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12 Cocaine Politics, op. cit., chapters 2 and 3 and elsewhere; Hyde: Peter Dale Scott, The Official
Story: What the government has admitted about CIA ties to drug dealers (Institute for Policy
Studies, Washington, DC, 1999), p.28-9. This monograph is an analysis of two CIA and one
Justice Department reports issued in 1997-8 in response to the many allegations of CIA drug
connections. See also Lost History, op. cit., passim for an analysis of the government reports.

13 Ilopango: Celerino Castillo and Dave Harmon, Powder Burns: Cocaine, Contras and the Drug
War (Mosaic Press, Canada, 1994), p.128-139 and elsewhere; North's diary: Washington Post,
October 22, 1994, p.ll; Guatemala: Frank Smyth, "In Guatemala, The DEA Fights the CIA", New
Republic, June 5,1995.

14 New York Times, April 14, 1989, p.8; Cocaine Politics, op. cit., p.60-62; Customs Agent: FBI
debriefing of Dennis Ainsworth, California Contra supporter, January 21, 1987, p.8, part of
National Security Archive Documentation Packet, op. cit.

15 Kerry Report, p.42-43; New York Times, April 14,1989, p.8

16 Cocaine Politics, op. cit., p. 17-18
17 New York Times, April 14,1989, p.8

18 Washington Post, March 17,1998

19 Whiteout, op. cit., p.95-7; Wall Street Journal, November 22,1996; New York Times,
November 19,1996; Miami Herald, November 23,1996, p.Bl

20 McCoy, p.436-60; Tim Weiner, Blank Check: The Pentagon's Black Budget (Warner Books,
NY, 1990), p.151-2; New York Times, June 18, 1986; Covert Action Information Bulletin,
(Washington, IDC) No. 28, Summer 1987, p.11-12; Los Angeles Times, November 4, 1989, p.14;
Washington Post, May 13,1990, p. 1

21 Los Angeles Times, August 22,1993

22 New York Times, Nov. 14, 1993; The Nation, October 3, 1994, p.346; Washington Post, March

23 In the United States: Gary Webb, Dark Alliance: The CIA, The Contros, and the Crack
Cocaine Explosion (New York, 1998), passim; San Jose Mercury News, August 18-20, 1996,
series by Gary Webb, from which his book springs; Cocaine Politics, op. cit., passim; Lost
History, op. cit., passim; iF Magazine (Arlington, VA), March-April 1998, September-October
1998, and other issues; The Official Story, op. cit., passim; New York Times, October 10,1998,
"CIA said to ignore charges of contra drug dealing in '80s"

24 Eugene Weekly (Oregon), January 15,1999, interview with Webb


1 Speaking as vice president in the context of the shooting down of an Iranian passenger plane
by an American ship, taking 290 lives, Newsweek, August 15,1988

2 Washington Post, December 18,1987

3 New York Times, November 11,1996, p. 12

4 Author's conversation with the Cuban Interest Section in Washington, DC

5 U.S. Aid to North Vietnam, Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs,
House Committee on International Relations, July 19,1977, Appendix 2.

6 Los Angeles Times and New York Times, March 11,1997

7 For a discussion of this maiming, see John Pilger, "Vietnam: The Final Battle", Covert Action
Quarterly (Washington, DC), #64, Spring 1998, p.54-65

8 Holly Sklar, Washington's War on Nicaragua (South End Press, Boston, 1988), p. 169-70,314

9 San Francisco Chronicle, April 16,1987, p. 15

10 Interview of attorney Ramsey Clark, September 7, 1999, by the author. Clark had acted on
behalf of many of the claimants.
11 Interview of attorney John Kiyonaga of Alexandria, VA, September 10, 1999; he and his
brother David were the attorneys for these cases; see their op-ed in the Los Angeles Times, April
1, 1990; see also The Guardian (London), July 28, 1990, p. 7; San Francisco Examiner, April
26,1992, p.4

12 Interview of Elizabeth Abimershad of the IACHR-OAS in Washington, September 7, 1999. The
case is Salas, et al. against United States of America, Case No. 10.573

