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38 The Economist (London), June 4-10, 1994, p.40

39 Washington Times, August 24, 1999, p.l; the words are those of the newspaper and may be a
paraphrase of the original

40 Washington Post, August 28, 1999, p.3

41 Donald Henderson, "Dangerous Fictions about Bioterrorism", Washington Post, November 8,
1999, p.21; see also Roni Kruzman, "Koppel's 'Biowar of the Worlds'", Extra! (Fairness and
Accuracy in Reporting, NY), January/February 2000, p. 21

42 Washington Post, October 29, 1999, p. 14

43 Atlanta Journal, August 4, 1999, p.l

44 Washington Post, August 27, 1999

45 State Department, "Patterns of Global Terrorism, 1998", released April
1999, can be read on their website.

46 See, e.g., Tim Weiner, "Military Accused of Lies Over Arms", New York Times, June 28, 1993,
p.10; Tim Weiner, Blank Check (New York, 1990), p.42-43, for CIAs inflated figures regarding
Soviets; Anne H. Cahn, "How We Got Oversold on Overkill", Los Angeles Times, July 23, 1993,
about a GAO study; Douglas Jehl & Michael Ross, "CIA Nominee Faces Charges He Slanted
Data", Los Angeles Times, September 15, 1991, p.l; Arthur Macy Cox, "Why the U.S., Since
1977, Has Been Misperceiving Soviet Military Strength", New York Times, October 20, 1980, p.
19 (Cox was formerly an official with the State Department and the CIA)

47 The Guardian (London), January 1,1999

48 Washington Post, October 2,1998

49 Ibid., September 9,1998, p. 17

50 Mencken: In Defense of Women (1920); MacArthur: William Manchester, American Caesar;
Douglas MacArthur, 1880-1964 (Dell, New York, 1978), p.827

51 Jonathan Vankin, Conspiracies, Cover-ups and Crimes: Political Manipulation and Mind
Control in America (New York, 1991), p.120

52 Parenti, op. cit., p.49

53 "Pentagon's Planning Guidance for the Fiscal Years 1994-1999", New York Times, March 8,
1992, p.14

54 United States Space Command: Vision for 2020, excerpts are in same sequence as found in
the publication; put out by U.S. Space Command, Director of Plans, Peterson AFB, Colorado,
August 1997

55 Keith R. Hall, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Space and Director of the National
Reconnaissance Office, speaking to the National Space Club, September 15, 1997

56 General Joseph Ashy, at the time Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Space Command, cited in
Aviation Week and Space Technology (New York), August 5, 1996, p.51
57 October 17, 1963, UN Resolution number 1884

58 From the study's Introduction, p.8. The Boston Globe, March 2, 1998, p.5 contains almost the
entire passage.

59 Parenti, op. cit., p.80


CHAPTER 1

1 Washington Post, August 22, 1998

2 NBC, "Today" show, August 22, 1998

3 New York Times, August 22, 1998, p. 15

4 Washington Post, August 9, 1998

5 The Nation, April 4, 1998

6 Washington Post, November 6, 1997

7 Ibid., November 16, 1997

8 Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (GPO), 1996, Vol. I, p.437

9 The Independent (London), March 26, 1996, p.8

10 Washington Post, January 23, 1997, p.l

11 Inter Press Service (headquartered in Rome) report from the United Nations, February 21,
2000

12 FBI press release, "FBI Policy and Guidelines", Feb. 16, 1999


CHAPTER 2

1 Washington Post, March 14, 1996

2 Los Angeles Times, August 4, 1996

3 Washington Post, August 15, 1996, p.32

4 Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington, DC), #64, Spring 1998, p.29-30

5 Mary Anne Weaver, The New Yorker, November 13, 1995, p.62 and 64

6 Los Angeles Times, August 2, 1993, p. 12

7 Mary Anne Weaver, "Blowback", The Atlantic Monthly, May 1996, p.28

8 Washington Post, September 6, 1996

9 Los Angeles Times, August 6, 1996, p. 12
10 New York Times, March 8, 1995, p.12; March 9, p.6

11 Los Angeles Times, August 4, 1996, p.l

12 Ibid.,p.l7

13 Slovo (Russian newspaper), August 27, 1999, as reported by CDI Russia (Center for Defense
Information, Washington, DC internet list on Russia); Los Angeles Times, August 4, 1996, p.l;
New York Times, September 20, 1999, p.9

14 Los Angeles Times, August 4,1996, p.l

15 New; York Times Magazine, March 13, 1994, p.54

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid.; Los Angeles Times, August 2, 1993, p.12

18 Los Angeles Times, August 4, 1996

19 Ibid., March 7, 1992, p.14 and August 5, 1996

20 Ibid., August 5, 1996, p.l 1

21 Weaver, Atlantic Monthly, op. cit.; Los Angeles Times, August 6, 1996, p. 11

22 Washington Post, May 26, 1996

23 Ibid., August 28, 1999, p.14

24 Los Angeles Times, August 4, 1996, p.2


CHAPTER 3

1 Amnesty International, in a report of January 17, 1994, entitled "KUWAIT: Three years of unfair
trials" (AI Index: MDE 17/01/94), states that it "expressed its concern on 1 July 1993 that the trial
of 14 defendants, 12 of whom face the possibility of death sentences, accused of participation in
an alleged assassination attempt on former United States President George Bush, failed to
satisfy international minimum standards." The report makes repeated references to the use of
torture by the Kuwaiti government of people accused of collaboration with the occupying Iraqis in
1990. The subsequent convictions and "confession" of one of the defendants may be seen in this
context.

