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In October 1995, 10 men were convicted for a plot to bomb New York targets, including
the UN building, an FBI office and the Lincoln and Holland tunnels. The spiritual leader
of the group, and one of the defendants, was Sheik Omar Abdul Rahman, who had
worked with the moujahedeen in the war in Afghanistan. He had obtained a US visa in
1990 from a CIA undercover agent 7, leading to speculation that at that time he (still) had
CIA links. At least one of the other defendants”who came mainly from Egypt and
Sudan”had fought in Afghanistan.

Three men were convicted in New York in 1996 of plotting to bomb 12 US jumbo jets
and 4,000 passengers out of the sky over the Pacific Ocean. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, the
alleged mastermind of the World Trade Center bombing, who had been a fugitive, was
one of the three defendants. He had been trained in explosives by the moujahedeen.
Investigators found in his computer a manifesto pledging terror to punish Americans for
their government's support of Israel.8

Elsewhere

Ramzi Ahmed Yousef was convicted in absentia in the Philippines in 1994 of bombing a
Philippine Airlines jet, killing one passenger. He reportedly was involved in training
activities with the extremist Muslim Abu Sayyaf Organization of the Philippines.9

March 1995, Karachi, Pakistan: two US diplomats were killed and a third was wounded
in an assault upon the car they were driving in. The FBI, which arrived in Pakistan to
investigate the crime, announced that it was treating the attack as a possible retaliation for
the arrest of Ramzi Ahmed Yousef the previous month in Pakistan by US and Pakistani
agents and his extradition to the United States.10

In November 1995, five Americans and two Indians died when a pickup truck stuffed
with explosives detonated outside a US Army building in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Three of
the four Saudis who confessed to the attack admitted to having received firearms and
explosives training in Afghanistan and to having fought in combat there.11
The following June, 19 US airmen died in the bombing of their housing complex in
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The same groups claimed credit for both attacks.

In summer 1995, France underwent a series of eight bomb attacks beginning with a blast
in a train station which killed eight and wounded 160. "Almost all of the leaders of the
people we have arrested for terrorism have passed by Afghanistan or Pakistan," said a
French law enforcement official.12

The Chechnyan guerrillas, who have bedeviled the Russians for years with their
insurrection to create a Muslim society, have had their ranks swelled by Middle East and
African "Afghans", as well as their own people who received military instruction in
Afghanistan.13

Russian officials estimate that 4,000 to 5,000 Muslim militants from Tajikistan alone
passed through camps in northern Afghanistan, then returned to the former Soviet Central
Asian republic in 1993 to do battle against the secular government.14 Another former
Soviet republic, Azerbaijan, has experienced a similar fate.15

In western provinces of China, Afghan veterans have armed and trained Chinese Muslims
and fought alongside them against the Chinese authorities.16

Since 1992, Egypt has been swept by a wave of anti^government terrorism in which
graduates of the military training camps in Afghanistan and Pakistan have played a major
role. They are believed to have also been behind the attempted assassination of President
Hosni Mubarak while he was visiting Ethiopia.17

In August 1994, three "Afghans" robbed a tourist hotel in Morocco, killing tourists in an
effort to destabilize Morocco's vital tourism industry.18

Throughout much of the 1990s, Kashmiris and other nationals trained in Afghanistan
have been fighting against India in the mountains of Kashmir, waging "holy war" for
secession from New Delhi.19

Since Algeria's cancellation of the 1992 election, Algerian veterans of the Afghanistan
conflict have played a key role in the rise of the Armed Islamic Group, responsible for
many thousands of gory murders in their crusade for an Islamic state.20

In Bosnia, beginning in 1992, Afghans fought ferociously alongside the predominantly
Muslim Bosnian army for two years, attacking Serbian positions to liberate Muslim
villages.21 One of those who confessed to the November 1995 bombing in Saudi Arabia,
referred to above, said that he had fought with the Bosnian Muslims.22

In a 1999 interview, Libyan leader Moammar Qaddafi told a London-based Arabic
newspaper that his government had crushed an Islamic militant movement of "Afghans".
"They returned desperate and destructive," he said, "and adopted killing and explosives as
their profession, according to the training they received from the American
intelligence."23

And there has been more of the same in other places, from the men Ronald Reagan
fancied as "freedom fighters".

