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1990, p. 19; Die Welt (Germany), November 14, 1990, p.7; Los Angeles Times, November 15,
1990, p.6; Philip Willan, Puppetmasters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy (London, 1991),
chapter 8

9 Washington Post, November 14, 1999, for some aspects of the situation at that time; also see
Amnesty International Annual Report for Guatemala 1997, 1998,1999 on AI's website

10 New York Times, April 29,1959, p.l

11 See John Gerassi, The Coming of the New International (New York, 1971), p.245-56, for an
overview of the situation, including a long "self-criticism" by the Iraqi Communist Party.
12 Claudia Wright, New Statesman magazine (London), July 15, 1983, p.20. She doesn't say
how the Soviets found out about the plan.

13 Los Angeles Times, April 14,1991, p.Ml

14 Le Monde (France), February 5,1963, p.5

15 State Department statement: Christian Science Monitor, February 13, 1963, P-3

16 The Guardian (London), January 1,1994, p.5

17 Ralph McGehee, Deadly Deceits: My 25 years in the CIA (New York, 1983), passim.
McGehee spent much of his CIA career in Thailand; The Committee of Concerned Asian
Scholars, The Indochina Story (Random House, NY, 1970), p.64-69; New York Times, November
27, 1966, p.4; Washington Post, November 20,1966, p.22; December 7,1966

18 Washington Post, August 23,1966

19 Bush quote: Washington Post, May 21,1997, column by Nora Boustany

20 Washington Post, January 23, 2000

21 Based on a Dave Barry line

22 CIA internal memorandum of February 25, 1966, declassified March 7, 1977, received by
author as a result of an FOIA request.

23 Cable News Network en Espa±ol, July 23, 1998; El Diario-La Prensa (New York) July
24,1998; Clarin (Buenos Aires) July 22,1998, p.45

24 Numbers of victims: New York Times, January 3, 2000

25 FBI: New York Times, February 10, 1999, p.6; Kissinger: US government document
declassified in 1999, The Observer (London), February 28, 1999, p.3

26 New York Times, July 23 1986, p.l; Baltimore Sun, November 12, 1995, p.1D; Covert Action
Information Bulletin (Washington, DC), #12, April 1981, p.24-27; William Minter, Apartheid's
Contras (London, 1994), chapter 6 and passim. See also "Mandela" and "United Nations"
chapters herein.

27 Staff Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence, US House of Representatives, 1975,
"the Pike Report". This report can be read in book form: CIA”The Pike Report (Spokesman
Books, Nottingham, England, 1977), p.56,195-8,211-17

28 Washington Post, October 9, 1974, p.36; New York Times, September 25, 1975, p.l; Evans
and Novak in Washington Post, October 26, 1974, p.19 (NATO information); Facts on File, March
1, 1975, p.131 (NATO exercises). Also see the "Elections" chapter under Portugal.

29 For a detailed history of the East Timor question, 1975-78, see Noam Chomsky and Edward
S. Herman, The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism, Volume 1 (Boston, 1979),

30 Daniel Moynihan with Suzanne Weaver, A Dangerous Place (Boston, 1978),p.247

31 Allan Nairn, "US Complicity in Timor", The Nation, September 27, 1999, p.5-6; "U.S. trained
butchers of Timor", The Observer (London), Deptember 19,1999
32 New York Times, October 31, 1995, p.3. The official was described as someone who deals
often with Asia policy. He apparently was referring to Suharto in terms of economic policy, but to
make such a remark about a man with the blood of a million or more people on his hands does
take a special kind of insensitivity.

