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9 Washington Post, December 4,1999, p.4 and February 1, 2000

10 The Albuquerque Tribune, January 26, 1994, p.Al; Uranium Battlefields Home & Abroad:
Depleted Uranium Use by the U.S. Department of Defense,

March 1993, a joint publication of various environmental and community organizations in New
Mexico, such as the New Mexico Progressive Alliance for Community Empowerment
(pace@nmpace.org); U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute, Health and Environmental
Consequences of Depleted Uranium Use in the U.S. Army: Technical Report, June 1995,
Appendix B

11 Radioactive Battlefields, op. cit., p.3

12 Mesler,p.l2


CHAPTER 13

1 Rachel Stohl, "Cluster Bombs Leave Lasting Legacy", report of the Center for Defense
Information (Washington, E)C), August 5, 1999. There are both anti-personnel and anti-material
cluster bombs, or they can be combined in one weapon.

2 Washington Post, August 3,1999

3 Christian Science Monitor, June 9,1999, p. 11

4 Ibid.

5 The Guardian (London), June 23,1999, p.12

6 Paul Watson, "Unexploded Weapons Pose Deadly Threat on the Ground", Los Angeles Times,
April 28,1999, p.5

7 Handicap International report, 1997, "Living with UXO [Unexploded Ordnance]", funded by
United Nations Development Program and the government of Sweden, reported in Earth Times,
January 15,1998

8 Center for Defense Information report, op. cit.

9 Ibid.


CHAPTER 14

1 Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Gas and
Germ Warfare (London, 1982), p.xi

2 Leonard A. Cole, Clouds of Secrecy: The Army's Germ Warfare Tests over Populated Areas
(Maryland, 1990), p.18

3 Baltimore Sun, August 15,1980, p.7

4 Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets
from the Early Cold War and Korea (Indiana University Press, 1998), p. 166-7

In January 1998, a Japanese newspaper claimed to have a dozen documents from a Moscow
archive that suggested that the Chinese claims about biological warfare were no more than a
hoax initiated by the Soviets (ibid., p.248-9). But this counter-claim raises more questions than it
answers, not the least of which is why has the mammoth US publicity machine not said a word
about this incredibly advantageous "find"? Nor has Washington apparently asked the Russians to
open the archives so the documents can be authenticated. For a discussion of this issue, see the
review of the Endicott and Hagerman book by Peter Pringle in The Nation, May 3,1999,p.29-32.
5 San Francisco Chronicle, October 8, 1979, p. 13; Washington Post, October 9,1979,p.6

6 Endicott and Hagerman, op. cit., p.xi, 49-50, 218

7 Ibid., p.63

8 San Francisco Chronicle, April 24, 1980. Oddly enough, it was only in 1999 that the South
Korean government ordered an inquiry into a report that in the late 1960s the US military had
used Agent Orange and other toxic defoliants along the North Korean border. The report was
based on declassified US documents (Washington Post, November 17,1999).

9 The Michigan Agent Orange Commission, Physician's Information for Care of Vietnam Veterans
Exposed to Agent Orange and Other Chemicals, June 1991, p.4-8; Harris and Paxman, p.192-3.

10 According to Dr. Barry Commoner, director of the Center for Biology of Natural Systems at
Washington University, St. Louis, The Guardian (London), February 17,1984.

11 Robert Dreyfuss, "Apocalypse Still", Mother Jones (San Francisco), February 2000, p.42ff

12 James Ridgeway, Village Voice, Feb. 5, 1991, p.30; New York Times, September 9,1965

13 John Cookson and Judith Nottingham, A Survey of Chemical and Biological Warfare (London,
1969), p. 15-17

14 Ibid.,p.30

15 April Oliver and Peter Arnett, "Did the U.S. Drop Nerve Gas?", Time, June 15,1998, p.37-9

16 The Washington Post Magazine, November 29,1998, p.20 ff.

17 "Tailwind: Rebuttal to the Abrams/Kohler Report", July 22, 1998, can be found on the Internet

18 John Lindsay-Poland, "Toxic Aftertaste", The Progressive, (Madison, WI), December 1998, p.
24-27; see also Washington Post, January 10, 2000, p.14-5

19 The Dallas Morning News, August 20,1999

20 Philip Wheaton, Panama Invaded (New Jersey, 1992), p. 16-17, citing the monthly magazine
El Periodico (Panama City), February 1990, p.8, "Bombardean Pacora con substancias
quimicas".

