report (North American Congress on Latin America),
January 1974, pp. 19-23, based on State Department documents obtained by Senator
James Abourezk in 1973; also see Jack Anderson, Washington Post, 8 October
1973, p. C33; Langguth, pp. 242-3.
14. Klare and Stein, p. 19.
15. New York Times, 25 September 1968, 1 August 1970; Langguth, p. 241.
16. Hevia, p. 284, translated from the Spanish and slightly paraphrased by author; a
similar treatment of this and other passages from Hevia can be found in Langguth,
pp. 311-13.
17. New York Times, 5 August 1978, p. 3.
18. Mitrione's philosophy: Hevia, pp. 286-7 (see note 16 above).



257
19. Poelchau, p. 68.
20. Langguth, p. 305.
21. The Guardian (London) 19 October 1984.
22. Lawrence Weschler, A Miracle, A Universe: Settling Accounts With Torturers
(Penguin Books, 1991) p. 121
23. Ibid., p. 147, said to Weschler by Galeano.
24. Nancy Stein and Michael Klare, "Merchants of Repression", NACLA's Latin America and
Empire Report (North American Congress on Latin America), July-August 1976, p. 31.
25. DEA, arms manufacturers, etc.: Stein and Klare, pp- 31-2; New York Times, 23 January 1975,
p. 38; 26 January 1975, p 42; Langguth, p. 301.
26. Argentine Commission for Human Rights, Washington, DC: Report entitled "U.S.
Narcotics Enforcement Assistance to Latin America", 10 March 1977, reference to a May
1974 press conference in Argentina.
27. San Francisco Chronicle, 2 November 1981.
28. Agee, pp. 325-494, passim.
29. Cable News Network en Espa±ol, 23 July 1998; El Diario-La Prensa (New York) 24 July
1998; Clarin (Buenos Aires daily) 22 July 1998, p.45


33. CHILE 1964 to 1973

1. Covert Action in Chile, 1963-1973, a Staff Report of The Select Committee to Study
Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (US Senate) 18 December
1975, p. 16; hereafter referred to as Senate Report.
2. Washington Post, 6 April 1973.
3. Senate Report, pp. 14, 18.
4. Ibid., p. 9.
5. Washington Post, 6 April 1973.
6. Senate Report, p. 15.
7. Paul E. Sigmund, The Overthrow of Allende and the Politics of Chile, 1964-1976 (University of
Pittsburgh Press, 1977) p. 297.
8. Senate Report, pp. 15-16.
9. Sigmund, p. 34.
10. Propaganda from abroad: Senate Report, p. 16,
11. Sigmund, p, 35; Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York, 1975) p. 387; Miles
Wolpin, Cuban Foreign Policy and Chilean Politics (Lexington, Mass., 1972) pp. 88, 176.
12. Senate Report, p. 8.
13. Washington Post, 6 April 1973.
14. Senate Report, pp. 9, 16; Wolpin, pp. 175, 372.
15. David Wise, The Politics of Lying (New York, 1973, paperback edition) pp. 167-8.
16. Time magazine, 11 August 1975, European edition, p. 47.
17. Penny Lernoux, Cry of the People: The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America ” The
Catholic Church in Conflict with U.S. Policy (Penguin Books, London, 1982) pp. 25-9, 289-92.
18. Senate Report, p. 16.
19. Ibid., p. 5.
20. Ibid., p. 18.
21. Ibid., p. 9.
22. Survey of the Alliance for Progress: Labor Policies and Programs, Staff Report of the US Senate
Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on American Republics Affairs, 15 July 1968, p.
3.
23. Newsweek, 23 September 1974, pp. 51-2, amongst many other places where this now-famous
remark can be found.
24. Senate Report, p, 21.
25. Ibid., pp. 21-2.