33 See "Elections" chapter, Jamaica

34 Holly Sklar, Washington's War on Nicaragua (South End Press, Boston, 1988), see
"Honduras" in index; Philip Wheaton, Inside Honduras: Regional Counter-insurgency Base
(Ecumenical Program in Central America and the Caribbean [EPICA], Washington, DC, 1982),

35 New York Times, May 25,1988, p.8

36 See "Elections" chapter under Nicaragua

37 Dianna Melrose, Nicaragua: The Threat of a Good Example? (Oxfam, Oxford, UK, 1985), p.14

38 San Francisco Examiner, March 22,1987, p.l

39 New York Times, December 2,1989, p.l

40 Los Angeles Times, September 28,1991

41 Sunday Tribune (Durban, South Africa), November 29,1981, p.l and 52

42 Bob Woodward, VEIL: The Secret Wars of the CIA 1981-1987 (New York, 1987), p.78-9,124-
5, 215; New York Times, April 8,1982, p.3

43 Fred Halliday, "Russians help to beat leftwing guerrillas", The Guardian (London), May 3,1984,
p.7; New York Times, March 19,1980, p.l

44 New York Times, May 23,1980, p.l

45 The Milwaukee Journal, August 12,1980, based on the observations of three American Peace
Corps workers in South Korea. Two of the three wrote an article on the events in Korea for Covert
Action Information Bulletin (Washington, DC), #11, December 1980, p.9-15

46 State Department quote: The Milwaukee Journal, op. cit. For an overall discussion of the US
relationship to South Korea and the 1980 uprising, see Tim Shorrock, "Debacle in Kwangju", The
Nation, December 9, 1996, p. 19-22; Washington Post, March 5, 1996, p.5; Bill Mesler, "Korea
and the US: Partners in Repression", Covert Action Quarterly (Washington, DC), #56, Spring
1996, p.53-57

47 New York Times, February 2,1981, p.8, February 3, p.6

48 Woodward, p.96-7, 157-58, 215; Jonathan Bearman, Qadhafi's Libya (Zed Books, London,
1986), p.216-225

49 New York Times, February 11, 2000, p.30, editorial

50 Speech at the Pacific Islands Luncheon, Kahala Hilton Hotel, Hawaii, February 10, 1982, cited
in a September 1989 paper, "Possible Foreign Involvement in the Fiji Military Coup", p.2, by
Owen Wilkes, editor of Peacelink and Wellington Pacific Report, both of New Zealand.
51 Ibid,p.6-7

52 The Nation, August 15/22,1987, p.117-20; San Francisco Chronicle, June 17, 1987; The
National Reporter (Washington, DC), Fall 1987, p.33-38; Covert Action Information Bulletin
(Washington, DC), #29, Fall 1987, p.7-10

53 The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia), May 16,1987, p.l

54 The Independent Commission of Inquiry on the U.S. Invasion of Panama, The U.S. Invasion of
Panama: The Truth Behind Operation 'Just Cause' (South End Press, Boston, 1991), passim;
Philip Wheaton, ed., Panama Invaded (The Red Sea Press, New Jersey, 1992), passim

55 On the US inducing of the Soviet intervention, see Brzezinski's remarks in the Introduction;
also, Robert Gates (former CIA Director), From the Shadows (New York, 1996), p. 178 ”
"[President] Carter began numerous covert actions to counter Soviet advances...Well before the
invasion of Afghanistan, he approved intelligence findings aimed at countering the Soviets...[in]

56 Washington Post, November 23,1999

57 National Endowment for Democracy, Washington, DC, Annual Report, 1990 (October 1,1989-
September 30,1990), p.23-4.

58 Ibid, 1991, p.41-43

59 Los Angefes Times, June 13,1991, p.14

60 National Endowment for Democracy, Washington, DC, Annual Report, 1991 (October 1,1990-
September 30,1991), p.42

61 Los Angeles Times, March 9,1992, p. 14

62 Mark Bowden, Black Hawk Down (1999), passim; Stephen Shalom, "Gravy Train: Feeding the
Pentagon by Feeding Somalia", November 1993, at
www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/shalomsomalia.html; oil companies: Los Angeles Times, January
18,1993, p.l

63 Post-war bombing: Washington Post, August 30, 1999, p.3, September 18; Looney: Ibid., June

64 Pilot and navy ships: New York Times, July 29,1996, p.6

65 New York Times, editorial, November 25,1996, p. 14

66 June 30,1999, the Senate passed the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related
Programs Appropriations Bill, 2000, which contained the condemnation of the intelligence service,

67 Washington Post, November 25,1990, p.18, December 19,1990, p.25

68 iF Magazine (Arlington, VA), July-August 1997, p.24-25, article by William Blum on this
incident; Washington Post, April 27, 1997, p.29 (RU-38A plane)

