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possession.
26 Baltimore Sun, lengthy series of articles on US support for Battalion 316, June 11-20, 1995;
and January 27, 1997, "Torture Was Taught By CIA"; also see New York Times, October 24,
1998 and The Nation, November 10, 1997, p.20-22 (David Corn)

27 Philip Wheaton, Panama Invaded (New Jersey, 1992), p. 14-15; this is from testimony
recorded by the staff of the Central American Human Rights Center of San Jose, Costa Rica,
taken in Panama on Jan. 29, 1990 from a Red Cross contact.

28 Newsweek, March 22,1976, p.28 and 31

29 "Chicago Police Used Torture, Report Alleges", Los Angeks Times, February 8,1992, p.l and
14

30 Holly Burkhalter, "Torture in U.S. Prisons", The Nation, July 3, 1995, p. 17-18. Burkhalter at
the time was the Washington director of Human Rights Watch.

31 See also "Torture in the United States" a report by the Coalition Against Torture and Racial
Discrimination, chaired by the World Organization Against Torture, USA (Washington, DC)”
www.woatusa.org

Other examples of torture practiced in the US can be found in the present book in "A Day in the
Life of a Free Country".

32 Washington Post, October 28,1996. The provision is part of the Antiterrorism and Effective
Death Penalty Act of 1996.

33 Los Angeks Times, May 13,1992; Washington Post, July 3,1995


CHAPTER 6

1 See Interventions and other sections of this book. Also see Christopher Simpson, Blowback
(New York, 1988), John Loftus, The Belarus Secret (New York, 1982), Martin Lee, The Beast
Reawakens (Boston, 1997)

2 Washington Post, November 21,1971, p.13

3 Los Angeks Times, September 13, 1988, p. 19. For further discussion of this issue, see Russ
Bellant, "Old Nazis and the New Right: The Republican Party and Fascists", Covert Action
Information Bulletin (Washington, DC), #33, Winter 1990, p.27-31


CHAPTER 7

1 New York Times, September 20,1999, p.6

2 Course O-47, taught at SOA while it was still in the Panama Canal Zone, Document 5489, p.5,
February 3, 1977, as cited in Penny Lernoux, Cry of the People: The Struggle for Human Rights
in Latin America”The Catholic Church in Conflict With U.S. Policy, (Penguin Books, NY, 1982),
p.167n; for other course descriptions, see p. 180-1,471-3

3 New York Times, September 28,1996, p.22

4 Washington Post, February-5,1968

5 Mark Danner, The Massacre at El Mozote (Vintage Books, 1994)
6 Washington Post, November 16, 1999, p.31, op-ed column by Leo J. O'Donovan, SJ.

7 See the website of School of the Americas Watch”http://www.soaw.org”Also see Covert
Action Quarterly (Washington, DC), #46, Fall 1993,p.l5-19

8 February 8,1990, before the Senate Committee on Armed Services

9 For further discussion, see Latin America Working Group (Washington, DC), Just the Facts: A
civilian's guide to U.S. defense and security assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean,
which tells everything one would want to know about training Latin militaries in the US and abroad
” bases, military exercises, human-rights restrictions and much more; can be read in full at
http://www.ciponline.org/facts

Also see the excellent series in the Washington Post, July 12-14, as well as December 13 and
14,1998

10 New York Times, November 18,1999

11 Michael Klare and Nancy Stein, "Police Terrorism in Latin America", NACLA's Latin America
and Empire Report (North American Congress on Latin America, NY), January 1974, p. 19-23,
based on State Department documents obtained by Senator James Abourezk in 1973; ibid., July-
August 1976, p.31; also see Jack Anderson, Washington Post, October 8, 1973, p.C33; A.J.
Langguth, Hidden Terrors (New York, 1978), p.242-3

12 New York Times, January 23, 1975, p.38; January 26, 1975, p. 42; NACLA, op. cit., July-
August 1976, p.31-2; Langguth, p.301

13 See Lawrence Rockwood & Amelia Simpson, "Training the world's police", Foreign Policy in
Focus report, Institute for Policy Studies (Washington, DC), forthcoming July 2000.

14 Thomas E. Skidmore, Politics in Brazil, 1930-1964 (Oxford University Press, New York, 1967),
p.330; also see James Kohl and John Litt, Urban Guerrilla Warfare in Latin America (The MIT
Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1974), p.39, for further discussion of the strong pro-US, anti-leftist bias
of the college's curriculum.

15 Phyllis R. Parker, Brazil and the Quiet Intervention, 1964 (University of Texas Press, Austin,
1979) p.98, cable to State Department, March 4,1964


CHAPTER 8

1 Washington Post, December 4,1996, p. 1

2 Leonard A. Cole, Cbuos of Secrecy: The Army's Germ Warfare Tests over Populated Areas
(Maryland, 1990), p.12-14

3 Washington Post, September 21,1999, p. 1

4 United Nations General Assembly Resolution: "Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in
the region of the Middle East", December 4, 1990, Resolution No. 45/52.

5 New York Times, January 24,1991, p. 11

6 Ibid., March 23,1991
7 Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim, Four Hours in May Lai (Viking, New York, 1992), p.175,209-13

8 LA Weekly (Los Angeles), March 9-15,1990, p.12

9 New York Times, January 9,1971, p.3

10 Telford Taylor, Nuremberg and Vietnam: an American Tragedy (New York, 1970),p.l4(M3

11 Far Eastern Economic Review (Hong Kong), October 30,1997, p. 15, 20

12 Washington Post, May 25,1998, p.B4

13 I am indebted to Professor Joan Roelofs of Keene State College, New Hampshire for bringing
this concept to my attention.