"This is an insane instance of the chickens coming home to roost," said a US diplomat in
Pakistan in 1996. "You can't plug billions of dollars into an anti-Communist jihad, accept
participation from all over the world and ignore the consequences. But we did. Our objec-
tives weren't peace and grooviness in Afghanistan. Our objective was killing Commies
and getting the Russians out."24




CHAPTER 3 : Assassinations
I don't want to wipe out everyone...Just my enemies.

Michael Corleone, The Godfather, Part II


On June 26, 1993, President Clinton went before the American people and announced
that the United States had fired several missiles against Iraq that day. It turned out that
the missiles killed eight people and injured many more. The attack, said the president,
was in retaliation for an Iraqi plot to assassinate former president George Bush who was
due to visit Kuwait. (This alleged plot remains no more than that...alleged.1) Clinton
announced that the US attack "was essential to send a message to those who engage in
state-sponsored terrorism and to affirm the expectation of civilized behavior among
nations"2

Following is a list of prominent foreign individuals whose assas-sination (or planning for
same) the United States has been involved in since the end of the Second World War.
(CIA humorists have at times referred to this type of operation as "suicide involuntarily
administered", to be carried out by the Agency's Health Alteration Committee.)

1949 Kim Koo, Korean opposition leader
1950s CIA/Neo-Nazi hit list of more than 200 political figures in West Germany to be
"put out of the way" in the event of a Soviet invasion 1950s Zhou Enlai, Prime Minister
of China, several attempts on his life
1950s, 1962 Sukarno, President of Indonesia
1951 Kim II Sung, Premier of North Korea
1953 Mohammed Mossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran
1950s (mid) Claro M. Recto, Philippines opposition leader
1955 Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India
1957 Gamal Abdul Nasser, President of Egypt
1959, 1960s Norodom Sihanouk, leader of Cambodia
1960 Brig. Gen. Abdul Karim Kassem, leader of Iraq
1950s-70s Jose Figueres, President of Costa Rica, two attempts on his life
1961 Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier, leader of Haiti
1961 Patrice Lumumba, Prime Minister of the Congo
1961 Gen. Rafael Trujillo, leader of Dominican Republic
1963 Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam
1960s Fidel Castro, President of Cuba, many attempts and plots on his life
1960s Raul Castro, high official in government of Cuba
1965 Francisco Caamano, Dominican Republic opposition leader
1965-6 Charles de Gaulle, President of France
1967 Che Guevara, Cuban leader
1970 Salvador Allende, President of Chile
1970 Gen. Rene Schneider, C-in-C of Army, Chile
1970s, 1981 General Omar Torrijos, leader of Panama
1972 General Manuel Noriega, Chief of Panama Intelligence
1975 Mobutu Sese Seko, President of Zaire
1976 Michael Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica
1980-1986 Moammar Qaddafi, leader of Libya, several plots and attempts upon his life
1982 Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of Iran
1983 Gen. Ahmed Dlimi, Moroccan Army commander
1983 Miguel d'Escoto, Foreign Minister of Nicaragua
1984 The nine comandantes of the Sandinista National Directorate
1985 Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah, Lebanese Shiite leader (see note below)
1991 Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq
1998 Osama bin Laden, leading Islamic militant
1999 Slobodan Milosevic, President of Yugoslavia

In case they run short of assassins

In 1975, a US Navy psychologist, Lt. Com. Thomas Narut, revealed that his naval work
included establishing how to induce servicemen who may not be naturally inclined to kill,
to do so under certain conditions. He referred to these men using the words "hitmen" and
"assassin". Narut added that convicted murderers as well had been released from military
prisons to become assassins. The training of the carefully-selected recruits ranged from
dehumanization of the enemy, to acclimating them emotionally through special films
showing people being killed and injured in violent ways.3 The disclosure by Narut was
pure happenstance. We can only speculate about what programs are taking place or being
planned today in that five-sided building in Virginia.

Blasphemy American style

The Western world was shocked when Iran condemned author Salmon Rushdie to death
because of his book they called "blasphemous". But the United States has also
condemned blasphemers to death”Castro, Allende, Sukarno and a host of others
mentioned above who didn't believe in the holy objectives of American foreign policy.

Aberrations?