See also The Guardian (London), June 29, 1993, p.9 and June 7, 1994, p.9 for further discussion
of the questions surrounding the arrests and trial.

2 Washington Post, June 27, 1993

3 Sunday Times (London), July 6, 1975, p.l. Narut at the time was working at a US naval hospital
in Naples, Italy, and made his remarks at a NATO-sponsored conference held in Oslo, Norway
the week before.
4 The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities
(US Senate), Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, November
20, 1975, p.285

5 Washington Post, October 5, 1988, summarizes some of Reagan's executive orders

6 Los Angeles Times, October 14, 1989, p.16

7 William Corson, The Armies of Ignorance (New York, 1977), p.347


CHAPTER 4

1 Part of a May 23, 1997 release by the CIA of 1,400 pages of classified documents concerning
the 1954 coup in Guatemala. It is 20 pages long.

2 One of seven manuals from the Army's Foreign Intelligence Assistance Program, entitled
"Project X"; written originally in English in the mid-1960s, later translated into Spanish; provided
to Latin American and other Third World countries' military intelligence trainees; also used at
School of the Americas; in use until at least 1991; various paragraphs in the original texts were
revised by the Pentagon during the 1970s and 1980s; released to the public by the Pentagon,
September 20, 1996

3 Another of the seven manuals referred to in note 2.

4 Inter Press Service (a well-known and respected Third World news agency headquartered in
Rome), March 10, 1997, on the internet

5 KUBARK was a code name used by the CIA, with no particular significance. This is a Vietnam-
era training manual, written for use by Americans against the enemy, not for training foreign
military services. Also see New York Times, February 9, 1997.

6 Much of the material in this manual derives from the' KUBARK manual, discussed above. Both
HRETM and KUBARK were declassified January 24, 1997. They deal exclusively with
interrogation. The Pentagon has stated that HRETM was altered in 1984-85 to discourage torture.
This was after a furor was raised in Congress and the press about CIA training techniques used
in Central America. For further excerpts see Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1997 and the website of
School of the Americas Watch”http://www.soaw.org

7 For a complete list of the methods of sabotage, see Holly Sklar, Washington's War on
Nicaragua (Boston, 1988), p. 183-4. For some of the illustrations and Spanish text, see Covert
Action Information Bulletin (Washington, DC), #22, Fall 1984, p.28

8 New York Times, October 17, 1984, p.l and 12; Sklar, p.177-87

9 Sklar, 186


CHAPTER 5

1 Baltimore Sun, June 11, 1995, p.lOA

2 Washington Post, August 3, 1999, p.10

3 James Becket, Barbarism in Greece (New York, 1970), p.xi
4 Proposed 1984, in force 1987, ratified by US 1994

5 Baltimore Sun, op. cit.

6 Amnesty International, Report on Torture (London, 1973), p.77

7 Becket, p. 15

8 Becket, p. 16, see also p. 127

9 Kermit Roosevelt, Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran (McGraw-Hill paperback,
1981), p.9. Roosevelt was a CIA officer operating in Iran in the 1950s.

10 Leaf was chief CIA analyst on Iran for five years before resigning in 1973, interviewed by
Seymour Hersh in the New York Times, January 7,1979.

11 Robert Fisk, article in The Independent (London), August 9,1998, p. 19

12 Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (Pocket Books,
New York, 1979) p.155,157

13 Donald Duncan, The New Legions (London, 1967) p.156-9; Duncan describes the Green
Beret "interrogation" class he was in.

14 David Wise, "Colby of CIA”CIA of Colby", New York Times Magazine, July 1, 1973, p.33-4

15 Telford Taylor, Nuremberg and Vietnam: an American Tragedy (New York Times, 1970),
p.148-53

16 Richard Harris, Death of a Revolutionary: Che Guevara's Last Mission (New York, 1970)
p.185-6

17 AJ. Langguth, Hidden Terrors (New York, 1978) p.285-7; (Langguth was Saigon Bureau Chief
for the New York Times in 1965); also see New York Times, August 15,1970

18 Langguth, p.289

19 Manuel Hevia Cosculluela, Pasaporte 11333: Ocho Anos con la CIA (Havana, 1978), p.284-7.
Hevia was a Cuban agent who worked under cover with Mitrione in Uruguay.

20 Langguth, passim; see index under "torture".

21 Allan Nairn, "C.I.A. Death Squad", The Nation, April 17,1995, p.511-13

22 Washington Post, May 12, 1996, p.Cl; Los Angeles Times, March 31, 1995, p.4

23 From "Statement of Sister Dianne Ortiz, May 6, 1996", distributed by her supporters in
Lafayette Park opposite the White House while she was conducting a silent vigil there.

24 New York Times, January 11,1982, p.2

25 The National Guardsman, identified only as "Manuel", was interviewed in the television
documentary "Torture", produced and directed by Rex Bloomstein for Thames Television Ltd.
(Great Britain) in 1986 with the cooperation of Amnesty International. Video copy in author's

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