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Beginning on September 29, patients at Stanford University's hospital in San Francisco
were found to be infected by Serratia marcescens. This type of infection had never before
been reported at the hospital. Eleven patients became infected, and one died.5 According
to a report submitted to a Senate committee by a professor of microbiology at the State
University of New York at Stony Brook: "an increase in the number of Serratia
marcescens can cause disease in a healthy person and...serious disease in sick people."6

Between 1954 and 1967, other tests were carried out in the Bay Area, including some
with a base of operations at Fort Cronkhite in Marin County.7


1953: 61 releases of zinc cadmium sulfide in four sections of the city, involving massive
exposure of people at home and children in school. The substance was later described by
the EPA as "potentially hazardous because of its cadmium content", and a former Army
scientist, writing in the professional journal Atmosphere Environment, in 1972, said that
cadmium compounds, including zinc cadmium sulfide, are "highly toxic and the use of
them in open atmospheric experiments presents a human health hazard". He stated that
the symptoms produced by exposure to zinc cadmium sulfide include lung damage, acute
kidney inflammation and fatty degeneration of the liver.8
St. Louis

1953: 35 releases of zinc cadmium sulfide over residential, commercial and downtown
areas, including the Medical Arts Building, which presumably contained a number of sick
people whose illnesses could be aggravated by inhaling toxic particles.9

Washington, DC area

1953: Aerial spraying from a height of 75 feet of zinc cadmium sulfate combined with
lycopodium spores. The areas sprayed included the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland
and Leesburg, Virginia, 30 miles from the capital.10

In 1969, the Army conducted 115 open-air tests of zinc cadmium sulfate near Cambridge,

Earlier in the 1960s, the Army covertly disseminated a large number of bacteria in
Washington's National Airport to evaluate how easy it would be for an enemy agent to
scatter smallpox through the entire country by infecting air travelers. The bacterium used,
Bacillus subtilis, is potentially harmful to the infirm and the elderly, whose immune
system is impaired, and to those with cancer, heart disease or a host of other ailments,
according to a professor of microbiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center.
A similar experiment was carried out at the Washington Greyhound bus terminal.

Sometime during Richard Nixon's time in office (apparently 1969), the Army
"assassinated" him with germs via the White House air conditioning system.12

And at a building used by the Food and Drug Administration, the Army surreptitiously
placed a (supposedly harmless) colored dye into the water system. Whether anyone
suffered harm from drinking a certain quantity of that water is not known.13


1955: The CIA conducted at least one open-air test with whooping-cough bacteria around
the Tampa Bay area. The number of whooping cough cases recorded in Florida jumped
from 339 and one death in 1954 to 1080 and 12 deaths in 1955. The Tampa Bay area was
one of three places that showed a sharp increase in 1955.14

Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida

1956-58: The Army, wishing to test "the practicality of employing Aedes aegypti
mosquitos to carry a BW agent", released over wide areas hundreds of thousands, if not
millions, of this mosquito, which can be a carrier of yellow fever and dengue fever, both
highly dangerous diseases. The Army stated that the mosquitos were uninfected, but
prominent scientists said that, for several reasons, the experiment was not without risk,
and was a "terrible idea".15 The actual effects upon the targeted population will probably
never be known.

New York City

Feb. 11-15, 1956: A CIA-Army team sprayed New York streets and the Holland and
Lincoln tunnels, using trick suitcases and a car with a dual muffler.16

June 6-10, 1966: The army report of this test was called "A Study of the Vulnerability of
Subway Passengers in New York City to Covert Attack with Biological Agents".
Trillions of Bacillus subtilis variant niger were released into the subway system during
rush hours. One method was to use light bulbs filled with the bacteria; these were
unobtrusively shattered at sidewalk level on subway ventilating grills or tossed onto the
roadbeds inside the stations. Aerosol clouds were momentarily visible after a release of
bacteria from the light bulbs. The report noted that "When the cloud engulfed people,
they brushed their clothing, looked up at the grating apron and walked on."17 The wind
of passing trains spread the bacteria along the tracks; in the time it took for two trains to
pass, the bacteria were spread from 15th Street to 58th Street.18 It will never be known
how many people later became ill from being unsuspecting guinea pigs, for the United
States Army exhibited not the slightest interest in this question.