21 New York Times, April 28,1966, p.l.

22 Taylor Branch and George Crile III, "The Kennedy Vendetta", Harper's (New York), August
1975, p.52

23 Washington Post, March 21,1977, pA18

24 Warren Hinckle and William Turner, The Fish is Red: The Story of the Secret War Against
Castro (Harper & Row, NY, 1981), p.293, based on their interview with the participant in
Ridgecrest, California, September 27,1975.

25 San Francisco Chronicle, January 10,1977

26 Bill Schaap, "The 1981 Cuba Dengue Epidemic", Covert Action Information Bulletin
(Washington, DC), No. 17, Summer 1982, p.28-31
27 Reported on their website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/dengue.htm

28 Jane Franklin, Cuba and the United States: A Chronological History (Ocean Press, Melbourne
and New York, 1997), p.170. This book states that 188 people died from the dengue epidemic (p.
174)

29 San Francisco Chronicle, October 29,1980, p.15

30 Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC), January
13,1967, p.176

31 Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington, DC), No. 22, Fall 1984, p.35; the trial of
Eduardo Victor Arocena Perez, Federal District Court for the Southern District of New York,
transcript of September 10, 1984, p.2187-89.

32 For further details of the State Department's side of the issue, see New York Times, May
7,1997, p.9

33 Response to author's query, July 29,1997, by FAA spokesperson Hank Price

34 UN General Assembly document A/52/128, April 29,1997

35 As reported to the author by the Cuban UN Mission in New York

36 See, e.g., San Francisco Chronicle, July 27,1981

37 Washington Post, September 16,1977, p.2

38 Los Angeles Times, June 18,1990, p.l

39 There's an abundance of documentation of this. See, e.g., Seth Shulman, The Threat at
Home: Confronting the Toxic Legacy of the U.S. Military (Beacon Press, Boston, 1992), passim.


CHAPTER 15

1 New York Times, January 22,1999, p. 12

2 Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977, Hearings
before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human
Resources, US Senate, March 8 and May23,1977,p.270

3 Leonard A. Cole, Clouds of Secrecy: The Army's Germ Warfare Tests over Populated Areas
(Maryland, 1990), chapter 1

4 San Francisco Chronicle, October 8,1979, p. 13; Washington Post, October 9, 1979, p.6;
Scientific American, June 1999, p.70-75

5 Cole, chapters 7 and 8; San Francisco Examiner, December 22, 1976, p.l; December 23,1976,
p.l; September 17,1979, p.3; October 19,1980

6 Cole, Appendix 3, for this and another expert testimony on the potential danger of the same
bacteria, submitted to the US Senate, 1977 (see note 2)

7 San Francisco Chronicle, December 22,1976, p.l; April 3,1981, p.12
8 Ibid., April 3,1981; Baltimore Sun, August 15,1980, p.7; Cole, p.60-64

9 Cole,p.63-65

10 Washington Post, June 9,1980, p. 11

11 San Francisco Chronicle, October 14,1980, p.12

12 Airport and White House: Washington Post, December 5,1984, p.Bl

13 New York Times, September 19,1975, p. 14

14 San Francisco Chronicle, December 17,1979, p.5, October 29,1980, p. 15

15 For details of this experiment and the scientists' objections, see Leonard Cole, The Eleventh
Plague (New York, 1997) p.28-31, based on US Army Chemical Corps, Summary of Major
Events and Problems, fiscal year 1959, p. 101-3

16 San Francisco Chronicle, December 4,1979, p.12

17 Cole, Clouds of Secrecy, p.65-9

18 New York Times, September 19,1975, p.14

19 Washington Post, December 5,1984, p.Bl

20 Biological Testing..., op. cit., p. 134. A lengthy list of the open-air CBW testing locations (but
without details) can be found on pages 124-140, although for some reason the list doesn't include
the occasions where zinc cadmium sulfide was used.