13 Read to the author over the phone, December 22, 1999, by the State Department's Panama
desk from an official press announcement

14 The Independent (London), February 15, 1999, p. 12; Seymour Hersh, "The Missiles of
August", The New Yorker, October 12, 1998, p.34-41; New York Times, October 21,1998, p.l and

15 Washington Post, July 25,1999, p.Fl

16 Peacelink magazine (Hamilton, New Zealand), March 1991, p. 19; Washington Post, February
8,1991, p.l (includes Powell remark)

17 "Nato bombed Chinese deliberately", The Observer (London), October 17, 1999; and
November 28, 1999. Also see Extra/ Update (Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting, New York),
December 1999

18 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, March 15,1999, p.395

19 Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (GPO), 1968-69, VoL II,p.800

20 The Associated Press, dispatch from Athens, Greece, November 20, 1999, by Terence Hunt;
Washington Post, November 21,1999

21 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, March 24,1998, p.491


1 Los Angeles Times, January 2,1995, Assembly Bills 36X and 57X

2 Ibid., September 29,1994; Washington Post, December 26,1999, p.16

3 Speech in Austin, Texas, April 1993, unveiling her health-care campaign.

4 Los Angeles Times, January 2,1995, Senate Bill 1330

5 New York Times, December 25, 1992

6 Washington Post, June 11,1995

7 Ibid., July 5,1996, column by EJ. Dionne Jr.

8 Ibid., May 15,1998, p.9

9 Ibid., June 20,1995

10 Ibid., November 30,1995
11 New York Times, June 7, 1987, Section 11CN ("Connecticut Weekly Desk"), p-36 (found in

12 Los Angeles Times, September 2,1994


1 The Guardian (London), October 11,1984; January 11,1986, p.7

2 Los Angeles Times, August 26,1991, p.6

3 Guatemala: Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the
American Coup in Guatemala (Doubleday & Co., New York, 1982), p. 183; Jagan: Arthur
Schlesinger, A Thousand Days (Boston, 1965), p.774-9; Bishop: Associated Press, May 29,
1983, "Leftist Government Officials Visit United States" (Lexis-Nexis)

4 Los Angeles Times, February 24,1994, p.7

5 Washington Post, April 19,1999, p.14

6 Los Angeles Times, April 4,1999, p.4

7 Washington Post, May 9,1999, p. 1 and 22

8 Christopher Simpson, Science of Coercion (Oxford University Press, NY, 1994), p.4

9 Washington Times, July 28, 29,30,1999.

10 Washington Post, January 2, 1999; see also constitutional lawyer Floyd Abrams' serious
criticism of Clinton's policies on First Amendment issues, New York Times Magazine, March
30,1997, p.42-4
About the Author

William Blum left the State Department in 1967, abandoning his aspiration of becoming
a Foreign Service Officer, because of his opposition to what the United States was doing
in Vietnam.

He then became one of the founders and editors of the Washington Free Press, the first
"underground" newspaper in the capital.

In 1969, he wrote and published an expose of the CIA in which was revealed the names
and addresses of more than 200 employees of the Agency.

Mr. Blum has been a freelance journalist in the United States, Europe and South
America. His stay in Chile in 1972-3, writing about the Allende government's "socialist
experiment", and then its tragic overthrow in a CIA-designed coup, instilled in him a
personal involvement and an even more heightened interest in what his government was
doing in various corners of the world.

In the mid-1970s, he worked in London with former CIA officer Philip Agee and his
associates on their project of exposing CIA personnel and their misdeeds.

The late 1980s found Mr. Blum living in Los Angeles pursuing a career as a screenwriter.
Unfortunately, his screenplays all had two (if not three) strikes against them because they
dealt with those things which make grown men run screaming in Hollywood: ideas and

He is once again living in Washington, DC, outstandingly ineligible to renew his lapsed
security clearance; indeed, because of his question-able political views, doubtlessly
unhirable by any government agency or right-thinking private company, and reduced, as
can be seen, to writing rather eccentric books in a desperate attempt to make a living. He
therefore asks you to make your purchases of this book in multiples of ten. Otherwise, he
sees no way of making it to the 22nd century.



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