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Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala (New York, 1982),
p.236-44; New York Herald Tribune, April 7,1963, article by Bert Quint, section 2, p.l

15 Washington Post, May 17,1975; New York Times, May 17-18,1975

16 Covert Action in Chile, 1963-1973, a Staff Report of the Select Committee to Study
Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (US Senate), December
18,1975, passim

17 New York Times, September 25, 1975, p.l, January 7, 1976, p.l; The Guardian (London),
February 7, 1996 (review of book about Scares' links to CIA)

18 Ernest Volkman and John Cummings, "Murder as Usual", Penthouse (New York), December
1977, p.l 12 ff.; David Corn, Blond Ghost: Ted Shackky and the CIAs Crusades (Simon &
Schuster, NY, 1994), p.330; Robert Gates (former CIA Director), From the Shadows (New York,
1996), p.175

19 1984: Los Angeles Times, March 21,1992, p.2; 1989: U.S. News & World Report, May 1,
1989, p.40; Los Angeles Times, April 23,1989, p.l

20 New York Times, October 21,1984, p.12, October 31, p.l

21 Covert Action Information Bulletin (Washington, DC) No. 22, Fall 1984, p.27, contains a
reproduction of the advertisement

22 William I. Robinson, A Faustian Bargain: U.S. Intervention in the Nicaraguan Elections and
American Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era (Westview Press, Colorado, 1992) passim;
Jacqueline Sharkey, "Anatomy of an Election: How U.S. Money Affected the Outcome in
Nicaragua," Common Cause Magazine (Washington, DC) May/June 1990

23 The Guardian (London), September 22, 1986; Los Angeles Times, October 31,1993, p.l; New;
York Times, November 1,1993, p.8

24 Time , July 15, 1996, p.29-37; Fred Weir, veteran American correspondent in Moscow,
analysis dated July 17, 1996, prepared for the Institute for Policy Studies (Washington, DC). Weir
at the time was at fweir.ncade@rex.iasnet.ru Clinton quote: Washington Star, March 27, 1996,
p.l, from a State Department cable that paraphrased the Clinton'Yeltsin talk

25 Washington Post, April 6,1997. The dollar amount is derived from the NED Annual Reports,

26 New York Times, July 3,1996, p.6

27 Wall Street Journal, July 3,1996, p.10

28 Intelligence Newsletter (Paris), June 18, 1998. (Though scarcely known amongst non-
specialists, this is a well-established and respected source of international intelligence

29 Los Angeles Times, September 12, 1998, p.6; March 6, 1999, p.6; The
Guardian (London), May 31,1997, p.16


1 Washington Post, September 22,1991

2 NED Annual Reports, 1994-96

3 NED Annual Report, 1996, p.39

4 For further information on AIFLD, see: Tom Barry, et al, The Other Side of Paradise: Foreign
Control in the Caribbean (Grove Press, NY, 1984), see AIFLD in index; Jan Knippers Black,
United States Penetration of Brazil (Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1977), chapter 6; Fred Hirsch,
An Analysis of Our AFL-CIO Role in Latin America (monograph, San Jose, California, 1974)
passim; The Sunday Times (London), October 27,1974, p. 15-16

5 NED Annual Report, November 18,1983 to September 30,1984, p.21

6 NED Annual Report, 1998, p.35
7 See NED annual reports of the 1990s.

8 Haiti: Haiti Progres (Port-au-Prince, Haiti), May 13-19,1998

9 New York Times, March 31,1997, p.ll

10 Washington Post, February 16, 1987; also see New York Times, February 15,1987, p.l

11 San Francisco Examiner, July 21,1985, p. 1

12 New York Times, July 13,1998

13 For a detailed discussion of NED, in addition to the sources named above, see: William I.
Robinson, A Faustian Bargain: U.S. Intervention in the Nicaraguan Elections and American
Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era (Westview Press, Colorado, 1992), passim


1 New York Times, November 4,1983, p.16

2 Washington Post, November 18,1996

3 Shirley Hazzard, Countenance of Truth: The United Nations and the Waldheim Case (Viking,
New York, 1990), p.7. Hazzard worked at the UN from 1952 to 1962.