21 US General Accounting Office (GAO), Nuclear Health and Safety: Examples of Post World
War II Radiation Releases at U.S. Nuclear Sites, November 1993, passim

22 Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs, Is Military Research Hazardous to Veterans' Health?
Lessons Spanning Half a Century, December 8, 1994, passim; US General Accounting Office
(GAO), Human Experimentation: An Overview on Cold War Era Programs, September 28, 1994,
passim; Final Report of the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations
with Respect to Intelligence Activities (The Church Committee), Book 1, Foreign and Military
Intelligence, April, 1976, p.385-422; Eileen Welsome, The Plutonium Files: America's Secret
Medical Experiments in the Cold War, (New York, 1999) passim; Jonathan Moreno, Undue Risk:
Secret State Experiments on Humans (W.H. Freeman & Co., 1999), passim; John Marks, The
Search far the 'Manchurian Candidate': The CIA and Mind Control (Dell, New York, 1979),
passim; Martin Cannon, "Mind Control and the American Government", Lobster magazine (Hull,
England), #23, 1992, p.2-10; and Aaron Epstein, "At Holmesburg Prison, 320 human guinea
pigs", Philadelphia Inquirer, November 25,1979, p.l ff.

23 From a review of The Plutonium Files, op. cit., by Deborah Nelson, Bookworld (Washington
Post), November 21,1999, based on chapter 22 of the book

24 Washington Post, June 9,1999

25 Hearings before a House Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, "Department of
Defense Appropriations for 1970"
CHAPTER 16

1 Jack Anderson, Washington Post, October 25, 1969, p.Fll; Washington Post, April 14,1998

2 Los Angeles Times, August 1,1998

3 Covert Action Quarterly (Washington, DC), #63, Winter 1998, p. 29

4 U.S. Chemical and Biological Warfare-Related Dual Use Exports to Iraq and their Possible
Impact on the Health Consequences of the Persian Gulf War, Senate Committee on Banking,
Housing and Urban Affairs with Respect to Export Administration, reports of May 25,1994 and
October 7,1994

5 Amy E. Smithson, "Rudderless: The Chemical Weapons Convention at 1 1/2", published
September 1998 by the Henry L. Stimson Center (Washington, DC), as part of their Chemical and
Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project; an Executive Summary of the report can be read
at: http://www.stimson.org/pubs/cwc/execsum.htm


CHAPTER 17

1 Imperialism and Social Classes, (1955, first published in 1919), p.51

2 America and the World Revolution and Other Lectures (Oxford University Press, New York,
1962), p.92-3

3 Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade (Lawrence
Hill Books, NY, 1991), p.54-63; Sallie Pisani, The CIA and the Marshall Plan (University Press of
Kansas, 1991), p.99-105 and elsewhere

4 New York Times, May 5, 1947, p.l; May 11, IV, p.5; May 14, p.14 and 24; May 17, p.8; May 18,
IV, p.4; May 20, p.2; Howard K. Smith, The State of Europe (London, 1950), p. 151 (includes
Ramadier quote; similar quote in New York Times, May 20)

5 The Guardian (London), November 29,1983

6 Washington Post, September 30, 1999, p.l; October 14, p.14; December 29,p.l9

7 Stewart Steven, Operation Splinter Factor (London 1974), passim. For those familiar with the
story, it will be of interest that I have found a document in the National Archives which reveals
that the State Department knew about Noel Field's imprisonment in Hungary for almost the entire
five years it was publicly claiming it had no knowledge of his fate.

8 Operation Gladio: The Observer (London), June 7, 1992; Washington Post, November 14,

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