1960s: The Chicago subway system was the scene of a similar Army experiment.19


November 1964 to January 1965: The Army conducted aerosol tests over stockyards in
Texas, Missouri, Minnesota, South Dakota, Iowa and Nebraska, using "anti-animal non-
biological simulants".20 It's not clear why stockyards were chosen, or what effect this
might have had upon the meat consumed by the public.


The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, Germany, 1946-1949, revealed many
details of the Nazi medical experiments on involuntary subjects, leading the judges to
formulate a set of principles that came to be called The Nuremberg Code; in effect, a bill
of rights for people selected for medical experimentation. The Code's first tenet states:
"The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential." Very shortly
thereafter, the US Army-CIA testing program began, and although the tests were of
course nowhere near as gruesome as those of the Nazis, and the subjects of the tests were
not humans as such, but rather the behavior of certain substances released in the air, the
fact remains that the testers knew that untold numbers of humans were being directly
contaminated by the tests, and none of the reports of the tests mentions a word about
obtaining the consent of any of these humans. If the testers did not "know" that the
contaminating substances were potentially dangerous, it can only be because they didn't
investigate this question, which is the same as saying that they didn't know because they
didn't want to know.

Not to mention radiating the environment

During the period of 1948-1952, the government conducted many deliberate releases of
radioactive material, mainly from airplanes, which carried as much as 10 miles over
populated areas, in order to study fallout patterns and the rate at which radioactivity
decayed, and to study the feasibility of creating "an offensive radiation warfare

And the face-to-face human experimentation

In terms of sheer numbers, there cannot be any parallel in all of history...a government
conducting innumerable medically dangerous and medically unethical experiments on its
own people. For decades after the end of World War II, the US government conducted
experiments with literally millions of human subjects, both civilian humans and military
humans, for the purpose of measuring the effects upon them of: a) sundry chemical and
biological materials, including nerve agents; b) nuclear radiation, including injecting
many with plutonium; c) a host of mind-control drugs: LSD and other hal-lucinogens, as
well as assorted other exotic chemical concoctions.22

For the human experimentation, the various government agencies appear to have chosen
as their subjects primarily those who had the least political clout, such as servicemen and
-women, conscientious objectors, prison inmates, blacks, the poor, the retarded, the
elderly, the young, mental patients...

"It's a little cocktail. It'll make you feel better," Helen Hutchison recalled the doctor
telling her in July 1946, during a visit to the Vanderbilt University Hospital Prenatal
Clinic. It didn't make her feel better at all. It contained radioactive iron. She was one of
829 women to receive various doses of the potion over a two-year period. Both
Hutchison and the daughter she carried went on to suffer a lifetime of strange ailments.
Hutchison's hair fell out at one point, she suffers from pernicious anemia, and she is
highly sensitive to sunlight. Her daughter, now grown, suffers from an immune system
disorder and skin cancer.23

By 1999, perhaps the American public had learned something. When it was disclosed that
the federal government's Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico planned to
release a strain of bacteria into the atmosphere to test new biowarfare detectors, the
public outcry was such that the test was canceled. At a public hearing aimed at easing the
public's fear, a Santa Fe resident asked a Laboratory representative: "If it's so safe, why
don't you release it into the office of someone in Washington, DC?"24

A final thought...What if?
On June 9, 1969, Dr. Donald M. MacArthur, Deputy Director, Research and Engineering,
Department of Defense, testified before Congress.

Within the next 5 to 10 years, it would probably be possible to make a new infective
microorganism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-
causing organisms. Most important of these is that it might be refractory [resistant] to the
immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative
freedom from infectious disease.25

CHAPTER 16 : Encouragement of the Use of CBW by Other Nations


It was reported in 1969 that for some years the US Army had been instructing foreign
specialists in chemical and biological warfare. A total of 550 foreigners from 36 nations,
including Egypt, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Yugoslavia and South
Vietnam, had taken courses at the Army's Chemical School at Ft. McClellan, Alabama.
The Egyptian specialists reportedly used their new American know-how to help plan the
poison-gas attacks upon Yemen in 1967. The International Red Cross verified that
Egyptian pilots dropped canisters of poison gases from planes over Yemen.
Subsequently, the US Defense Intelligence Agency also confirmed this. Some 150
villagers gagged, coughed and bled to death.1