4 New York Times, November 1,1952, p. 1

5 The Guardian (London), September 20, 1983. The next day the White House disowned
Lichenstein's remark.


1 Washington Post, November 13,1999

2 Overall discussions of ECHELON and related topics:

a) Nicky Hager, Secret Power: New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network (Craig
Potton Publishing, Nelson, NZ, 1996), passim;

b) European Union report, "An Appraisal of the Technologies of Political Control", September
1998, in particular Section 7.4, can be read at http://cryptome.org/stoa-atpc.htm;

c) European Parliament report, "Interception Capabilities 2000", April 1999, by Duncan Campbell,
can be read at http://www.iptvreports. mcmail.com/interception_capabilities_2000.htm”Campbell
(Summary, paragraph 7) writes that this "word spotting" is not yet possible with telephone calls,
but that speaker-recognition systems”in effect, "voiceprints"” have been developed and are
deployed to recognize the speech of targeted individuals making international telephone calls.
However, Wayne Madsen, who was a communications security analyst with the NSA and is
currently a senior fellow at Electronic Privacy Information Center, Washington, DC, has informed
the author that word spotting for telephone calls has been used by NSA for many years.

3 The Observer (London), June 28,1992, p.4
4 Seymour M. Hersh, "How the digital age left our spies out in the cold," The New Yorker,
December 6,1999, p.58-76.

5 Sunday Times (London), May 31,1998, p. 11

6 The Telegraph (London), Dec. 16,1997

7 The Independent (London), April 11,1998

8 Electronic Telegraph (London), April 11,1999

9 Washington Post, February 26,1995, p. 1

10 Ibid., October 17,1995

11 Electronic Telegraph (London), April 11,1999

12 Washington Post, September 30,1999, p.20

13 Hager, op. cit., p.94

14 EU-FBI: Statewatch magazine (London), Vol. 7, numbers 1,4, and 5 (1997); Vol. 8, numbers 5
and 6 (1998); Vol. 9, numbers 2,3 and 6 (1999). Some of the material can be read online at:

15 "The working document for the Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA)
panel", May 14, 1999, reported by the Technology News Site, May 18, 1999; STOA is an agency
of the European Parliament; Baltimore Sun, December 10,1995, article begining on p.l.

16 Washington Post, August 20,1999, p.l

17 Symposium at Harvard Law School, January 28”30, 1996: Speakers Paul Strassman of the
National Defense University and William Marlowe of Science Application International
Corporation both declared that a umber of anonymous internet remailers in the US are run by
government agencies, including the CIA. Marlowe said that government agencies in Germany,
France and elsewhere did likewise. For some notes made of Marlowe's talk, see:
http://ksgwww.harvard.edu/iip/GIIconf/gii2note.html (site visited December 1999); see also New
York Times, April 19, 1999, p.C4; Lotus, et d: Wayne Madsen, Computer Fraud & Security
Bulletin (Oxford, UK), June 1995; "Interceptions Capabilities 2000" (see note 2), Technical
annexe, sections 42 to 44.

18 USA Today, October 9,1998, p.10; Washington Post, January 29,1999, p.23, February
13,1999, p.27 (Nat Hentoff)

19 Baltimore Sun, December 10 and 15, 1995, part of six^part series on the NSA; Wayne
Madsen, "Crypto AG: The NSAs Trojan Whore?" Covert Action Quarterly (Washington, DC), #63,
winter 1998, p.36-42; Der Spiegel (Hamburg, Germany), September 2,1996, p.206-11

20 Duncan Campbell's article of September 3,1999 can be found on the website of TechWeb:

21 Agence France Presse, February 18 and 21, 2000. Microsoft categorically denied all the
charges and the French Defense Ministry said that it did not necessarily stand by the report,
which was written by "outside experts".