14 This and most of the other material concerning the complaint to the Tribunal mentioned here
were transmitted to the author by Mandel and other complainants.

15 Press Release from Chief Prosecutor Louise Arbour, The Hague, May 13,1999.

16 The Observer (London), December 26, 1999; Washington Times, December 30 and 31,1999;
New; York Times, December 30,1999

17 Washington Post, May 24,1999, p.l

18 New York Times, May 13,1999, p.l

19 NATO press conference, Brussels, May 25,1999

20 Washington Post, April 22,1999, p.18

21 Ibid., September 20,1999, p.l

22 New York Times, December 2,1998, p.l; January 3, 2000

23 Washington Post, November 18,1999, p.l


CHAPTER 9

1 The Miami Herald, November 16, 1997. See remarks about leading Cuban exile terrorist Luis
Posada Carriles in "National Endowment for Democracy" chapter.

2 Associated Press, Tampa, Fla., July 16,1997

3 Unless otherwise indicated, infonnation about the individual cases can be found in the following:
Miami Herald, October 21,1998, p.l 1A; Boston Globe, May 2,3 &4,1999; press releases of the
Center for Justice and Accountability (San Francisco) and the Center for Constitutional Rights
(New York), which have been involved in lawsuits against several of the individuals named;
Covert Action Quarterly (Washington, DC), #65, Fall 1998, p.45

4 Guatemalan Human Rights Commission (Washington, DC), Human Rights Update, April
21,1995

5 Noam Chomsky, Z Magazine, March 1992, p.9, based on an interview given by Gramajo to the
Harvard International Review
6 EFE (Spanish news agency), dispatch from Miami, November 20,1999

7 Adam Fifield, "The Apologist in Suburbia", Village Voice (New York), May5,1998,p.55

8 According to the Center for Justice and Accountability (San Francisco). These men have
claimed that they themselves were victims of torture, by the North Vietnamese and/or the
National Liberation Front. It was during their treatment in the US for this experience that they
recounted their own culpability. The CJA does not wish to reveal their names because this
information was obtained in a clinical setting.

9 Asia Resource Center (Washington, DC), Asia Insights, Summer 1986, passim; Los Angeles
Times, many articles throughout the 1980s and later; e.g., August 4, 1985, II, p.l; May 8, 1986, II,
p.l; October 17, 1987, II, p.8 (editorial); March 24,1990, p.33

10 New York Times, September 22,1998, p.12

11 This discussion is derived from "Torture in the United States", a paper produced by the World
Organization Against Torture, USA (Washington, DC), October 1998, part 7, "Extraditions",
written by Neil Tow.

12 Washington Post, February 5,1997, p.28

13 Associated Press, February 7,1999


CHAPTER 10

1 For an overview, see John Pilger, "The Long Secret Alliance: Uncle Sam and Pol Pot", Covert
Action Quarterly (Washington, DC), #62, Fall 1997, p.5-9, plus other sources listed below.

2 Elizabeth Becker, When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution
(Public Affairs, NY, 1998), p.435

3 Los Angeles Times, December 5,1980,1-B, p.l

4 Linda Mason and Roger Brown, Rice, Rivalry and Politics: Managing Cambodian Relief (Univ.
of Notre Dame Press, 1983), p.135-6

5 William Shawcross, The Quality of Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust and Modern Conscience
(London, 1984), p.289,395

6 New York Times, November 16,1989, p.16

7 Washington Post, July 8,1985, p.18

8 Newsweek, October 10,1983, p.41

9 Los Angeles Times, February 27,1991

10 San Francisco Examiner, August 12,1990, p. 18

11 Los Angeles Times, February 2 7,1991

12 Adam Fifield, "The Apologist in Suburbia", The Village Voice (New York), May5,1998,p.55
13 Jack Colhoun, "U.S. Supports Khmer Rouge", Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington,
DC), #34, Summer 1990, p.37-40; Washington Post, January 10, 1999, op-ed by Peter
Goodman; New York Times, October 18,1989,p.29

14 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (GPO), April 16,1998, p.663


CHAPTER 11

1 The Nation, September 26,1994, p.304

2 U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century, New World Coming (Phase I report),
September 15,1999, p.3

3 Washington Post, November 16,1998

4 Journal of the American Medical Association, August 25,1999, p. 761


CHAPTER 12

1 International Action Center (New York), Metal of Dishonor: Depleted Uranium, p.3-40, 134-149
and elsewhere for a detailed discussion of the properties of DU, its health dangers and the
circumstances under which US military personnel and Iraqis may have been exposed to it; p.
140-44 for a discussion of the airborne transport of uranium particles.

See also The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November/December 1999, p.42-5, and
radioactive Battlefields of the 1990s: The United States Army's Use of Depleted Uranium and Its
Consequences for Human Health and the Environment, by the Depleted Uranium Citizens'
Network (of the Military Toxics Project), Lewiston, ME, January 16, 1996; www.antenna.nl/wise
/uranium/dmtp.html

2 Bill Mesler, "The Pentagon's Radioactive Bullet", The Nation, October 21,1996,p.l2-13.

3 The Independent (London), November 10,1991, p.2, two articles.

4 The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (established by retired US foreign service
officers), July/August 1995, p. 105

5 Sunday Herald (Glasgow, Scotland), April 4,1999

6 Washington Post, May 29 and August 19,1999

7 "Recent Military Accidents In Vieques, Puerto Rico", paper prepared by the office of Puerto
Rico's Congressional representative, Carlos Romero- Barcelo, May 1999; Orlando Sentinel
(Orlando, Florida), May 1, 1999, p.18; Pacifica Radio, "Democracy Now", July 21,1999

8 Austin American-Statesman (Austin, Texas), May 1,1999, p.8

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