258
26. Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, The Select
Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (US
Senate) 20 November 1975, p. 227; here after referred to as Assassination Report.
27. Senate Report, p. 24.
28. Assassination Report, passim; Senate Report, p. 23.
29. Seymour Hersh, Kissinger: The Price of Power (London, 1983) pp. 259, 274, 292.
30. Senate Report, pp. 23, 25; Hersh, p. 273.
31. Senate Report, pp. 26, 37.
32. Ibid., pp. 24, 25.
33. Foreign and Military Intelligence, Book 1, Final Report of The Select Committee to Study
Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (US Senate), April 1976, p.
200.
34. Washington Post, 5 January 1978; Senate Report, p. 25.
35. Senate Report, p, 24.
36. Assassination Report, p. 234.
37. Ibid., p. 240.
38. Ibid., 226, 245, 252, and elsewhere; for another overall description of the 4 September-24
October 1970 period, see Hersh, Chapters 21 and 22.
39. The Sunday Times (London), 27 October 1974, p. 15, referring to William Colby's secret
testimony before a Congressional committee on 22 April 1974. See the New York Times, 8
September 1974, p. 1, for a paraphrase of Colby's statement.

40. Senate Report, p. 33.
41. Almost all books dealing with Chile under Allende go into the economic boycott in some
detail; e.g., Edward Boorstein, Allende's Chile: An Inside View (New York, 1977) and James
Petras and Morris H. Morley, How Allende Fell (Great Britain, 1974).
42. Adam Schesch and Patricia Garrett, "The Case of Chile" in Howard Frazier, ed., Uncloaking
the CIA (The Free Press/Macmillan, New York, 1978) p. 38; Senate Report, pp. 32-3.
43. The Sunday Times (London), 27 October 1974, p. 16.
44. Schesch and Garrett, p. 48; Senate Report, pp. 37-8.
45. Time, 30 September 1974; Senate Report, p. 31; New York Times, 21 September 1974, p, 12.
46. John Dinges and Saul Landau, Assassination on Embassy Row (London, 1981) p. 43.
47. AIFLD: Fred Hirsch, An Analysis of Our AFL-CIO Role in Latin America (San Jose,
California, 1974) passim, Chile, pp. 30-42; NACLA's Latin America and Empire Report
(North American Congress on Latin America, New York and Berkeley, California) October
1973, p. 11; The Sunday Times (London), 27 October 1974, pp. 15, 16; Hortensia Bussi de
Allende (Salvador Allende's widow) "The Facts About Chile" in Frazier, op. cit., p. 60.
48. The author's own observations while in Chile from August 1972 to April 1973.
49. One of the publications closed down was Punto Final, a magazine put out by the left wing
of Allende's own Socialist Patty, during a state of emergency declared after an aborted June
1973 military coup.
50. Senate Report, p. 31; Hortensia Bussi de Allende, op. cit,, pp. 60, 63; the bombing school in
Los Fresnos is described in the chapter on Uruguay.
51. Senate Report, pp. 36-8.
52. Ellen Ray and Bill Schaap, "Massive Destabilization in Jamaica", Covert Action
Information Bulletin (Washington, D.C.) August-September 1980, p. 8; Fred Landis, "Robert
Moss, Arnaud de Borchgrave and Right- wing Disinformation" in ibid., p. 42. (Landis was a
consultant to the Senate committee which produced the reports cited in this chapter.)
53. Landis, p. 42; Senate Report, p. 39.
54. The Guardian (London), 20 December 1976, p. 9; Landis, pp. 37-44.
55. Landis, pp. 38-9; Senate Report, p. 30 (refers to "an opposition research organization"); Daily
Mail (London) 22 December 1976, p. 6.
56. Senate Report, p. 38.
57. Various published accounts plus the author's personal acquaintance with many Americans and
other foreigners who were in Santiago at the time of the coup.


259
58. Time magazine, 30 September 1974.
59. Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York, 1975), p.
43; Dinges and Landau, p. 50; Hersh, p. 333.
60. Time, 24 September 1973, p. 46.
61. Senate Report, p. 39.
62. Hortensia Bussi de Allende, op. cit., p. 64; she adds that the pilots of the WB-575 plane were
Majors V. Duenas and T. Schull.
63. Thomas Hauser, The Execution of Charles Horman (New York, 1978) Chapters 9 and 10, the
book that the film "Missing"" is based on.
64. New York Times, 17 September 1974, p. 22.
65. Ibid.
66. Senate Report, p. 47; Washington Post, 21 October 1973, p. C1.
67. Assassination Report, p. 229.




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