1 Dominican Republic: See Elections chapter for further information; Honduras: New York Times,
May 25, 1988, p.8; Mexico: Ibid., April 20, 1990, p.l; Cypriot: Washington Post, April 18, 1999;
Colombia: Ibid., October 14,1999, p. 1

2 Los Angeles Times, June 21,1992, p.Ml

3 Washington Post, October 15,1999, p.23

4 New York Times, November 6, 1983, p.l,18,19; Casey: Bob Woodward, VEIL: The Secret Wars
of the CIA 1981-1987 (New York, 1987), p.294

5 Los Angeles Times, June 23,1990

6 Philip Wheaton, Panama Invaded (New Jersey, 1992), p.45, 50-1; plus interview of Wheaton by

7 New York Times, March 20,1990, p.8

8 As told to the author in November 1999 by the Panamanian embassy in Washington.

9 Washington Post, November 22, 1998, p.2; March 3, 1999; October 27, 1999, p.27

10 Ibid., September 4,1999, p.26

11 Haiti: The Nation, February 26, 1996, p.5; Washington Post, August 3, 1996; Agence France
Press, February 9, 1996, as reported by Haitian Information Bureau, Port-au-Prince, Haiti,
February 10, 1996; New York Times, November 28,1995.

For the most detail, see the announcements of Haiti Advocacy (Washington, DC) and the
Campaign for the Return of the FRAPH/FADH Documents at: http://members.bellatlantic.net/˜


1 Los Angeles Times, February 12,1990

2 New York Times, July 23,1986, p. 1

3 The Guardian (London), August 15,1986; The Times (London), August 4,1986

4 CBS-TV interview with Tomlins, August 5, 1986; interview of Pizzey by author, April 25,1999.

5 The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, June 11,1990, p.l

6 Los Angelas Times, June 13,1990, p. 12


1 Peter Dale Scott & Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central
America, (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1991), p.x-xi. Dayle was speaking in 1991 at
Fordham University in NY, as part of a panel concerning drugs, organized by the Christie Institute
and other groups.
2 Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade (New York,
1991), p.43-47, 53-62; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and
the Press (Verso, NY/London, 1998),p.l37-41

3 Christopher Robbins, Air America, (New York, 1985), chapter 9; McCoy, chapter 7 and

4 McCoy, chapters 4,5 and 7; Robbins, chapters 5 through 9

5 Jonathan Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots: A True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA (W.W.
Norton & Co., New York, 1987)”bank's drug connections: chapter 16 and elsewhere; bank's CIA
connections: see index, p.404; McCoy, p.461-78; The Village Voice (New York), July 1-7,
1981; CounterSpy magazine (Washington, DC), November 1980-January 1981,p.30-33

6 Casey: Los Angeles Times, April 14, 1989, p.ll, derived from the Kerry Report (see below)

7 Cocaine Politics, op. cit., chapters 6 and 10; John Dinges, Our Man in Panama (Random
House, NY, 1991), passim; Murray Waas, "Cocaine and the White House Connection", LA
Weekly (Los Angeles), September 30-October 6 and October 7-13,1988; National Security
Archive Documentation Packet: "The Contras, Cocaine, and Covert Operations" (Washington,
DC, 1996)

8 Washington Post, November 28,1995, p.3

9 Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, a Report of the Senate Committee on Foreign
Relations, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations, 1989, p.2,36,41
("Kerry Report")

10 Los Angeles Times, April 8,1988, p.12

11 Costa Rica/Hull/Cubans: Robert Parry, Lost History: Contras, Cocaine, the Press & "Project
Truth" (The Media Consortium, Arlington, VA, 1999), p.220-223 and elsewhere; Cocaine Politics,
op. cit., see "Anti-Castro Cubans" in index; Martha Honey, Hostile Acts: U.S. Policy in Costa Rica
in the 1980s (University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 1994), chapters 8 to 10 and elsewhere;
Martha Honey and David Myers, "U.S. Probing Drug Agent's Activities in Costa Rica," San
Francisco Chronicle, August 14,1991


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