69 National Catholic Reporter, March 24,1995
70 Viva Chiapas!, Winter 1995/6, p. 1-2, and other issues (a publication of the ecumenical
organization Conversion for Reclaiming Earth in the Americas, Takoma Park, MD)

71 See the series in the Washington Post, July 12-14,1998

72 Drugs: In August 1999, Mexico's former top drug prosecutor, Mario Ruiz Massieu, was
charged with laundering $9.9 million in suspected drug payoffs through a Houston bank:
Washington Post, August 28, 1999, p.7; also see September 9, 1998 regarding Mexican military
aiding drug traffickers. Human rights: Amnesty International, Mexico: The persistence of torture
and impunity, (New York, June 1993), passim; also see later Amnesty reports on Mexico

73 Viva Chiapas! op. cit.

74 Washington Post series, op. cit.

75 Senator Patrick Leahy (D.-VT) has been the leading sponsor of such legislation, with various
versions becoming law since the late 1990s. A discussion of this can be read online at
http://www.ciponline.org/facts. Also see various editions of Amnesty International's Human Rights
& US Security Assistance.

76 The Dallas Morning News, March 18,1998

77 Testimony of Donnie Marshall before the House Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on
Crime, July 29, 1999, from not-yet-published transcript read in the committee's office

78 Miami Herald, October 7,1997, p.8a; Washington Post, February 24,2000

79 New York Times, November 11,1998, p.24

80 Washington Post, October 4,1997

81 Ibid., February 18,1999

82 Amnesty Action (AIUSA, NY), Winter 1997, p.l and 8, reiterating the details of the 1994 report

83 Washington Post, December 31,1998

84 Colombia Bulletin: A Human Rights Quarterly (Colombia Support Network, Madison WI),
Spring 1997, p.29, article by Carlos Salinas of Amnesty International. For much greater
discussion of this intervention, see other issues of this magazine or their website:

85 Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (GPO), 1996, Vol. I, p.614, April 21

86 New York Times, March 21, 1999, p.l. "Ethnic cleansing" is what it was labeled by the
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.

87 Washington Post, November 8,1998, p.3

88 The Independent (London), April 24,1999, p.l

89 Ibid.

90 Military Review (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas), "The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army",
February 1987, p.46-47

1 Miami Herald, October 17,1997, p.22A

2 Joseph Burkholder Smith (former CIA officer), Portrait of a Cold Warrior (New York, 1976),
chapters 7,15,16,17; Raymond Bonner, Waltzing With a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making
of American Policy (New York, 1987), p.39-42; New York Times editorial, October 16,1953, p.26

3 David Wise and Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York, 1965), p.337; Wilbur
Crane Eveland, Ropes of Sand: America's Failure in the Middle East (W.W Norton & Co., New
York, 1980), p.249-50; New York Times, March 31,1997, p.ll

4 Smith, p.210-11

5 Dwight Eisenhower, The White House Years: Mandate for Change, 1953-1956 (New York,
1963), p.372

6 The Guardian (London), December 28, 1984, for a detailed description of the raw cynicism
behind the policy to oust Jagan, based on British government documents released in 1984; The
Times (London), October 7 and 10,1953; The Sunday Times (London), April 16 and 23,1967

7 New York Times, October 9, 1994, p.l, March 31, 1997, p.ll; Los Angeles Times, March
20,1995, p.5

8 Washington Post, January 24,1997

9 Duane Clarridge with Digby Diehl, A Spy For All Seasons: My Life in the CIA (New York, 1997),
p.64-6. Clarridge went on to become a high official in the CIA.

10 New York Times, April 25,1966, p.20

11 Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York, 1975), p.321; AJ. Langguth, Hidden
Terrors (New York, 1978) p.92

12 John Bartlow Martin, Overtaken by Events: The Dominican Crisis From the Fall of Trujillo to
the Civil War (Doubleday, NY, 1966) p.226-8

13 Ibid.,p.347-8

14 Georgie Anne Geyer, Miami Herald, December 24, 1966; Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen


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