South Africa

According to testimony before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 1998, the
United States encouraged South Africa's apartheid regime to develop a CBW program
that was aimed at the country's black population. Dr. Wouter Basson, the South African
general who headed the project from its inception in 1981, testified from notes he made
of a meeting with US Maj. Gen. William Augerson: "He [Augerson] feels that chemical
warfare is an ideal strategic weapon because infrastructure is preserved together with
facilities, and only living people are killed. The warm climate of Africa is ideal for this
type of weapon because the diffusion of the poison is better and the absorption is
increased by perspiration and increased blood flow in the persons who are targets."2

South Africa's CBW program did in fact work on a number of projects that echoed US
programs: using black soldiers as guinea pigs for experimental drugs; developing a toxin
to cause a heart attack, which would appear to be the "natural" cause of death;
contaminating drinking water with disease pathogens; using a variety of poisonous gases
to paralyze and kill opponents in South Africa and neighboring states.3

In his January 1998 State of the Union address, President Clinton spoke of how we must
"confront the new hazards of chemical and biological weapons, and the outlaw states,
terrorists and organized criminals seeking to acquire them." He castigated Iraq for
"develop-ing nuclear, chemical and biological weapons" and called for a strengthening of
the Biological Weapons Convention. Who among his listeners knew, who among the
media reported, that the United States had been the supplier to Iraq of much of the source
biological materials Saddam Hussein's scientists required to create a biological warfare

According to reports of a US Senate Committee in 1994, from 1985, if not earlier,
through 1989, a veritable witch's brew of biologi-cal materials was exported to Iraq by
private American suppliers pursuant to application and licensing by the US Department
of Commerce. Amongst these materials, which often produce slow, agonizing deaths,

Bacillus anthrads, cause of anthrax.
Clostridium botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin.
Histoplasma capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, spinal cord and heart.
Brucella melitensis, a bacteria that can damage major organs.
Clostridium perfringens, a highly toxic bacteria causing systemic illness.
Clostridium tetani, highly toxigenic.

Also, Escherichia coli (E.coli); genetic materials; human and bacterial DNA. Dozens of
other pathogenic biological agents were shipped to Iraq during the 1980s. The Senate
report pointed out that "These biological materials were not attenuated or weakened and
were capable of reproduction."

"It was later learned," the committee stated, "that these micro-organisms exported by the
United States were identical to those the United Nations inspectors found and removed
from the Iraqi biological warfare program."

The report noted further that US exports to Iraq included the precursors to chemical-
warfare agents, plans for chemical and biological warfare production facilities and
chemical-warhead filling equipment.

These exports continued to at least November 28, 1989 despite the fact that Iraq had been
reported to be engaging in chemical warfare and possibly biological warfare against
Iranians, Kurds and Shiites since the early 1980s as part of its war with Iran.4
Presumably, Iraq's use of these weapons against Iran is what Washington expected would

Hypocrisy of this magnitude has to be respected

For the better part of six years, 1992-98, following the Gulf War, the United States,
acting through the United Nations, forced Iraq to open up its country to inspection for
"weapons of mass destruction"”no building or structure was exempted. The wishes of
the Iraqi govern-ment to place certain sites off limits were dismissed out of hand by US
officials and the American media, who had a lot of fun with the issue. "What does
Saddam have to hide?" was the prevailing attitude.

Then, in May 1997, the US Senate passed an act to implement the "Convention on the
Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons
and on Their Destruction" ["Chemical Convention"], an international treaty which had
been ratified by more than 100 nations in its four-year life. But the Senate insisted on
adding an amendment before it would ratify the Convention.

The Senate amendment, Section 307, stipulates that "the President may deny a request to
inspect any facility in the United States in cases where the President determines that the
inspection may pose a threat to the national security interests of the United States."

Saddam Hussein had asked for no more than this for Iraq.

It can be surmised that under the Senate amendment the White House, Pentagon, etc.
would be off limits, as Saddam had insisted his presidential palaces should be, as well as
the military unit responsible for his personal security, which an American colonel had
demanded to inspect.

Moreover, we now know that in closing off certain places to the inspectors, Saddam was
not being entirely paranoid or arbitrary, inasmuch as it was later revealed that for some
time the United States had been supplying certain inspectors with the means of planting
recording devices wherever they could gain access.


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