The senate committee known as the Church Committee, in its Assassination Report in
1975, said: "The committee does not believe that the acts [of assassination] which it has
examined represent the real American character. They do not reflect the ideals which
have given the people of this country and the world hope for a better, fuller, fairer life.
We regard the assassination plots as aberrations."4

At the time the committee wrote this? it knew of about a dozen CIA assassination plots
and still could call them all aberrations. Would congressmen today, knowing of the more
than 40 incidents listed above, call them all aberrations?

Could they explain how these "aberrations" have continued through each of the ten
presidencies, from Truman through Clinton?

For some years following the Church Committee's report, American presidents made it a
point to issue public statements on assassination, perhaps trying to convince the world
that "we really don't mean it".

1976: Ford signed a presidential order which stated: "No employee of the United States
shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, political assassination."

1978: Carter also issued an executive order prohibiting assassina^ tions.

1981, December 4: Reagan issued an executive order with language almost identical to
that of Ford's.

But on November 13, 1984, Reagan, obsessed with fighting the "International
Communist Conspiracy" on several fronts, canceled his executive order, creating what
was actually called by the press a "license to kill"”a license to kill anyone deemed a
"terrorist".

On April 10, 1985, Reagan canceled the "license to kill" because the previous month, the
CIA had paid some people in Beirut to kill a certain sheikh Fadlallah, who was not to
Washington's liking; a car bomb had been used and 80 people were killed, the sheikh not
being among their number.

August 11, 1985: The "license to kill" was reinstated because of the hijacking of a TWA
plane in June.

May 12, 1986: A new executive order was signed without the controversial language,
apparently in deference to congressional objections.5
Clearly, Reagan was not acting out of any principle for or against assassination”it was
all public relations, and the actual American policy in the field over the years, in all
likelihood, has never varied to speak of, whatever the "official" PR message of the day
coming out of the White House was.

October 13, 1989: Bush added a new PR twist. He issued a "memorandum of law" that
would allow "accidental" killing if it was a byproduct of legal action: "A decision by the
President to employ overt military force ...would not constitute assassination if U.S.
forces were employed against the combatant forces of another nation, a guerrilla force, or
a terrorist or other organization whose actions pose a threat to the security of the United
States."6 In other words, assassination was okay as long as we said "oops!"

Clinton, it appears, has not issued any official statement concerning US government
policy on assassination.

The Doolittle Report

A 1954 White House commission to study the CIA's covert activities included in its
report the following now-famous passage, which is relevant to this discussion of
assassination. It may be what psycholo-gists call "projection".

It is now clear that we are facing an implacable enemy whose avowed objective is world
domination by whatever means and at whatever cost. There are no rules in such a game.
Hitherto acceptable norms of human conduct do not apply. If the United States is to
survive, long-standing American concepts of "fair play" must be reconsidered. We must
develop effective espionage and counterespionage services and must learn to subvert,
sabotage and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated, and more effective
methods than those used against us. It may become necessary that the American people
be made acquainted with, understand and support this fundamentally repugnant
philosophy.7

Does it work both ways?

If the United States can bomb Iraqi intelligence headquarters”which was their target in
the bombing referred to above”because of an alleged assassination plot against an
American leader, and cite self-defense under the UN charter as Washington did (a claim
at least as questionable as the alleged plot), think of the opportunities opened to countries
like Panama, Libya and Cuba to name but a few. Cuba could claim the right to bomb CIA
headquarters, many times, not to mention Miami. It's safe to say, though, that neither the
White House nor American courts would accept this legal argument; nor would they be
able to see behind the Irony Curtain.
CHAPTER 4 : Excerpts from US Army and CIA Training Manuals
On...some charming thoughts from the minds of the Good Guys


CIA, "A Study of Assassination", written early 1950s1


"For secret assassinations...the contrived accident is the most effective technique. When
successfully executed, it causes little excitement and is only casually investigated. The
most efficient accident...is a fall of 75 feet or more onto a hard surface. Elevator shafts,
stair wells, unscreened windows and bridges will serve...The act may be executed by
sudden, vigorous grabbing of the ankles, tipping the subject over the edge. If the assassin
immediately sets up an outcry, playing the 'horrified witness', no alibi or surreptitious
withdrawal is necessary."

"Drugs can be very effective. If the assassin is trained as a doctor or nurse and the subject
is under medical care, this is an easy and sure method. An overdose of morphine
administered as a sedative will cause death without disturbance and is difficult to detect.

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